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FIRST edit 

on, published in three volumes, 



» ten „ 

1777— 1784. 


,, eighteen „ 

1788 — 1797. 


,, twenty „ 

1801 — 1810. 


„ twenty „ 



„ twenty „ 

1823 — 1824. 


„ twenty-one „ 

1830 — 1842. 


„ twenty-two „ 



,, twenty-five „ 

1875— 1889. 


ninth edition and eleven 

supplementary volumes, 

1902 — 1903. 


published in twenty-nine volumes, 

1910 — 1911. 


in all countries subscribing to the 

Bern Convention 



of the 

All rights reserved 










New York 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 
342 Madison Avenue 

Copyright, in the United States of America, 191 1, 


The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. 




A. C. So. 
A. F. P. 

A. G. D. 

A. G. H. 

A. Ha. 
A. J. L. 

A. Lu. 

A. Ma. 

A. M. CI. 


A- S.-P. 
A. S. Wo. 

A. Wa. 
A. W. H.* 

Albert Charles Seward, M.A., F.R.S. f 

Professor of Botany in the University of Cambridge. Hon. Fellow of Emmanuel "j Paleobotany: 
College, Cambridge. President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 1910. I 

Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. 

Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls' 
College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893-" 
1901. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1892; Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of 
England under tlie Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c. 

Arthur George Doughty, M.A., Litt.D. 7 C.M.G. 

Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of Canada. . 
Author of The Cradle of New France; &c. Joint-editor of Documents relating to the 
Constitutional History of Canada. 


Parker, Matthew. 


J Ordnance: History and Con- 
1 slruction. 

J. Origen. 


Formerly Editor of th.e~.R40 -j Par£, 

j Papacy: 1087-1303. 

Albert George Hadcock. 

Late R.A. Manager, Gun Department, Elswick Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Lieut.-Col. commanding 1st Northumbrian Brigade, R.F.A. (Territorial Forces). 
Joint-author of Artillery: its Progress and Present Position; &c. 

Adolf Harnack. 

See the biographical article : Harnack, Adolf. 

Andrew Jackson Lamoureux. 

Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. 
News, Rio de Janeiro. 


See the biographical article: Luchaire, Denis J. Achille. 

Alexander Macalister, M.A., M.D., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Professor of Anatomy in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of St John's -j Palmistry. 
College. Author of Text-Book of Human Anatomy; &c. 

Agnes Muriel Clay (Mrs Wilde). f 

Formerly Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint-author of Sources i Patron and Client (in part). 
of Roman History, 133-70 B.C. L 

' Oriole; Ornithology (in part)', 
Orthonyx; Ortolan; 
Osprey; Ostrich; Ousel; 
Owl; Oyster-catcher; 
Parrot; Partridge. 

Orange Free State: History 

(in part). 

Alfred Newton, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article : Newton, Alfred. 

Alfred Peter Hillier, M.D., M.P. 

Author of South African Studies ; The Commonweal ; &c. Served in Kaffir War, 
1 878-1 879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in medical practice in South Africa- 
till 1896. Member of Reform Committee, Johannesburg, and Political Prisoner at 
Pretoria, 1895-1896. M.P. for Hitchin division of Herts, 1910. 

Anthyme St Paul. 

Author of Histoire Monumentale de la France. 

Paris: History (in part). 

Owen, Sir Richard; 

Arthur Smith Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Keeper of Geology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Secretary of - 
the Geological Society, London. 

Arthur Waugh. M.A. r 

New College, Oxford. Newdigate Prize, 1888. Author of Gordon in Africa; Alfred, J Pater, Walter; 
Lord Tennyson. Editor of Johnson's Lives of the Poets; and of editions of Dickens, 1 Patmore, Coventry. 
Tennyson, Arnold, Lamb; &c. [ 

Arthur William Holland. f Otto of Freising; Palatine* 

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. I Paston Letters. 

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume. 



A. W. W. 

B. R. 















C. R. B. 



De B. 
























E. C. Q. 

E. Gr. 

Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws -j Patents (in fart). 




Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B. 

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. 
of England. 

Adolphus William Ward, Litt.D., LL.D. 
See the biographical article : Ward, A. W. 

Sir Boverton Redwood, D.Sc, F.R.S. (Edin.), F.I.C., Assoc.Inst.C.E., r 
Adviser on Petroleum to the Admiralty, Home Office, India Office, Corporation of 
London, and Port of London Authority. President of the Society of Chemical 
Industry. Member of the Council of the Chemical Society. Member of Council of 
Institute of Chemistry. Author of "Cantor" Lectures on Petroleum; Pelrohum 
and its Products ; Chemical Technology ; &c. 

Charles Everitt, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S. ("Opium: Chemistry of the Opium 

Formerly Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford. I Alkaloids. 

Ozokerite; Paraffin. 

Charles Francis Atkinson. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Ro] il 
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour. 

Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member e 
the American Historical Association. 

Charles Lethbridge Kingseord, M.A., F.P-.Hist.S., F.S.A. 

Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor 
of Chronicles of London ; and Stow's Survey of London. 

Clement Reid, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

District Geologist on H.M. Geological Survey of England and Wales. Author of . 
Origin of the British Flora; &c. Joint-author of Pre-Glacial Flora of Britain; 
Fossil Fiora of Tegelen. I 

Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S. r 

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Of pp'P (ir part) • 
Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography, i /WMMami.. /win™ 
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry uel5<w »?er, urienus. 

the Navigator ; The Dawn of Modern Geography ; &c. I 

Orleans: Campaign of 18?*- 

J Ozanam; Paschal II.; 
[Paul I., II. (popes). 

I Oldcastle, Sir John; 
[Oxford, 13th Earl of. 

Paleobotany: Tertiary. 

Cecil Weatherly. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. 

Barrister-at -Law. 

■j Page&nt. 

Henri de Blowitz. 

See the biographical article: Blowitz, H. G. S. A. de. 

Dugald Clerk, M.Inst.C.E., F.R.S. 

Director of the National Gas Engine Co., Ltd. 

I Paris: History (in part). 

Inventor of the Clerk Cycle Gas -j Oil Engino. 

Donald Francis Tovey. 

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The 
Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works. 

David George Hogarth, M.A. 

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. 
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 
and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907; Director, British School at 
Athens, 1 897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 

David Hannay. 

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. 
Navy ; Life of Emilio Castelar ; &c. 

Author of Short History of the Royal 

Dukinfield Henry Scott, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

President of the Linnean Society. Author of Structural Botany; Studies in Fossil 
Botany; &c. 

David James Hamilton, M.D., F.R.S. (Edin.) (1849-1909). 

Professor of Pathology, Aberdeen University, 1 882-1907. Authcr of Text-Book of 
Pathology; &c. 

Edward Augustus Freeman, LL.D., D.CL. 
See the biographical article: Freeman, E. A. 

Edward Burnett Tylor, D.C.L., LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Tylor, Edward Burnett. 

Opera; Oratorio; Overturr 
Palestrina (in part). 

Orontes; Pamptyiia. 

Orford, Earl of (E<Jw*r4 


Paleobotany: Palaeozoic* 
Pathology (in part). 

-J Palermo (in part). 



Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, M.A., O.S.B., D.Litt. r 

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lausiac History of Palladius," \ Olivetans; PachomiUS, St. 

in Cambridge Texts and Studies. [ 

Edmund Crosby Quiggin, M.A. 

Fellow, Lecturer in Modern Languages, and Monro Lecturer in Celtic, Gonville and 
Caius College, Cambridge. 

Edmund Gosse, LL.D. 

See the biographical article : Gosse, Edmund. 

Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A. 

See the biographical article : Gardner, Percy. 

Patrick, St. 

r Ode; Ohlenschlager; 
-j Ottava Rima; Overbury; 
l Paludan-Muller; Pastoral 
fOlympia (in part); 
\ Parthenon. 






E. M. T. 

E. M. W. 


P. C. C. 
P. G. P. 


F. R. C. 

F. Wa. 
F. W. Mo. 

F. W. R.* 

G. A. Gr. 

G. A. C * 
G. B.B. 

G. B. G. 
G. C. W. 

Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A. < J 

University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian H Olbia (Euxine). 
at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College. ' L 

Eduard Meyer, Ph.D., D.Litt. (Oxon.), LL.D. r Orodes; Osroene; Osroes; 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des -l PaCOrus; Parthia; 
Alterthums: Geschichte des alien Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstamme. { Parysatis; Pasargadae. 

Edward Morell Holmes. 

Curator of the Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society, London. 



Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, G.C.B., I.S.O., D.C.L , Litt.D., LL.D. 

Director and Principal Librarian, British Museum, 1898-1909. Sandars Reader in 
Bibliography, Cambridge, 1895-1896. Hon. Fellow of University College, Oxford. 
Correspondent of the Institute of France and of the Royal Prussian Academy of 
Sciences. Author of Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography. Editor of 
Chronicon Angliae. Joint-editor of publications of the Palaeographical Society, 
the New Palaeographical Society, and of the Facsimile of the Laurentian Sophocles. 

Rev. Edward Mewburn Walker, M.A. 

Fellow, Senior Tutor and Librarian of Queen's College, Oxford. 

Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, 
Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late Examiner " 
in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author of 
A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. 

Edgar Prestage. 

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. 
Examiner in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Com- . 
meudador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon 
Roya* Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society; &c. Editor of Letters 
of a Portuguese Nun; Azurara's Chronicle of ^Guinea; &c. 

Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen). f" 

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. J Paul Of Samosata; 
Editor of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle. Author of Myth, Magic and\ Paulieians. 
Morals ; &c. L 

Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop.Inst. f 

Vice-President,' Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on J Olfactory System; 
Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women, j Pancreas. 
London. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. I 

Paper: History, 

-I Olynthus. 


Oliveira Martins; 

Fernand Khnopff. 

See the biographical article: Khnopff, F. E. J. M. 

■j Painting: 

Modem Belgian. 

\ Orange Free State {in part) 
j Paterson, William. 


J Onyx; 

Frank R. Cana. 

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. 

Francis Watt, M.A. 

Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Author of Law's Lumber Room. 

Frederick Walker Mott, F.R.S., M.D. 

Physician to Charing Cross Hospital. Pathologist to the London County Asylums. 
Fullerian Professor of Physiology at the Royal Institution. 

Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1 879-1902. 
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889. 

Franz Xaver Kraus (1840-1901). 

Professor of Church History, University of Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1878-1901.-! Papacy! 1870-IOOO. 
Author of Geschichte der christlichen Kunst ; &c. ' 

George Abraham Grierson, CLE., Ph.D., D.Litt. 

Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey 

of India, 1898-1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President \ Paharl. 

of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of 

The Languages of India ; &c. 

Rev. George Albert Cooke, D.D. 

Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture, and Fellow of Oriel College, 
Oxford. Canon of Rochester. Hon. Canon of St Mary's Cathedral, Edinburgh. 

Gerard Baldwin Brown, M.A. 

Professor of Fine Art, University of Edinburgh. Formerly Fellow of Brasenose 
College, Oxford. Author of The Fine Arts; The Arts in Early England; &c. 

George Brown Goode (1 851-1896). 

Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 1887-1896. Author 
of American Fishes. 

George Chrystal, M.A., LL.D. 

Professor of Mathematics and Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Edinburgh University. 
Hon. Fellow and formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. 

George Charles Williamson, Litt.D. 

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard 
Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of the New 
Edition of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. 

Oliver, Isaac; 
Oliver, Peter. 


G. E. Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. f" Oldenbarneveldt; 

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909. J nr»n<r« mnncs nfV 
Hon. Member, Dutch Historical Society, and Foreign Member, Netherlands Associa- 1 "™ °f ,!; U5e 0I; » 
tion of Literature. L Ostend Company. 


























G. E. C. George Earl Church. 

See the biographical article: Church, G. E. 

G. H. C. George Herbert Carpenter, B.Sc. f 

Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: -j Orthoptera. 
their Structure and Life. L 

G. Sa. George Saintsbury, LL.D., D.C.L. f Orleans, Charles, Duke of; 

See the biographical article : Saintsbury, George E. B. \ Pascal (in part). 

G. S. W. German Sims Woodhead, M.A., M.D., F.R.S. (Edin.). [ 

Professor of Pathology, Cambridge University. Fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge. "1 Parasitic Diseases. 
Member of Royal Commission on Tuberculosis, 1902. I 

H. A. B. Henry Arthur Bethell. f 

Lieut.-Col. Commanding 49th Brigade R.F.A. Associate Member of R.A. Com- J Ordnance: 

mittee. Awarded Lefroy Medal for Contributions to Artillery Science. Author of 1 Field Artillery Equipments. 

Modern Guns and Gunnery; The Employment of Artillery; &c. I 

H. Br. Henry Bradley, M.A., Ph.D. [ 

Joint-editor of the New* English Dictionary (Oxford). Fellow of the British "j Orm. 
Academy. Author of The Story of the Goths ; The Making of English ; &c. I 

H. Ch. Hugh Chisholm, M.A. |" 

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the nth edition of < Parliament (in part). 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Co-editor of the 10th edition. (. 

H. CI. Sir Hugh Charles Clifford, K.C.M.G. 

Colonial Secretary, Ceylon. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. Formerly 
Resident, Pahang. Colonial Secretary, Trinidad and Tobago, 1903-1907. Author of -j Pantun 
Studies in Brown Humanity; Further India, &c. Joint-author of A Dictionary of 
the Malay Language. 

H. E. Karl Hermann Ethe, M.A., Ph.D. 

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Aberystwyth (University of 
Wales). Author of Catalogue of Persian Manuscripts in the India Office Library, 
London (Clarendon Press) ; &c. 

Omar Khayyam (in part) 

Sir Henry Enfield Roscoe, LL.D. J" p a< . tellI , 

See the biographical article: Roscoe, Sir Henry Enfield. \ raswur - 

Horatio Robert Forbes Brown, LL.D. 

Editor of the Calendar of Venetian State Papers, for the Public Record Office, 
London. Author of Life on the Lagoons; Venetian Studies; John Addington 
Symonds, a Biography ; &c. 


Hans Friedrich Gadow, F.R.S., Ph.D. . f 

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge, -j Odontornithes. 
Author of " Amphibia and Reptiles," in the Cambridge Natural History. L 

Henry Fairfield Osborn, LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. (Edin.). 

Da Costa Professor of Zoology, Columbia University, New York. President: 
American Museum of Natural History, New York. Curator of Department of- 
Vertebrate Palaeontology. Palaeontologist U.S. Geological Survey. Author of 
From the Greeks to Darwin ; &c. 

Henry Francis Pelham, LL.D., D.CiL. 


[ry Francis Pelham, LL.D., D.C.L. f m . w „.„. e 

See the biographical article: Pelham, Henry Francis. \ UM0 » M 3 -™™ »• 

Henry Jackson, Litt.D., LL.D., O.M. r 

Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of Trinity J d ___ ( „,.j„ « ui „ 

College. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of Texts to illustrate the History of "j rarmeniaes 01 Uiea. 

Greek Philosophy from Thales to Aristotle. [_ ■ ' 

Harriet L. Hennessy, M.D. (Brux.), L.R.C.P.I., L.R.C.S.I. /olfactory System: Diseases. 

Hector Munro Chadwick, M.A. ■ r 

Librarian and Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge. Reader in Scandinavian, ■} Odin. 
Cambridge University. Author of Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions. [ 

H, N. D. Henry Newton Dickson, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. (Edin.), F.R.G.S. r 

Professor of Geography at University College, Reading. Formerly Vice-President, .. . 

Royal Meteorological Society. Lecturer in Physical Geography, Oxford. Author of "j Facinc Ocean (m part). 
Meteorology; Elements of Weather and Climate; &c. \_ 

H. R. T. Henry Richard Tedder, F.S.A. J ... 

Secretary and Librarian of the Athenaeum Club, London. ^ FampmetS. 

H. W. C. D. Henry William Carless Davis, M.A. ' f ndo of Baveux' 

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, -I Q . . vi iLij s ' 
1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins ; Charlemagne. ^vruenc viuuu. 

H. Y. Sir Henry Yule, K.C.S.I. J* Qdoric (in pari). 

See the biographical article, Yule, Sir Henry. (. 

J. A. C. Sir Joseph Archer Crowe, K.C.M.G. / Ostade (in part). 

See the biographical article : Crowe, Sir Joseph Archer. l 



J. A. F. 

J. A. H. 

J. Bra. 

J* B. A. 
J. C. van D. 

J. E. S.* 

J. Fi. 
J. F.-K. 

J. H. A. H. 
J. H. F. 
J. H. M. 

J. HI. R. 
J. Ja. 


J. L.H. 

J. M.* 

J. Mn. 
J. H. M. 

J. P.-B. 

John Ambrose Fleming, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Pender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow 
of University College, London. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. " 
Vice-President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. Author of The Principles 
of Electric Wave Telegraphy ; Magnets and Electric Currents ; &c. 


fOligoeene System; 
Author of ■{ Oolite; Ordovician System; 
loxfordian; Palaeozoic Era; 

John Allen Howe, B.Sc. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 
Geology of Building Stones. 

Joseph Braun, S.J. 

Author of Die Liturgische Gewandung &c. 

James Bartlett. 

Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c, at King's _ 
College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of Junior 

Joseph Beavington Atkinson. 

Formerly art-critic of the Saturday Review. Author of An Art Tour in the Northern - 
Capitals of Europe; Schools of Modern Art in Germany. l_ 

John Charles van Dyke. f 

Professor of the History of Art, Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N.J. Formerly J p a i n f in p. tj^u^ <?/„&,* 
Editor of The Studio and the Art Review. Author of Art for Art's Sake; History of] raumn B- unuea * lales - 
Painting; Old English Masters; &c. I 

John Edwin Sandys, M.A., Lrrr.D., LL.D. T 

Public Orator in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of St John's College, Cam- . 
bridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of History of Classical Scholarship ; 

Pastoral Staff. 



Pausanias: Traveller. 

John Fiske, LL.D. 

See the biographical article : Fiske, John. 

James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S. 

Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. 
Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. 
Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of 
Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c. 

John Henry Arthur Hart, M.A. 

Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John's College, Cambridge. 

John Henry Freese, M.A. 

Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. 

Parkman, Francis. 

Palacio Valdes, Armando: 
Pardo Bazan. 

■I Palestine: History (in part) 
J Orpheus {in part). 

John Henry Middleton, M.A., Litt.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1896). 

Slade Professor of Fine Arts in the University of Cambridge, 1 886-1 895. Director 
of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1889-1892. Art Director of the South i Orcagna. 
Kensington Museum, 1892-1896. Author of The Engraved Gems of Classical Times; 
Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Medieval Times. 

John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D. r 

Christ's College, Cambridge: Lecturer on Modern History of the Cambridge J Pasquier. 

I.; Napoleonic] 

University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon 
Studies ; The Development of the European Nations ; The Life of Pitt ; &c. 


Joseph Jacobs, Litt.D. 

Professor of English Literature in the Jewish Theological Seminary, New York. 
Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England. Corresponding 
Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid. Author of Jews of Angevin 
England; Studies in Biblical Archaeology; &c. 

Julius Lewkowitsch, M.A., Ph.D. r 

Examiner to the City and Guilds of London Institute. Vice-President of Chemical J q.|^ 
Society. Member of Council of Chemical Society; Institute of Chemistry; and H 
Society of Public Analysts. Author of Chemical Technology and Analysis of Oils, 
Fats, and Waxes ; &c. 

John Linton Myres, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S. 

Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford and Fellow 
of Magdalen College. Formerly Gladstone Professor of Greek and Lecturer in 
Ancient Geography, University of Liverpool. Lecturer of Classical Archaeology 
in the University of Oxford. 

James Muirhead, LL.D. (1831-1889). 

Scotch Advocate; Professor of Civil Law in the University of Edinburgh, 1862- 
1 889. Author of Historical Introduction to the Private Law of Rome, and of an edition 
of the Institutes of Gaius and Rules of Ulpian. I 

John Macpherson, M.A., M.D., M.R.C.S. (1817-1890). r 

Formerly Inspector-General of Hospitals, Bengal. Author of The Baths and Wells J Paranoia. 
of Europe ; &c. 1 

John Malcolm Mitchell. f Ostracism- 

Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London J p a tricians' 
College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote's History of Greece. |_ raineians. 


Patron and Client (in part). 

James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst. 
Editor of the Guardian (London). 

Jean Paul Hippolyte Emmanuel Adhemar Esmein. 

Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. 
Member of the Institute of France- Author of Cours Uementaire d'histoire du droit 
francais ; &c. 

























. W. 

K. S. 

L. Be. 

L. D.* 
L. v. P. 

L. F. D. 
L. J. B. 
L. J. S. 

L. R. P. 
M. G. D. 

M. H. S. 

M. Ja. 
M. M. Bh. 
M. N. T. 


Julian Robert John Jocelyn. f Ordnance: Heavy Field and 

Colonel, R.A. formerly Member of the Ordnance Committee, Commandant, J <-• » 77 -a , /- 
Ordnance College, and Commandant, School of Gunnery. Author of Notes on 1 S ™& M^pments, Garrison 
Tactics and Reconnaissances; &c. I- Mountings. 

James Richard Thursfield, M.A. 

Honorary Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford. Formerly Dean, Fellow, Lecturer and " 
Tutor of Jesus College- Author of Peel ; &c. 

Parnell, Charles Stewart. 

James Sutherland Cotton, M.A. 

Editor of the Imperial Gazetteer of India. Hon. Secretary of the Egyptian Ex-, 
ploration Fund. Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Queen's College, Oxford! Author 
of India; &c. 

John Thomas Bealby. 

Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical' 
Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. 

Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S. 

Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly _ 
Fellow of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in 
The University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association. 

The Rev. James Vernon Bartlet, M.A., D.D. 

Professor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of The Apostolic "* 
Age; &c. 


Odessa; Onega; 
Orel; Orenburg. 

Oyster {in part). 


Paul, the Apostle. 

Paper: Manufacture. 

Ophicleide (in part) ; 

Orchestra; Orchestrion; 

Organ: Ancient History; 

Organistrum; Pandura; 

Parsifal Bell-instrument. 
Leonce Benedite. ^ r 

Keeper of the Musee National du Luxembourg. Professor at the £cole du Louvre. J _ . 

President of the Societe des Peintres Orientalistes francais. Author of Histoire] Painting: Modern French, 
des Beaux Arts; &c. L 

W. Wyatt, A.M.Inst.C.E. 
Author of The Art of Making Paper; &c. 

Kathleen Schlesinger. 

Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. 
Orchestra; &c. 

Author of The Instruments of the - 

Louis Duchesne. 

See the biographical article: Duchesne, L. M. O. 

Ludwig von Pastor, Ph.D. 

Director of the Austrian Institute of Historical Studies at Rome. Professor of 
History and Director of the Historical Seminary in the University of Innsbruck. 
Hofrat of the Austrian Empire. Commander of the Order of Francis Joseph ; &c. 
Author of Geschichte der Pdpsle ; &c. Editor of the Acta pontificum Romanorum. 

Lewis Foreman Day, F.S.A. (1845-1909). 

Formerly Vice-President of the Society of Arts. Past Master of the Art Workers' 
Gild. Author of Windows: a book about Stained Glass ; &c. 

Lawrence Johnston Burpee. 

Public Librarian of the City of Ottawa. Author of The Search for the Western Sea; 
&c. Joint-author of Canadian Life in Town and Country; &c. 

Leonard James Spencer, M.A. 

Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar 
of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the 
Mineralogical Magazine. 

Lewis Richard Farnell, M.A., Litt.D. 

Fellow and Senior Tutor of Exeter College, Oxford ; University Lecturer in Classical 
Archaeology; Wilde Lecturer in Comparative Religion. Author of Cults of Greek 
States ; Evolution of Religion. 

Rt. Hon. Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant Dufe, G.C.S.I., F.R.S. 
M.P. for the Elgin Burghs, 1857-1881. Under-Secretary of State for India, 1868- 
1874. Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, 1880-1881. Governor of Madras, " 
1881-1886. President of the Royal Geographical Society, 1889-1893. President 
of the Royal Historical Society, 1 892-1 899. Author of Studies in European Politics ; 
Notes from a Diary; &c. 

Marion H. Spielmann, F.S.A. 

Formerly Editor of the Magazine of Art. Member of Fine Art Committee of Inter- 
national Exhibitions of Brussels, Paris, Buenos Aires, Rome and the Franco- 
British Exhibition, London. Author of History of "Punch"; British Portrait 
Painting to the Opening of the Nineteenth Century; Works of G. F. Watts, R.A.; 
British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day; Henriette Ronner; &c. 

Morris Jastrow, Ph.D. 

Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania. Author of Religion "j Omen. 
of the Babylonians and Assyrians; &c. 

Sir Mancherjee Merwanjee Bhownaggree. 

Fellow of Bombay University. M.P. for N.-E. Bethnal Green, 1895-1906. Author -j Patel. 
of History of the Constitution of the East India Company ; &c. 

Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. -{ Pausanias: Commander. 
Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum. 

/Papacy: to 1087; 
I Paschal I. 

Papacy: 1 305-1 5Q0. 


Ottawa (Canada). 

Olivenite; Olivine; 


Oliphant, Laurence. 

Painting: Recent British; 


M. P.* Leon Jacques Maxime Prinet. 

Formerly Archivist to the French National Archives. Auxiliary of the Institute of , 
France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences). Author of V Industrie* du sel en 
Franche-Comte; Francois I. et le comte de Bourgogne; &c. 

















M. B 











Orleans, Ferdinand, Duke of; 
Orleans, Gaston, Duke of; 
Orleans, Philip I. and II., 
Dukes of. 

0- Ba. Oswald Barron, F.S.A. 

Editor of The Ancestor, 1902-1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of thei Paulet: Family, 
Honourable Society of the Baronetage. L 

0. J. R. H. Osbert John Radcliffe Howarth, M.A. f 

Christ Church, Oxford. Geographical Scholar, 1901. Assistant Secretary of the-j Oxford. 
British Association. I 

0. T. Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S., F.Z.S. f 

Senior Assistant, Natural History Department of the British Museum. Author of) Pangolin {in part). 
Catalogue of Marsupialia in the British Museum. I 

P. A. K. Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin. J" Odessa; Onega; 

See the biographical article : Kropotkin, Prince P. A. I Orel; Orenburg. 

P. C. M. Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc, LL.D. f 

Secretary to the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Com- J Ornithology {in part) ; 
parative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1 888-1 891. Author 1 Parasitism. 
of Outlines of Biology ; &c. L 

P. Gi. Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D. f 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University J p 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philo- 
logical Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology; &c. L 

Paul George Konody. J 

Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of The Artist, l Ostade {in part). 
Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez, Life and Work; &c. I 

Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A. f ophir* 

St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Explora- ~\ Pai-cH-o 1 ■ j, ,\ 
tion Fund. L rale!,llIle l*» part). 

Ronald Brunlees McKerrow, M.A. f 

Trinity College, Cambridge. Editor of the Works of Thomas Nashe; &c. \ Parnassus Plays. 

Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb, LL.D., D.C.L. J" . .. ■, 

See the biographical article: Jebb, Sir Richard Claverhouse. \ ul y m P ia l*» part). 

Richard Garnett, LL.D., D.C.L. f_ . 

See the biographical article : Garnett, Richard. \ ranizzi. 

Robert Holford Macdowall Bosanquet, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.C.S. 

Fellow oi St John's College, Oxford. Author of Musical Temperament; &c. 

Robert Hallowell Richards, LL.D. f 

Professor of Mining and Metallurgy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston. -! Ore-dreSSing. 
President American Institute of Mining Engineers, 1 886. Author of Ore-dressing ; &c. [ 

R. J. Grewing, Captain, Reserve of Officers. j Officers. 

Ronald John McNeill, M.A. f n>r»nnnnii. p 7 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James' s\ ",„.„'• r amuy\ 
Gazette, London. [ Neill: Family. 

R. K. D. Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas. f 

Formerly Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. in the British Museum; and J _ . _. „ 
Professor of Chinese, King's College, London. Author of The Language and Litera- 1 P ar kes, Sir H. S. 

ture of China; &c. L 

R. L.* Richard Lydekker, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. f oka Pi; Opossum; 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of J otter (* w part); 
Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer of] Ox; Palaeotherium; 
all Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c. . [ Pangolin (in part). 

-I Organ. 

, „, . [Painting: Recent Dutch, Ger- 

Richard Mother (1860-1909). . Austrian, Italian, 

Professor of the History of Art, Breslau University, 1895-1909. Author of The J o.'- h r,„ m -l c-^-.i. 

History of Modern Painting. 

Spanish, Danish, Swedish, 
Norwegian, Russian and 
Balkan States. 

R. Mr.* Richard Muir. 

Demonstrator of Pathological and Bacteriological Technique, University of I 

Edinburgh. "1 Pathology {in part). 

R. N. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909). L _. . n , . H . 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia, the [ u,e *>». UIgiera; 

Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513-1900 ; The First Romanovs, J Orduin-Nashchokin; 

1613-1725 ; Slavonic Europe, the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 1 Orlov; Osterman; 

toi7 9 6;&c. Loxenstjerna; Panin; Patkul. 

R. 0. Sir Richard Owen, K.C.B. f 

See the biographical article: Owen, Sir Richard. -} Oken. 

R. P. S. R. Phene Spiers, F.S.A.,' F.R.I.B.A. 

Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past 

President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's College, -j Order; Orientation. 

London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson's 

History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c. 

R. S. C. 

R. Tr. 
«. A. C. 

S. Ft. 
S. 6. O. 
S. P. 

T. As. 


A. I. 




E. M. 


F. C. 




H. H.* 


K. C. 

Th. N. 






W. R. D 

V. M. 
W. Ar. 
W. A. B. C. 

W. A. H. 


Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt. (Cantab.). [ ._ 

Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. J PacliglU; 
Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville ] Osca Lingua. 
and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects. v. 

Roland Truslove, M.A. J p aris: Geography and 

Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Fellow, Dean and Lecturer in Classics 1 ci„4; rl ; 
at Worcester College, Oxford. I owm » w - 

Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A. _ 

Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge. Editor for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Examiner in Hebrew 
and Aramaic, London University, 1904-1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic 
Inscriptions; The Law of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on 
Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c. 

Palestine: Old 



Sydney R. Fremantle. 

Captain, R.N. Naval Mobilization Department, Admiralty, London. 

Sidney George Owen, M.A. 

Student and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. 

Simon Newcomb, D.Sc, LL.D. 

See the biographical article : Newcomb, Simon. 

Stephen Paget, F.R.C.S. 

Surgeon to Throat and Ear Department, Middlesex Hospital. Hon. Secretary, 
Research Defence Society. Author of Memoirs and Letters of Sir James Paget ; &c. 

Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt. 

Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ 
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of * 
the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Topography 
of the Roman Campagna. 

J Ordnance: Naval Guns and 
\ Gunnery. 

{ Ovid. 

j Orbit; 
1 Parallax. 

Paget, Sir James. 

Olbia: Sardinia; 

Orbetello; Oristano; 

Ortona a Mare; Orvieto; 

Ostia; Otranto; Paestum; 

Palermo {in part); 

Pantelleria; Patavium; 


Patents {in pari); 


Payment of Members. 

Pacific Blockade. 

Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D. 
Trinity College, Dublin. 

Sir Thomas Barclay. 

Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of . 
the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of 
International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910. 

Rt. Hon. Lord Farnborough. 

See the biographical article : Farnborough, Thomas Erskine May, Baron. 

Theodore Freylinghuysen Collier, Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. 

Thomas Hodgkin, Litt. D., LL.D., D.C.L. 
See the biographical article : Hodgkin, T. 

Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I. E., D.Sc. 

Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892-1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S.,. 
London, 1887. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King's 
Award; India; Tibet. 

Rev. Thomas Kelly Cheyne, M.A., D.D., LL.D. 
See the biographical article: Cheyne, T. K. 

Theodor Noldeke. 

See the biographical article : Noldeke, Theodor. 

Sir Thomas Little Heath, K.C.B., D.Sc. 

Assistant Secretary to the Treasury. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. "* 

Thomas Okey. 

Examiner in Basket Work for the City and Guilds of London Institute. 

Thomas William Rhys Davids, LL.D., Ph.D. 

Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester University. President of the 
Pali Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of - 
Royal Asiatic Society, 1885-1902. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Books of the 
Buddhists; Early Buddhism; Buddhist India; Dialogues of the Buddha; &c. 

Victor Charles Mahillon. r 

Principal of the Conservatoire Royal de Musique at Brussels. Chevalier of the J Ophicleide {in part). 
Legion of Honour. ] 

Sir Walter Armstrong. 

Director of National Gallery of Ireland. Author of Art in the British Isles; 
Joint-editor of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters; &c. 

Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D. 

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's 
College, Lampeter, 1880-188 1. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphine;- The Range, 
of the Todi; Guide to Grindelwald ; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and 
in History; &c. Editor to The Alpine Journal, 1880-1881 ; &c. 

William Alfred Hinds. 

President of the Oneida Community, Ltd. 

Parliament {in part). 

Orange: France; 

Paul III., IV., V. {Popes). 


Oman; Oxus; 



Pappus of Alexandria. 



&c. J Orchardson. 

Olivier, J. D.; 
Orta, Lake of; 

Author of American Communities; &c. { 0neida Community. 



w. A. P. 












G. F. 






















Walter Alison Phillips, M.A. 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton Colleg* and Senior Scholar of St John's College, 
Oxford. Author of Modern Europe ; &c. 

Papacy: igoo-igio. 
Paris: History (in part). 

Officers: United States. 

William Augustus Simpson. 

Colonel and Acting Adjutant-General, U.S. Army. 

William Burton, M.A., F.C.S. 

Chairman, Joint Committee of Pottery Manufacturers of Great Britain. Author of -j Palissy. 

English Stoneware and Earthenware; &c. 

Rev. William E. Addis, M.A. 

Professor of Old Testament Criticism, Manchester College, Oxford. Author oH Order, Holy, 

Christianity and the Roman Empire ; &c. 

William Edward Garrett Fisher, M.A. 
Author of The Transvaal and the Boers. 



-j Paper: India Paper. 
■< Otter (in part). 

William Henry Flower, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article : Flower, Sir W. 

William Lawson Grant, M.A. r 

Professor at Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly Beit Lecturer in J 
Colonial History at Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy Council (Colonial 1 
Series); Canadian Constitutional Development (in collaboration). L 

William Michael Rossetti. f 

See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. \ 


Chief Engineer, Department of Marine and Fisheries of Canada. Member of the •< Ontario, Lake, 
Geographic Board of Canada. Past President of Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. [ 


Palma, Jacopo; Parmigiano; 
Paul Veronese. 

William Prideaux Courtney. 

See the biographical article: Courtney, L. H., Baron. 

William Smyth Rockstro. 

Author of A General History of Music from the Infancy of the Greek Drama to the 
Present Period ; and other works on the history of music. 

William Walker Rockwell, Lic.Theol. 

Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. 

Orford, 1st Earl of (Sir Robert 
Walpole); Oxford, 1st Earl of. 

Palestrina {in part). 

' Papacy: 15Q0-1870; 
Paschal III. 




Old Age Pensions. 

Old Catholics. 








Original Package. 

Orkney Islands. 


Orthodox Eastern Church. 



Pacific Ocean: Islands. 





Palmerston, Viscount. 

Palm Sunday. 


Panama (Republic). 

Panama Canal. 

Pan-American Conferences. 





Para (State). 







Paris, Treaties of. 


Park, Mungo. 












ODE (Gr. <$i\, from aelSeiv, to sing), a form of stately and 
elaborate lyrical verse. As its name shows, the original significa- 
tion of an ode was a chant, a poem arranged to be sung to an 
instrumental accompaniment. There were two great divisions 
of the Greek melos or song; the one the personal utterance of 
the poet, the other, as Professor G. G. Murray says, " the choric 
song of his band of trained dancers." Each of these culminated 
in what have been called odes, but the former, in the hands 
of Alcaeus, Anacreon and Sappho, came closer to what modern 
criticism knows as lyric, pure and simple. On the other hand, 
the choir-song, in which the poet spoke for himself, but always 
supported, or interpreted, by a chorus, led up to what is now 
known as ode proper. It was Alcman, as is supposed, who 
first gave to his poems a strophic arrangement, and the strophe 
has come to be essential to an ode. Stcsichorus, Ibycus and 
Simonides of Ceos led the way to the two great masters of ode 
among the ancients, Pindar and Bacchylides. The form and 
verse-arrangement of Pindar's great lyrics have regulated the 
type of the heroic ode. It is now perceived that they are con- 
sciously composed in very elaborate measures, and that each is 
the result of a separate act of creative ingenuity, but each 
preserving an absolute consistency of form. So far from being, 
as critics down to Cowley and Boileau, and indeed to the time 
of August Bockh, supposed, utterly licentious in their irregu- 
larity, they are more like the canzos and sirventes of the medieval 
troubadours than any modern verse. The Latins themselves 
seem to have lost the secret of these complicated harmonies, 
and they made no serious attempt to imitate the odes of Pindar 
and Bacchylides. It is probable that the Greek odes gradually 
lost their musical character; they were accompanied on the 
flute, and then declaimed without any music at all. The ode, 
as it was practised by the Romans, returned to the personally 
lyrical form of the Lesbian lyrists. This was exemplified, in 
the most exquisite way, by Horace and Catullus; the former 
imitated, and even translated, Alcaeus and Anacreon, the latter 
was directly inspired by Sappho. 

The earliest modern writer to perceive the value of the antique 
ode was Ronsard, who attempted with as much energy as he 
could exercise to recover the fire and volume of Pindar; his 
principal experiments date from 1550 to 1552. The poets of 
the Pleiad recognized in tne ode one of the forms of verse with 
which French prosody should be enriched, but they went too 
far, and in their use of Greek words crudely introduced, and in 
their quantitative experiments, they offended the genius of 
xx. 1 

the French language. The ode, however, died in France almost 
as rapidly as it had come to life; it hardly survived the 16th 
century, and neither the examples of J. B. Rousseau nor of 
Saint-Amant nor of Malherbe possessed much poetic life. Early 
in the 19th century the form was resumed, and we have the 
Odes composed between 18 17 and 1824 by Victor Hugo, the 
philosophical and religious odes of Lamartine, those of Victor 
de Laprade (collected in 1844), and the brilliant Odes funam- 
bulesques of Theodore de Banville (1857). 

The earliest odes in the English language, using the word 
in its strict form, were the magnificent Epithalamium and 
Prothalamium of Spenser. Ben Jonson introduced a kind of 
elaborate lyric, in stanzas of rhymed irregular verse, to which 
he gave the name of ode; and some of his disciples, in particular 
Randolph, Cartwright and Herrick, followed him. The great 
" Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity,"' begun by Milton 
in 1629, may be considered an ode, and his lyrics " On Time " 
and " At a Solemn Music " may claim to belong to the same 
category. But it was Cowley who introduced into English 
poetry the ode consciously built up, on a solemn theme and as 
definitely as possible on the ancient Greek pattern. Being in 
exile in France about 1645, and at a place where the only book 
was the text of Pindar, Cowley set himself to study and to 
imitate the Epintkia. He conceived, he says, that this was 
" the noblest and the highest kind of writing in verse," but 
he was no more perspicacious than others in observing what 
the rules were which Pindar had followed. He supposed the 
Greek poet to be carried away on a storm of heroic emotion, 
in which all the discipline of prosody was disregarded. In 1656 
Cowley published his Pindaric odes, in which he had not even 
regarded the elements of the Greek structure, with strophe, 
antistrophe and epode. His idea of an ode, which he impressed 
with such success upon the British nation that it has never 
been entirely removed, was of a lofty and tempestuous piece 
of indefinite poetry, conducted " without sail or oar " in whatever 
direction the enthusiasm of the poet chose to take it. These 
shapeless pieces became very popular after the Restoration, 
and enjoyed the sanction of Dryden in three or four irregular 
odes which are the best of their kind in the English language. 
Prior, in a humorous ode on the taking of Namur (1695), imitated 
the French type of this poem, as cultivated by Boileau. In 
1705 Congreve published a Discourse on the Pindarique Ode, 
in which many of the critical errors of Cowley were corrected; 
and Congreve wrote odes, in strophe, antistrophe and epode, 



which were the earliest of their kind in English; unhappily 
they were not very poetical. He was imitated by Ambrose 
Philips, but then the tide of Cowley-Pindarism rose again and 
swept the reform away. The attempts of Gilbert West (1703- 
1756) to explain the prosody of Pindar (1749) inspired Gray 
to write his "Progress of Poesy" (1754) and "The Bard" 
(1756). Collins, meanwhile, had in 1747 published a collection 
of odes devised in the Aeolian or Lesbian manner. The odes 
of Mason and Akenside were more correctly Pindaric, but 
frigid and formal. The odes of Wordsworth, Coleridge and 
Tennyson are entirely irregular. Shelley desired to revive the 
pure manner of the Greeks, but he understood the principle of 
the form so little that he began his noble " Ode to Naples " 
with two epodes, passed on to two strophes, and then indulged 
in four successive antistrophes. Coventry Patmore, jn 1868, 
printed a volume of Odes-, which he afterwards enlarged; these 
were irregularly built up on a musical system, the exact con- 
sistency of which is not always apparent. Finally Swinburne, 
although some of his odes, like those of Keats, are really elaborate 
lyrics, written in a succession of stanzas identical in form, has 
cultivated the Greek form also, and some of his political odes 
follow very closely the type of Bacchylides and Pindar. 

See Philipp August Bockh, De metris Pindari (1811); Wilhelm 
Christ, Metfik der Griechen und Rbmer (1874); Edmund Gosse, 
English Odes (1881). (E.G.) 

ODENKIRCHEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine 
province, 21 m. by rail S.W. of Diisseldorf, and at the junction 
of lines to Munich, Gladbach and Stolberg. Pop. (1905) 16,808. 
It has a Roman Catholic church, an Evangelical one, a synagogue 
and several schools. Its principal industries are spinning, weav- 
ing, tanning and dyeing. Odenkirchen became a town in 1856. 

See Wiedemann, Geschichte der ehemaligen Herrschaft und des 
Hauses Odenkirchen (Odenkirchen, 1879). 

ODENSE, a city of Denmark, the chief town of the ami (county) 
of its name, which forms the northern part of the island of 
Fiinen (Fyen). Pop. (1901) 40,138. The city lies 4 m. from 
Odense Fjord on the Odense Aa, the main portion on the north 
side of the stream, and the industrial Albani quarter on the 
south side. It has a station on the railway route between 
Copenhagen and Jutland and Schleswig-Holstein via Korsbn 
A canal, 155 to 21 ft. deep, gives access to the town from the 
fjord. St Canute's cathedral, formerly connected with the 
great Benedictine monastery of the same name, is one of the 
largest and finest buildings of its kind in Denmark. It is con- 
structed of brick in a pure Gothic style. Originally dating 
from 1081-1093, it was rebuilt in the 13th century. Under 
the altar lies Canute (Knud), the patron saint of Denmark, 
who intended to dispute with William of Normandy the posses- 
sion of England, but was slain in an insurrection at Odense in 
1086; Kings John and Christian II. are also buried within the 
walls. Our Lady's church, built in the 13th century and re- 
stored in 1851-1852 and again in 1864, contains a carved altar- 
piece (16th century) by Claus Berg of Liibeck. Odense Castle 
was erected by Frederick IV., who died there in 1730. In 
Albani are tanneries, iron-foundries and machine-shops. Ex- 
ports, mostly agricultural produce (butter, bacon, eggs); im- 
ports, iron, petroleum, coal, yarn and timber. 

Odense, or Odinsey, originally Odinsoe, i.e. Odin's island, 
is one of the oldest cities of Denmark. St Canute's shrine was 
a great resort of pilgrims throughout the middle ages. In the 
16th century the town was the meeting-place of several parlia- 
ments, and down to 1805 it was the seat of the provincial 
assembly of Fiinen. 

ODENWALD, a wooded mountainous region of Germany, 
almost entirely in the grand duchy of Hesse, with small portions 
in Bavaria and Baden. It stretches between the Neckar and the 
Main, and is some 50 m. long by 20 to 30 broad. Its highest 
points are the Katzenbuckel (2057 ft.), the Neunkircher Hohe 
(1985 ft.) and the Krahberg (1965 ft.). The wooded heights 
overlooking the Bergstrasse are studded with castles and medieval 
ruins, some of which are associated with some of the most 
memorable adventures of German tradition. Among them are 

Rodenstein, the reputed home of the wild huntsman, and near 
Grasellenbach, the spot where Siegfried of the Nibelungenlied 
is said to have been slain. 

See F. Montanus, Der Odenwald (Mainz, 1884) ; T. Lorenteen, Der 
Odenwald in Wort und Bild (Stuttgart, 1904) ; G. Volk, Der Odenwald 
und seine Nachbargebiete (Stuttgart, 1900), and Windhaus, Fiihrer 
durch den Odenwald (Darmstadt, 1903). 

ODER (Lat. Viadua; Slavonic, Vjodr), a river of Germany, 
rises in Austria on the Odergebirge in the Moravian tableland 
at a height of 1950 ft. above the sea, and 14 m. to the east of 
Olmiitz. From its source to its mouth in the Baltic it has 
a total length of 560 m., of which 480 m.'are navigable for barges, 
and it drains an area of 43,300 sq. m. The first 45 m. of its 
course lie within Moravia; for the next 15 m. it forms the 
frontier 'between * Prussian and Austrian Silesia, while the re- 
maining 500 m. helong to Prussia, where it traverses the provinces 
of Silesia, Brandenburg and Pomerania. It flows at first 
towards the south-east, but on quitting Austria turns towards 
the north-west, maintaining this direction as far as Frankfort-on- 
Oder, beyond which its general course is nearly due north. As far 
as the frontier the Oder flows through a well-defined valley, 
but, after passing through the gap between the Moravian 
mountains, and the Carpathians and entering the Silesian plain, 
its valley is wide and shallow and its banks generally low. In 
its lower course it is divided into numerous branches, forming 
many islands. The main channel follows the left side of the 
valley and finally expands into the Pommersches, or Stettiner 
Haff, which is connected with the sea by three arms, the Peene, 
the Swine and the Dievenow, forming the islands of Usedom 
and Wollin. The Swine, in the middle, is the main channel 
for navigation. The chief tributaries of the Oder on the left 
bank are the Oppa, Glatzer Neisse, Katzbach, Bober and 
Lausitzer Neisse; on the right bank the Malapane, Bartsch 
and Warthe. Of these the only one of importance for 
navigation is the Warthe, which through the Netze is brought 
into communication with the Vistula. The Oder is also connected 
by canals with the Havel and the Spree. The most important 
towns on its banks are. Ratibor, Oppeln, Brieg, Breslau, Glogau, 
Frankfort, Custrin and Stettin, with the seaport of Swinemiinde 
at its mouth. Glogau; Custrin and Swinemiinde are strongly 

The earliest important undertaking with a view of improving 
the waterway was due to the initiative of Frederick the Great, 
who recommended the diversion of the river into a new and 
straight channel in the swampy tract of land known as the 
Oderbruch, near Custrin. The work was carried out in the years 
1746-1753, a large tract of marshland being brought under 
cultivation, a considerable detour cut off, and the main stream 
successfully confined to the canal, 12 m. in length, which is 
known as the New Oder. The river at present begins to be 
navigable for barges at Ratibor, where it is about 100 ft. wide, 
and for larger vessels at Breslau, and great exertions are made 
by the government to deepen and keep open the channel, which 
still shows a strong tendency to choke itself with sand in certain 
places. The alterations made of late years consist of three 
systems of works: — (1) The canalization of the main stream 
(4 m.) at Breslau, and from the confluence of the Glatzer Neisse to 
the mouth of the Klodnitz canal, a distance of over 50 m. These 
engineering works were completed in 1896. (2) In 1887-1891 
the Oder-Spree canal was made to connect the two rivers named. 
The canal leaves the Oder at Furstenberg (132 m. above its 
mouth) at an altitude of 93 ft., and after 15 m. enters the 
Friedrich-Wilhelm canal (134 ft.). After coinciding with this 
for 7 m., it makes another cut of 5 m. to the Spree at FurstenWalde' 
(126 ft.). Then it follows the Spree for 12 m., and at Gross 
Tranke (121 ft.) passes out and goes to Lake Seddin (106 ft.), 15 
m. (3) The deepening and regulation of the mouth and lower 
course of the stream, consisting of the Kaiserfahrt, 3 m. long, 
affording a waterway between the Stettiner Haff and the river 
Swine for the largest ocean-going vessels; a new cut, 4! m. 
long, from Vietzig on the Stettiner Haff to Wollin Island; the 
Parnitz-Dunzig and Dunzig-Oder canals, together 1 m. long, 


constituting the immediate approach to Stettin. . Vessels drawing 
24 ft. are now able to go right up to Stettin. In 1905 a project 
was sanctioned for improving the communication between 
Berlin and Stettin by widening and deepening the lower course 
of the river and then connecting this by a canal with Berlin. 
Another project, born at the same time, is one for the canalization 
of the upper course of the Oder. About 4,000,000 tons of 
merchandize pass through Breslau (up and down) on the Oder 
in the year. 

See Der Oderstrom, sein Strom gebiet und seine ivichtigsten Neben- 
fiiisse; hydrographtsche, wasserwirtschaftliche und wasserrechtliche 
Darstellung (Berlin, 1896). 

ODERBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province 
of Brandenburg, on the Alte Oder, 2 m. from Bralitz, a station 
44 m. N.W. from Frankfort-on-Oder, by the railway to Anger- 
munde. Pop. (1905) 4,015. It has a fine Gothic church, dedicated 
to St Nicholas, and the ruins of an ancient castle, called Baren- 
kasten. Oderberg is an important emporium for the Russian 
timber trade. 

ODESCALCHI-ERBA, the name of a Roman princely family 
of great antiquity. They are supposed to be descended from 
Enrico Erba, imperial vicar in Milan in 1165. Alessandro 
Erba married Lucrezia Odescalchi, sister of Pope Innocent 
IX., in 1709, who is believed to have been descended from 
Giorgio Odescalchi {floruit at Como in 1290). The title of prince 
of the Holy Roman Empire was conferred on Alessandro in 
1714, and that of duke of Syrmium in Hungary in 1714, with the 
qualification of "serene highness." The head of the family 
now bears the titles of Fiirst Odescalchi, duke of Syrmium, 
prince of Bassano, &c, and he is an hereditary magnate of 
Hungary and a grandee of Spain; the family, which is one 
of the most important in Italy, owns the Palazzo Odescalchi 
in Rome, the magnificent castle of Bracciano, besides large 
estates in Italy and Hungary. 

See A. von Reumont, Geschichte der Stadt Rom (Berlin, 1868), 
and the Almanack de Gotha. 

ODESSA, one of the most important seaports of Russia, 
ranking by its population and foreign trade after St Petersburg, 
Moscow and Warsaw. It is situated in 46 28' N. and 30° 44' 
E., on the southern shore of a semi-circular bay, at the north-west 
angle of the Black Sea, and is by rail 1017 m. S.S.W. from Moscow 
and 610 S. from Kiev. Odessa is the seaport for the basins 
of two great rivers of Russia, the Dnieper, with its tributary 
the Bug, and the Dniester (20 m. to S.). The entrances to the 
mouths of both these offering many difficulties for navigation, 
trade has from the remotest antiquity selected this spot, which 
is situated half-way between the two estuaries, while the level 
surface of the neighbouring steppe allows easy communication 
with the lower parts of both rivers. The bay of Odessa, which 
has an area of 14 sq. m. and a depth of 30 ft. with a soft bottom, 
is a dangerous anchorage on account of its exposure to easterly 
winds. But inside it are six harbours — the quarantine harbour, 
new harbour, coal harbour and " practical " harbour, the 
first and last, on the S. and N. respectively, protected by moles, 
and the two middle harbours by a breakwater. Besides these, 
there are the harbour of the principal shipping company — the 
Russian Company for Navigation and Commerce, and the 
petroleum harbour. The harbours freeze for a few days in winter, 
as also does the bay occasionally, navigation being interrupted 
every year for an average of sixteen days; though this is 
materially shortened by the use of an ice-breaker. Odessa 
experiences the influence of the continental climate of the 
neighbouring steppes; its winters are cold (the average tempera^ 
ture for January being 23 -2 9 F., and the isotherm for the entire 
season that of Konigsberg), its summers are hot (72-8° in July), 
and the yearly average temperature is 48-5°. The rainfall is 
scanty (14 in. per annum). The city is built on a terrace 100 to 
155 ft. in height, which descends by steep crags to the sea, and 
on the other side is continuous with the level of the " black 
earth" steppe. Catacombs, whence sandstone for building 
has been taken, extend underneath the town and suburbs, not 
without some danger to the buildings. 

The general aspect of Odessa is that of a wealthy west- 
European city. Its chief embankment, the Nikolai boulevard, 
bordered with tall and handsome houses, forms a fine promenade. 
The central square is adorned with a statue of Armand, due de 
Richelieu (1826), who was governor of Odessa in 1803-1814. 
A little back from the sea stands a fine bronze statue of Catherine 
II. (1900). A magnificent flight of nearly 200 granite steps leads 
from the Richelieu monument down to the harbours. The 
central parts of the city have broad streets and squares, bordered 
with fine buildings and mansions in the Italian style, and with 
good shops. The cathedral, founded in 1794 and finished in 
1809, and thoroughly restored in 1903, can accommodate 5000 
persons; it contains the tomb of Count Michael Vorontsov, 
governor-general from 1823 to 1854, who contributed much 
towards the development and embellishment of the city. The 
" Palais Royal," with its parterre and fountains, and the spacious 
public park are fine pleasure-grounds, whilst in the ravines that 
lead down to the sea cluster the houses of the poorer classes. 
The shore is occupied by immense granaries, some of which look 
like palaces, and large storehouses take up a broad space in the 
west of the city. Odessa consists (i.) of the city proper, contain- 
ing the old fort (now a quarantine establishment) and surrounded 
by a boulevard, where was formerly a wall marking the limits of 
the free port; (ii.) of the suburbs Novaya and Peresyp, extending 
northward along the lower shore of the bay; and (iii.) of Molda-- 
vanka to the south-west. The city, being in a treeless region, 
is proud of the avenues of trees that line several of its streets 
and of its parks, especially of the Alexander Park, with a statue 
of Alexander II. (1891), and of the summer resorts of Fontaine, 
Arcadia and Langeron along the bay. Odessa is rising in repute 
as a summer sea-bathing resort, and its mud-baths (from the 
mud of the limans or lagoons) are considered to be efficacious 
in cases of rheumatism, gout, nervous affections and skin 
diseases. The German colonies Liebenthal and Lustdorf are 

Odessa is the real capital, intellectual and commercial, of 
so-called Novorossia, or New Russia, which includes the govern- 
ments of Bessarabia and Kherson. It is the see of an archbishop 
of the Orthodox Greek Church, and the headquarters of the 
VIII. army corps, and constitutes an independent " municipal 
district " or captaincy, which covers 195 sq. m. and includes a 
dozen villages, some of which have 2000 to 3000 inhabitants 
each. It is also the chief town of the Novorossian (New Russian) 
educational district, and has a university, which replaced the 
Richelieu Lyceum in 1865, and now has over 1700 students. 

In 1795 the town had only 2250 inhabitants; in 1814, twenty 
years after its foundation, it had 25,000. The population has 
steadily increased from 100,000 in 1850, 185,000 in 1873, 225,000 
in 1884, to 449)673 in 1900. The great majority of inhabitants 
are Great Russians and Little Russians; but there are also 
large numbers of Jews (133,000, exclusive of Karaites), as well 
as of Italians, Greeks, Germans and French (to which nation- 
alities the chief merchants belong), as also of Rumanians, 
Servians, Bulgarians, Tatars, Armenians, Lazes, Georgians. A 
numerous floating population of labourers, attracted at certain 
periods by pressing work in the port, and afterwards left un- 
employed owing to the enormous fluctuations in the corn trade, 
is one of the features of Odessa. It is estimated that there are 
no less than 3 5,000 people living from hand to mouth in the utmost 
misery, partly in the extensive catacombs beneath the city. 

The leading occupations are connected with exporting, 
shipping and manufactures. The industrial development has 
been rather slow: sugar-refineries, tea-packing, oil-mills, 
tanneries, steam flour-mills, iron and mechanical works, factories 
of jute sacks, chemical works, tin-plate works, paper-factories 
are the chief. Commercially the city is the chief seaport of 
Russia for exports, which in favourable years are twice as high 
as those of St Petersburg, while as regards the value of the 
imports Odessa is second only to the northern capital. The 
total returns amount to 16 to 20 millions sterling a year, repre- 
senting about one-ninth of the entire Russian foreign trade, 
and 14% if the coast trade be included as well. The total 


exports are valued at 10 to n millions sterling annually, and 
the imports at 6 to 9 millions sterling, about 8£% of all the 
imports into Russia. Grain, and especially wheat, is the chief 
article of export. The chief imports are raw cotton, iron, 
agricultural machinery, coal, chemicals, jute, copra and lead. 
A new and spacious harbour, especially for the petroleum trade, 
was constructed in 1 894-1 000. 

History. — The bay of Odessa was colonized by Greeks at a very 
early period, and their ports — Istrianorum Portus and Isiacorum 
Partus on the shores of the bay, and Odessus at the mouth of the 
Tiligul liman — carried on a lively trade with the neighbouring 
steppes. These towns disappeared in the 3rd and 4th centuries, 
and for ten centuries no settlements in these tracts are mentioned. 
In the 14th century this region belonged to the Lithuanians, and 
in 1396 Olgerd, prince of Lithuania, defeated in battle three 
Tatar chiefs, one of whom, Khaji Beg or Bey, had recently 
founded, at the place now occupied by Odessa, a fort which 
received his name. The Lithuanians, and subsequently the 
Poles, kept the country under their dominion until the 16th 
century, when it was seized by the Tatars, who still permitted, 
however, the Lithuanians to gather salt in the neighbouring 
lakes. Later on the Turks left a garrison here, and founded in 
1764 the fortress Yani-dunya. In 1789 the Russians, under the 
French captain de Ribas, took the fortress by assault. In 1791 
Khaji-bey and the Ochakov region were ceded to Russia. De 
Ribas and the French engineer Voland were entrusted in 1794 
with the erection of a town and the construction of a port at 
Khaji-bey. In 1803 Odessa became the chief town of a separate 
municipal district or captaincy, the first captain being Armand, 
due de Richelieu, who did very much for the development of the 
young city and its improvement as a seaport. In 1824 Odessa 
became the seat of the governors-general of Novorossia and 
Bessarabia. In 1866 it was brought into railway connexion with 
Kiev and Kharkov via Balta, and with Jassy in Rumania. In 
1854 it was unsuccessfully attacked by the Anglo-Russian fleet, 
and in 1876-1877 by the Turkish, also unsuccessfully. In 1905- 
1906 the city was the scene of violent revolutionary disorders, 
marked by a naval insurrection. (?• A. K.; J. T. Be.) 

ODEUM (Gr. Odeion), the name given to a concert hall in 
ancient Greece. In a general way its construction was similar to 
that of a theatre, but it was only a quarter of the size and was 
provided with a roof for acoustic purposes, a characteristic 
difference. The oldest known Odeum in Greece was the Skias 
at Sparta, so called from its resemblance to the top of a parasol, 
said to have been erected by Theodorus of Samos (600 B.C.); 
in Athens an Odeum near the spring Enneacrunus on the Uissus 
was referred to the age of Peisistratus, and appears to have been 
rebuilt or restored by Lycurgus (c. 330 B.C.). This is probably 
the building which, according to Aristophanes (Wasps, 1109), 
was used for judicial purposes, for the distribution of corn, 
and even for the billeting of soldiers. The building which served 
as a model for later similar constructions was the Odeum of 
Pericles (completed c. 445) on the south-eastern slope of the rock 
of the Acropolis, whose conical roof, a supposed imitation of the 
tent of Xerxes, was made of the masts of captured Persian ships. 
It was destroyed by Aristion, the so-called tyrant of Athens, 
at the time of the rising against Sulla (87), and rebuilt by Ario- 
barzanes II., king of Cappadocia (Appian, Mithrid. 38). The 
most magnificent example of its kind, however, was the Odeum 
built on the south-west cliff of the Acropolis at Athens about 
a.d. 160 by the wealthy sophist and rhetorician Herodes Atticus 
in memory of his wife, considerable remains of which are still 
to be seen. It had accommodation for 8000 persons, and the 
ceiling was constructed of beautifully carved beams of cedar 
wood, probably with an open space in the centre to admit 
the light. It -,vas also profusely decorated with pictures 
and other works of art. Similar buildings also existed in 
other parts of Greece; at Corinth, also the gift of Herodes 
Atticus; at Patrae, where there was a famous statue of 
Apollo; at Smyrna, Tralles, and other towns in Asia Minor. 
The first Odeum in Rome was built by Domitian, a second by 

ODILIENBERG, or Ottiuenberg (called AUitona in the 8th 
century), a peak of the Vosges Mountains in Germany, in the 
imperial province of Alsace-Lorraine, immediately W. of the town 
of Barr. Its crest (2500 ft.) is surmounted by the ruins of the 
ancient Roman wall, the Heidenmauer, and by the convent and 
church of St Odilia, or Ottilia, the patron saint of Alsace, whose 
remains rest within. It is thus the object of frequent pilgrimages. 
The convent is said to have been founded by Duke Eticho I., 
in honour of his daughter St Odilia, about the end of the 7th 
century, and it is certain that it existed at the time of Charle- 
magne. Destroyed during the wars of the middle ages, it was 
rebuilt by the Premonstrants at the beginning of the 1 7th century, 
and was acquired later by the bishop of Strassburg, who restored 
the building and the adjoining church, in 1853. Since 1899 
the convent has contained a museum of antiquities. 

See Reinhard, Le Mont Ste'Odile (Strassburg, 1888); Pfister, Le 
Duchi merovingien d' Alsace et la legende de Sainte Odile (Nancy, 
1892); and R. Forrer, Der Odilienberg (Strassburg, 1899). 

ODIN, or Othin (O. Norse Osinn), the chief god of the Northern 
pantheon. He is represented as an old man with one eye. 
Frigg is his wife, and several of the gods, including Thor and 
Balder, are his sons. He is also said to have been the father of 
several legendary kings, and more than one princely family 
claimed descent from him. His exploits and adventures form, 
the theme of a number of the Eddaic poems, and also of several 
stories in the prose Edda. In all these stories his character is 
distinguished rather by wisdom and cunning than by martial 
prowess, and reference is very frequently' made to his skill in 
poetry and magic. In Ynglinga Saga he is represented as reigning 
in Sweden, where he established laws for his people. In notices 
relating to religious observances Odin appears chiefly as the 
giver of victory or as the god of the dead. He is frequently 
introduced in legendary sagas, generally in disguise, imparting 
secret instructions to his favourites or presenting them with 
weapons by which victory is assured. In return he receives 
the souls of the slain who in his palace, Valhalla (q.v.), five a 
life of fighting and feasting, similar to that which has been their 
desire on earth. Human sacrifices were very frequently offered 
to Odin, especially prisoners taken in battle. The commonest 
method of sacrifice was by hanging the victim on a tree; and 
in the poem Hdvamdl the god himself is represented as sacrificed 
in this way. The worship of Odin seems to have prevailed 
chiefly, if not solely, in military circles, i.e. among princely 
families and the retinues of warriors attached to them. It is 
probable, however, that the worship of Odin was once common to 
most of the Teutonic peoples. To the Anglo-Saxons he was 
known as Woden (q.v.) and to the Germans as Wodan (Wuotan), 
which are the regular forms of the same name in those languages. 
It is largely owing to the peculiar character of this god and the 
prominent position which he occupies that the mythology of 
the north presents so striking a contrast to that of Greece. 

See Teutonic Peoples, ad fin. ; and Woden. (H. M. C.) 

ODO, or Eudes (d. c. 736), king, or duke, of Aquitaine, obtained 
this dignity about 715, and his territory included the south- 
western part of Gaul from the Loire to-the Pyrenees. In 718 
he appears as the ally of Chilperic II., king of Neustria, who was 
fighting against the Austrasian mayor of the palace, Charles 
Martel; but after the defeat of Chilperic at Soissons in 719 he 
probably made peace with Charles by surrendering to him the 
Neustrian king and his treasures. Odo was also obliged to fight 
the Saracens who invaded the southern part of his kingdom, 
and inflicted a severe defeat upon them at Toulouse in 721. 
When, however, he was again attacked by Charles Martel, the 
Saracens renewed their ravages, and Odo was defeated near 
Bordeaux; he was compelled to crave protection from Charles, 
who took up this struggle and gained his momentous victory 
at Poitiers in 732. In 735 the king abdicated, and was succeeded 
by his son Hunold. 

ODO, or Eudes (d. 898), king of the Franks, was a son of 
Robert the Strong, count of Anjou (d. 866), and is sometimes 
referred to as duke of France and also as count of Paris. For 
his skill and bravery in resisting the attacks of the Normans 


Odo was chosen king by the western Franks when the emperor 
Charles the Fat was deposed in 887, and was crowned at Compiegne 
in February 888. He continued to battle against the Normans, 
whom he defeated at Montfaucon and elsewhere, but was soon 
involved in a struggle with some powerful nobles, who supported 
the claim of Charles, afterwards King Charles III., to the Frankish 
kingdom. To gain prestige and support Odo owned himself 
a vassal of the German king, Arnulf, but in 894 Arnulf declared 
for Charles. Eventually, after a struggle which lasted for three 
years, Odo was compelled to come to terms with his rival, and to 
surrender to him a district north of the Seine. He died at La 
Fere on the 1st of January 898. 

See E. Lavisse, Histoire de France, tome ii. (Paris, 1903); and 
E. Favre, Eudes, comte de Paris et roi de France (Paris, 1893). 

ODO 1 OF BAYEUX (c. 1036-1097), Norman bishop and 
English earl, was a uterine brother of William the Conqueror, 
from whom he received, while still a youth, the see of Bayeux 
(1049). But his active career was that of a warrior and states- 
man. He found ships for the invasion of England and fought 
in person at Senlac; in 1067 he became earl of Kent, and for 
some years he was a trusted royal minister. At times he acted 
as viceroy in William's absence; at times he led the royal 
forces to chastise rebellions. But in 1083 he was suddenly 
disgraced and imprisoned for having planned a military expedi- 
tion to Italy. He was accused of desiring to make himself pope; 
more probably he thought of serving as a papal condottiere 
against the emperor Henry IV. The Conqueror, when on his 
death-bed, reluctantly permitted Odo's release (1087). The 
bishop returned to his earldom and soon organized a rebellion 
with the object of handing over England to his eldest nephew, 
Duke Robert. William Rufus, to the disgust of his supporters, 
permitted Odo to leave the kingdom after the collapse of this 
design (1088), and thenceforward Odo was the right-hand man 
of Robert in Normandy. He took part in the agitation for the 
First Crusade, and started in the duke's company for Palestine, 
but died on the way, at Palermo (February 1097). Little 
good is recorded of Odo. His vast wealth was gained by 
extortion and robbery. His ambitions were boundless and his 
morals lax. But he was a patron of learning and, like most 
prelates of his age, a great architect. He rebuilt the cathedral 
of his see, and may perhaps have commissioned the unknown 
artist of the celebrated Bayeux tapestry. 

See the authorities cited for William I. and William II., the 
biographical sketch in Gallia Christiana, xi. 353-360; H. Wharton 
Anglia Sacra, i. 334-339 (1691); and F. R. Fowke, The Bayeux 
Tapestry (London, 1898). ' (H.W.C.D.) 

ODOACER, or Odovacar (c. 434-493), the first barbarian 
ruler of Italy on the downfall of the Western empire, was born 
in the district bordering on the middle Danube about the year 
434. In this district the once rich and fertile provinces of 
Noricum and Pannonia were being torn piecemeal from the 
Roman empire by a crowd of German tribes, among whom we 
discern four, who seem to have hovered over the Danube from 
Passau to Pest, namely, the Rugii, Scyrri, Turcilingi and Heruli. 
With all of these Odoacer was connected by his subsequent 
career, and all seem, more or less, to have claimed him as be- 
longing to them by birth; the evidence slightly preponderates 
in favour of his descent from the Scyrri. 

His father was Aedico or Idico, a name which suggests Edeco 
the Hun, who was suborned by the Byzantine court to plot 
the assassination of his master Attila. There are, however, 

1 Odo must be distinguished from two English prelates of the 
same name and also from an English earl. Odo or Oda (d. 959), 
archbishop of Canterbury, was bishop of Ramsbury from 927 to 
942, and went with King ^Ethelstan to the battle of Brunanburh in 
937. In 942 he succeeded Wulfhelm as archbishop of Canterbury, 
and he appears to have been an able and conscientious ruler of the 
see. He had great influence with King Edwy, whom he had crowned 
in 956. Odo (d. 1200), abbot of Battle, was a monk of Christ Church, 
Canterbury, and was prior of this house at the time when Thomas 
Becket was murdered. In 1 175 he was chosen abbot of Battle, and 
on two occasions the efforts of Henry II. alone prevented him from 
being elected archbishop of Canterbury. Odo or Odda (d. 1056), a 
relative of Edward the Confessor, during whose reign he was an earl in 
the west of England, built the minster at Deerhurst in Gloucestershire. 

some strong arguments against this identification. A certain 
Edica, chief of the Scyrri, of whom Jordanes speaks as defeated 
by the Ostrogoths, may more probably have been the father of 
Odoacer, though even in this theory there are some difficulties, 
chiefly connected with the low estate in which he appears before 
us in the next scene of his life, when as a tall young recruit for the 
Roman armies, dressed in a sordid vesture of skins, on his way 
to Italy, he enters the cell of Severinus, a noted hermit-saint of 
Noricum, to ask his blessing. The saint had an inward premoni- 
tion of his future greatness, and in blessing him said, " Fare 
onward into Italy. Thou who art now clothed in vile raiment 
wilt soon give precious gifts unto many." 

Odoacer was probably about thirty years of age when he thus 
left his country and entered the imperial service. By the year 
472 he had risen to some eminence, since it is expressly recorded 
that he sided with the patrician Ricimer in his quarrel with the 
emperor Anthemius. In the year 475, by one of the endless re- 
volutions which marked the close of the Western empire, the 
emperor Nepos was driven into exile, and the successful rebel 
Orestes was enabled to array in the purple his son, a handsome 
boy of fourteen or fifteen, who was named Romulus after his 
grandfather, and nicknamed Augustulus, from his inability to 
play the part of the great Augustus. Before this puppet emperor 
had been a year on the throne the barbarian mercenaries, who 
were chiefly drawn from the Danubian tribes before mentioned, 
rose in mutiny, demanding to be made proprietors of one-third of 
the soil of Italy. To this request Orestes returned a peremptory 
negative. Odoacer now offered his fellow-soldiers to obtain for 
them all that they desired if they would seat him on the throne. 
On the 23rd of August 476 he was proclaimed king; five days 
later Orestes was made prisoner at Placentia and beheaded; and 
on the 4th of September his brother Paulus was defeated and slain 
near Ravenna. Rome at once accepted the new ruler. Augustulus 
was compelled to descend from the throne, but his life was spared. 

Odoacer was forty-two years of age when he thus became 
chief ruler of Italy, and he reigned thirteen years with undisputed 
sway. Our information as to this period is very slender, but 
we can perceive that the administration was conducted as much 
as possible on the lines of the old imperial government. The 
settlement of the barbarian soldiers on the lands of Italy prob- 
ably affected the great landowners rather than the labouring 
class. To the herd of coloni and servi, by whom in their various 
degrees the land was actually cultivated, it probably made little 
difference, except as a matter of sentiment, whether the master 
whom they served called himself Roman or Rugian. We have 
one most interesting example, though in a small way, of such a 
transfer of land with its appurtenant slaves and cattle, in the dona- 
tion made by Odoacer himself to his faithful follower Pierius. 2 
Few things bring more vividly before the reader the continuity 
of legal and social life in the midst of the tremendous ethnical 
changes of the 5th century than the perusal of such a record. 

The same fact, from a slightly different point of view, is illus- 
trated by the curious history (recorded by Malchus) of the 
embassies to Constantinople. The dethroned emperor Nepos 
sent ambassadors (in 477 or 478) to Zeno, emperor of the East, 
begging his aid in the reconquest of Italy. These ambassadors 
met a deputation from the Roman senate, sent nominally by the 
command of Augustulus, really no doubt by that of Odoacer, 
the purport of whose commission was that they did not need 
a separate emperor. One was sufficient to defend the borders of 
either realm. The senate had chosen Odoacer, whose knowledge 
of military affairs and whose statesmanship admirably fitted 
him for preserving order in that part of the world, and they there- 
fore prayed Zeno to confer upon him the dignity of patrician, 
and entrust the " diocese " of Italy to his care. Zeno returned a 
harsh answer to the senate, requiring them to return to their 
allegiance to Nepos. In fact, however, he did nothing for the 
fallen emperor, but accepted the new order of things, and even 
addressed Odoacer as patrician. On the other hand, the latter 

2 Published in Marini's Papiri diplomatici (Rome, 1815, Nos. 8a 
and 83) and in Spangenberg's Juris Romani Tabulm (Leipzig, 1822, 
pp. 164-173), and well worthy of careful study. 



sent the ornaments of empire, the diadem and purple robe, to 
Constantinople as an acknowledgment of the fact that he did 
not claim supreme power. Our information as to the actual 
title assumed by the new ruler is somewhat confused. He 
does not appear to have called himself king of Italy. His king- 
ship seems to have marked only his relation to his Teutonic 
followers, among whom he was "king of the Turcilingi," " king 
of the Heruli," and so forth, according to the nationality with 
which he was dealing. By the Roman inhabitants of Italy he 
was addressed as " dominus noster," but his right to exercise 
power would in their eyes rest, in theory, on his recognition as 
patricius by the Byzantine Augustus. At the same time he 
marked his own high pretensions by assuming the prefix Flavius, 
a reminiscence of the early emperors, to which the barbarian 
rulers of realms formed out of the Roman state seem to have been 
peculiarly partial. His internal administration was probably, 
upon the whole, wise and moderate, though we hear some 
complaints of financial oppression, and he may be looked upon, 
as a not altogether unworthy predecessor of Theodoric. 

In the history of the papacy Odoacer figures as the author of 
a decree promulgated at the election of Felix II. in 483, forbidding 
the pope to alienate any of the lands or ornaments of the Roman 
Church, and threatening any pope who should infringe this 
edict with anathema. This decree was loudly condemned in 
a synod held by Pope Symmachus (502) as an unwarrantable 
interference of the civil power with the concerns of the church. 

The chief events in the foreign policy of Odoacer were his 
Dalmatian and Rugian wars. In the year 480 the ex-emperor 
Nepos, who ruled Dalmatia, was traitorously assassinated in 
Diocletian's palace at Spalato by the counts Viator and Ovida. 
In the following year Odoacer invaded Dalmatia, slew the 
murderer Ovida, and reannexed Dalmatia to the Western state. 
In 487 he appeared as an invader in his own native Danubian 
lands. War broke out between him and Feletheus, king of the 
Rugians. Odoacer entered the Rugian territory, defeated 
Feletheus, and carried him and" his noxious wife " Gisa prisoners 
to Ravenna. In the following year Frederick, son of the captive 
king, endeavoured to raise again the fallen fortunes of his house, 
but was defeated by Onulf , brother of Odoacer, and, being forced 
to flee, took refuge at the court of Theodoric the Ostrogoth, at 
Sistova on the lower Danube. 

This Rugian war was probably an indirect cause of the fall 
of Odoacer. His increasing power rendered him too formidable 
to the Byzantine court, with whom his relations had for some 
time been growing less friendly. At the same time, Zeno was 
embarrassed by the formidable neighbourhood of Theodoric 
and his Ostrogothic warriors, who were almost equally burden- 
some as enemies or as allies. In these circumstances arose the 
plan of Theodoric's invasion of Italy, a plan by whom originated 
it would be difficult to say. Whether the land when conquered 
was to be held by the Ostrogoth in full sovereignty, ' or ad- 
ministered by him as lieutenant of Zeno, is a point upon which 
our information is ambiguous, and which was perhaps intention- 
ally left vague by the two contracting parties, whose chief 
anxiety was not to see one another's faces again. The details 
of the Ostrogothic invasion of Italy belong properly to the life 
of Theodoric. It is sufficient to state here that he entered Italy 
in August 480, defeated Odoacer at the Isontius (Isonzo) on the 
28th of August, and at Verona on the 30th of September. Odoacer 
then shut himself up in Ravenna, and there maintained himself 
for four years, with one brief gleam of success, during which he 
emerged from his hiding-place and fought the battle of the 
Addua (nth August 490), in which he was again defeated. A 
sally from Ravenna (10th July 491) was again the occasion of a 
murderous defeat. At length, the famine in Ravenna having 
become almost intolerable, and the Goths despairing of ever 
taking the city by assault, negotiations were opened for a 
compromise (25th February 493). John, archbishop of Raveriha, 
acted as mediator. It was stipulated that Ravenna should be 
surrendered, that Odoacer's life should be spared, and that he 
and Theodoric should be recognized as joint rulers of the Roman 
state. The arrangement was evidently a precarious one, and 

was soon terminated by the treachery of Theodoric. He invited 
his rival to a banquet in the palace of the Lauretum on the 15th 
of March, and there slew him with his own hand. " Where is 
God? " cried Odoacer when he perceived the ambush into which 
he had fallen. " Thus didst thou deal with my kinsmen," 
shouted Theodoric, and clove his rival with the broadsword from 
shoulder to flank. Onulf, the brother of the murdered king, was 
shot down while attempting to escape through the palace garden, 
and Thelan, his sort, was not long after put to death by order 
of the conqueror. Thus perished the whole race of Odoacer. 
Literature.— The chief authorities for the life of Odoacer are the 
so-called " Anonymus Valesii," generally printed at the end of 
Ammianus Mareellinus; the Life of Severinus, by Eugippius; the 
chroniclers, Cassiodorus and " Cuspiniani Anonymus " (both in 
Roncalli's collection) ; and the Byzantine historians, Malchus and 
John of Antioch. A fragment of the latter historian, unknown 
when Gibbon wrote, is to be found in the fifth volume of Miiller's 
Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum. There is a thorough investi- 
gation of the history of Odoacer in R. Pallmann's Geschichte der 
Volkerwanderung, vol. ii. (Weimar, 1864). See also T. Hodgkin, 
Italy and her Invaders, vol. iii. (Oxford, 1885). (T. H.) 

ODOFREDUS, an Italian jurist of the 13th century. He was 
born at Bologna and studied law under Balduinus and Accursius. 
After having practised as an advocate both in Italy and France, 
he became professor at Bologna in 1228. The commentaries 
on Roman law attributed to him are valuable as showing the 
growth of the study of law in Italy, and for their biographical 
details of the jurists of the 12th and 13th centuries. Odofredus 
died at Bologna on the 3rd of December 1265. 

Over his name appeared Lecturae in codicem (Lyons, 1480) 
Lecturae in digestum vetus (Paris, 1504), Summa de libellis formandis 
(Strassburg, 15 10), Lecturae in tres libros (Venice, 1514), and Lecturae 
in digestum novum (Lyons, 1552). 

O'DONNELL, the name of an ancient and powerful Irish 
family, lords of Tyrconnel in early times, and the chief rivals 
of the O'Neills in Ulster. Like the family of O'Neill (q.v.), that 
of O'Donnell was descended from Niall of the Nine Hostages, 
king of Ireland at the beginning of the 5th century ; the O'Neills, 
or Cinel 1 Owen, tracing their pedigree to Owen (Eoghan),and 
the O'Donnells, or Cinel Connell, to Conall Gulban, both sons 
of Niall. Tyrconnel, the district named after the Cinel Connell, 
where the O'Donnells held sway, comprised the greater part of 
the modern county of Donegal except the peninsula of Inishowen ; 
and since it lay conterminous with the territory ruled by the 
O'Neills of Tyrone, who were continually attempting to assert 
their supremacy over it, the history of the O'Donnells is for the 
most part a record of tribal warfare with their powerful 
neighbours, and of their own efforts to make good their claims 
to the overlordship of northern Connaught. 

The first chieftain of mark in the family was Goffraidh 
(Godfrey), son of Donnell Mor O'Donnell (d. 1241). Goffraidh, 
who was " inaugurated " as " The O'Donnell," i.e. chief of the 
clan, in 1248, made a successful inroad into Tyrone against 
Brian O'Neill in 1252. In 1257 he drove the English out of 
northern Connaught, after a single combat with Maurice Fitz- 
gerald in which both warriors were wounded. O'Donnell while 
still incapacitated by his wound was summoned by Brian 
O'Neill to give hostages in token of submission. Carried on a 
litter at the head of his clan he gave battle to O'Neill, whom 
he defeated with severe loss in prisoners and cattle; but he died 
of his wound immediately afterwards near Letterkenny, and was 
succeeded in the chieftainship by his brother Donnell Oge, who 
returned from Scotland in time to withstand successfully the 
demands of O'Neill. 

In the 1 6th century, when the English began to make deter- 
mined efforts to bring the whole of Ireland under subjection to 
the crown, the O'Donnells of Tyrconnel played a leading part; 
co-operating at times with the English, especially when such 
co-operation appeared to promise triumph over their ancient 
enemies the O'Neills, at other times joining with the latter 
against the English authorities. 

1 The Cinel, or Kinel, was a group of related clans occupying an 
extensive district. See P. W. Joyce, A Social History of Ireland 
(London, 1903), i. 166. 



Manus P'Donnell (d. 1564), son of Hugh Dubh O'Donnell, 
was left by his father to rule Tyrconnel, though still a mere 
youth, when Hugh Dubh went on a pilgrimage to Rome about 
1511. Hugh Dubh had been chief of the O'Donnells during 
one of the bitterest and most protracted of the feuds between 
his clan and the O'Neills, which in 1491 led to a war lasting 
more than ten years. On his return from Rome in broken 
health after two years' absence, his son Manus, who had proved 
himself a capable leader in defending his country against the 
O'Neills, retained the chief authority. A family quarrel ensued, 
and when Hugh Dubh appealed for aid against his son to the 
Maguires, Manus made an alliance with the O'Neills, by whose 
assistance he established his hold over Tyrconnel. But in 1522 
the two great northern clans were again at war. Conn Bacach 
O'Neill, 1st earl of Tyrone, determined to bring the O'Donnells 
under thorough subjection. Supported by several septs of 
Munster and Connaught, ind assisted also by English contingents 
and by the MacDonnells of Antrim, O'Neill took the castle of 
Ballyshannon, and after devastating a large part of Tyrconnel 
he encamped at Knockavoe, near Strabane. Here he was 
surprised at night by Hugh Dubh and Manus O'Donnell, and 
routed with the loss of 900 men and an immense quantity of 
booty. Although this was one of the bloodiest fights that ever 
took place between the O'Neills and the O'Donnells, it did not 
bring the war to an end; and in 1531 O'Donnell applied to the 
English government for protection, giving assurances of allegiance 
to Henry VIII. In 1537 Lord Thomas Fitzgerald and his five 
uncles were executed for rebellion in Munster, and the English 
government made every effort to lay hands also on Gerald, the 
youthful heir to the earldom of Kildare, a boy of twelve years 
of age who was in the secret custody of his aunt Lady Eleanor 
McCarthy. This lady, in order to secure a powerful protector 
for the boy, accepted an offer of marriage by Manus O'Donnell, 
who on the death of Hugh Dubh in July 1537 was inaugurated 
The O'Donnell. Conn O'Neill was a relative of Gerald Fitzgerald, 
and this event accordingly led to the formation of the Geraldine 
League, a federation which combined the O'Neills, the O'Donnells, 
the O'Briens of Thomond, and other powerful clans; the primary 
object of which was to restore Gerald to the earldom of Kildare, 
but which afterwards aimed at the complete overthrow of English 
rule in Ireland. In August 1539 Manus O'Donnell and Conn 
O'Neill were defeated with heavy loss by the lord deputy at 
Lake Bellahoe, in Monaghan, which crippled their power for 
many years. In the west Manus made unceasing efforts to 
assert the supremacy of the O'Donnells in north Connaught, 
where he compelled O'Conor Sligo to acknowledge his over- 
lordship in 1539. In 1542 he went to England and presented 
himself, together with Conn O'Neill and other Irish chiefs, 
before Henry VIII. , who promised to make him earl of Tyrconnel, 
though he refused O'Donnell's request to be made earl of Sligo. 
In his later years Manus was troubled by quarrels between his 
sons Calvagh and Hugh MacManus; in 1555 he was made 
prisoner by Calvagh, who deposed him from all authority in 
Tyrconnel, and he died in 1564. Manus O'Donnell, though a 
fierce warrior, was hospitable and generous to the poor and the 
Church. He is described by the Four Masters as " a learned 
man, skilled in many arts, gifted with a profound intellect, and 
the knowledge of every science." At his castle of Portnatrynod 
near Strabane he supervised if he did not actually dictate the 
writing of the Life of Saint Columbkille in Irish, which is preserved 
in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. Manus was several times 
married. His first wife, Joan O'Reilly, was the mother of Calvagh, 
and two daughters, both of whom married O'Neills; the younger, 
Margaret, was wife of the famous rebel Shane O'Neill. His 
second wife, Hugh's mother, by whom he was ancestor of the 
earls of Tyrconnel (see below), was Judith, sister of Conn Bacach 
O'Neill, 1st earl of Tyrone, and aunt of Shane O'Neill. 

Calvagh O'Donnell (d. 1 566) , eldest son of Manus O'Donnell, 
in the course of his above-mentioned quarrel with his father 
and his half-brother Hugh, sought aid in Scotland from the 
MacDonnells, who assisted him in deposing Manus and securing 
the lordship of Tyrconnel for himself. Hugh then appealed 

to Shane O'Neill, who invaded Tyrconnel at the head of a large 
army in 1557, desiring to make himself supreme throughout 
Ulster, and encamped on the shore of Lough Swilly. Calvagh, 
acting apparently on the advice of his father, who was his 
prisoner and who remembered the successful night attack on 
Conn O'Neill at Knockavoe in 1522, surprised the O'Neills in 
their camp at night and routed them with the loss of all their 
spoils. Calvagh was then recognized by the English govern- 
ment as lord of Tyrconnel; but in 1561 he and his wife were 
captured by Shane O'Neill in the monastery of Kildonnell. 
His wife, Catherine Maclean, who had previously been the wife 
of the earl of Argyll, was kept by Shane O'Neill as his mistress 
and bore him several children, though grossly ill-treated by her 
savage captor; Calvagh himself was subjected to atrocious 
torture during the three years that he remained O'Neill's prisoner. 
He was released in 1564 on conditions which he had no intention 
of fulfilling; and crossing to England he threw himself on the 
mercy of Queen Elizabeth. In 1566 Sir Henry Sidney by the 
queen's orders marched to Tyrconnel and restored Calvagh 
to his rights. Calvagh, however, died in the same year, and 
as his son Conn was a prisoner in the hands of Shane O'Neill, 
his half-brother Hugh MacManus was inaugurated The O'Donnell 
in his place. Hugh, who in the family feud with Calvagh had 
allied himself with O'Neill, now turned round and combined 
with the English to crush the hereditary enemy of his family; 
and in 1567 he utterly routed Shane at Letterkenny with the 
loss of 1300 men, compelling him to seek refuge with the Mac- 
Donnells of Antrim, by whom he was treacherously put to death. 
In 1592 Hugh abdicated in favour of his son Hugh Roe O'Donnell 
(see below); but there was a member of the elder branch of 
the family who resented the passing of the chieftainship to 
the descendants of Manus O'Donnell's second marriage. This 
was Niall Garve, second son of Calvagh's son Conn. His elder 
brother was Hugh of Ramelton, whose son John, an officer in 
the Spanish army, was father of Hugh Baldearg O'Donnell 
(d. 1704), known in Spain as Count O'Donnell, who commanded 
an Irish regiment as brigadier in the Spanish service. This 
officer came to Ireland in 1690 and raised an army in Ulster 
for the service of James II., afterwards deserting to the side 
of William III., from whom he accepted a pension. 

Niall Garve O'Donnell (1569-1626), who was incensed 
at the elevation of his cousin Hugh Roe to the chieftainship 
in 1592, was further alienated when the latter deprived him 
of his castle of Lifford, and a bitter feud between the two O'Don- 
nells was the result. Niall Garve made terms with the English 
government, to whom he rendered valuable service both against 
the O'Neills and against his cousin. But in 1601 he quarrelled 
with the lord deputy, who, though willing to establish Niall 
Garve in the lordship of Tyrconnel, would not permit him to 
enforce his supremacy over Cahir O'Dogherty in Inishowen. 
After the departure of Hugh Roe from Ireland in 1602, Niall 
Garve and Hugh Roe's brother Rory went to London, where 
the privy council endeavoured to arrange the family quarrel, 
but failed to satisfy Niall. Charged with complicity in Cahir 
O'Dogherty's rebellion in 1608, Niall Garve was sent to the 
Tower of London, where he remained till his death in 1626. 
He married his cousin Nuala, sister of Hugh Roe and Rory 
O'Donnell. When Rory fled with the earl of Tyrone to Rome 
in 1607, Nuala, who had deserted her husband when he joined 
the English against her brother, accompanied him, taking 
with her her daughter Grania. She was the subject of an Irish 
poem, of which an English version was written by James Mangan 
from a prose translation by Eugene O'Curry. 

Hugh Roe O'Donnell (1572-1602), eldest son of Hugh 
MacManus O'Donnell, and grandson of Manus O'Donnell by 
his second marriage with Judith O'Neill, was the most celebrated 
member of his clan. His mother was Ineen Dubh, daughter 
of James MacDonnell of Kintyre; his sister was the second 
wife of Hugh O'Neill, 2nd earl of Tyrone. These family con- 
nexions with the Hebridean Scots and with the O'Neills made 
the lord deputy, Sir John Perrot, afraid of a powerful com- 
bination against the English government, and induced him to 



establish garrisons in Tyrconnel and to demand hostages from 
Hugh MacManus O'Donnell, which the latter refused to hand 
over. In 1587 Perrot conceived a plan for kidnapping Hugh 
Roe (Hugh the Red), now a youth of fifteen, who had already 
given proof of exceptional manliness and sagacity. A merchant 
vessel laden with Spanish wines was sent to Lough Swilly, and 
anchoring off Rathmullan, where the boy was residing in the 
castle of MacSweeny his foster parent, Hugh Roe with some 
youthful companions was enticed on board, when the ship 
immediately set sail and conveyed the party to Dublin. The 
boys were kept in prison for more than three years In 1591 
young O'Donnell made two attempts to escape, the second of 
which proved successful; and after enduring terrible privations 
from exposure in the mountains he made his way to Tyrconnel, 
where in the following year his father handed the chieftainship 
over to him. Red Hugh lost no time in leading an expedition 
against Turlough Luineach O'Neill, then at war with his kinsman 
Hugh, earl of Tyrone, with whom O'Donnell was in alliance. 
At the same time he sent assurances of loyalty to the lord 
deputy, whom he met in person at Dundalk in the summer of 
1592. But being determined to vindicate the traditional 
claims of his family in north Connaught, he aided Hugh Maguire 
against the English, though on the advice of Tyrone he ab- 
stained for a time from committing himself too far. When, 
however, in 1594 Enniskillen castle was taken and the women 
and children flung into the river from its walls by order of Sir 
Richard Bingham, the English governor of Connaught, O'Donnell 
sent urgent messages to Tyrone for help; and while he himself 
hurried to Derry to withstand an invasion of Scots from the 
isles, Maguire defeated the English with heavy loss at Bellana- 
briska (The Ford of the Biscuits). In 1595 Red Hugh again 
invaded Connaught, putting to the sword every soul above 
fifteen years of age unable to speak Irish; he captured Longford 
and soon afterwards gained possession of Sligo, which placed 
north Connaught at his mercy. In 1 596 he agreed in conjunction 
with Tyrone to a cessation of hostilities with the English, and 
consented to meet commissioners from the government near 
Dundalk. The terms he demanded were, however, refused; 
and his determination to continue the struggle was strengthened 
by the prospect of help from Philip II. of Spain, with whom 
he and Tyrone had been in correspondence. In the beginning 
of 1597 he made another inroad into Connaught, where O'Conor 
Sligo had been set up by the English as a counterpoise to O'Don- 
nell. He devastated the country and returned to Tyrconnel 
with rich spoils; in the following year he shared in Tyrone's 
victory over the English at the Yellow Ford on the Blackwater; 
and in 1599 he defeated an attempt by the English under Sir 
Conyers Clifford, governor of Connaught, to succour O'Conor 
Sligo in Collooney castle, which O'Donnell captured, forcing 
Sligo to submission. The government now sent Sir Henry 
Docwra to Derry, and O'Donnell entrusted to his cousin Niall 
Garve the task of opposing him. Niall Garve, however, went 
over to the English, making himself master of O'Donnell's 
fortresses of Lifford and Donegal. While Hugh Roe was at- 
tempting to retake the latter place in 1601, he heard that a 
Spanish force had landed in Munster. He marched rapidly to 
the south, and was joined by Tyrone at Bandon; but a night- 
attack on the English besieging the Spaniards in Kinsale having 
utterly failed, O'Donnell, who attributed the disaster to the 
incapacity of the Spanish commander, took ship to Spain 
on the 6th of January 1602 to lay his complaint before 
Philip III. He was favourably received by the Spanish king, 
but he died at Simancas on the 10th of September in the 
same year. 

Rory O'Donnell, 1st earl of Tyrconnel (1575-1608), second 
son of Hugh MacManus O'Donnell, and younger brother of 
Hugh Roe, accompanied the latter in the above-mentioned 
expedition to Kinsale; and when his brother sailed for Spain 
he transferred his authority as chief to Rory, who led the 
O'Donnell contingent back to the north. In 1602 Rory gave 
in his allegiance to Lord Mount joy, the lord deputy; and in 
the following summer he went to London with the earl of Tyrone, 

where he was received with favour by James I., who created 
him earl of Tyrconnel. In 1605 he was invested with authority 
as lieutenant of the king in Donegal. But the arrangement 
between Rory and Niall Garve insisted upon by the government 
was displeasing to both O'Donnells, and Rory, like Hugh Roe 
before him, entered into negotiations with Spain. His country 
had been reduced to a desert by famine and war, and his own 
reckless extravagance had plunged him deeply in debt. These 
circumstances as much as the fear that his designs were known 
to the government may have persuaded him to leave Ireland. 
In September 1607 " the flight of the earls " (see O'Neill) took 
place, Tyrconnel and Tyrone reaching Rome in April 1608, 
where Tyrconnel died on the 28th of July. His wife, the beautiful 
daughter of the earl of Kildare, was left behind in the haste 
of Tyrconnel's flight, and lived to marry Nicholas Barnewell, 
Lord Kingsland. By Tyrconnel she had a son Hugh; and 
among other children a daughter Mary Stuart O'Donnell, who, 
born after her father's flight from Ireland, was so named by 
James I. after his mother. This lady, after many romantic 
adventures disguised in male attire, married a man called 
O'Gallagher and died in poverty on the continent. 

Rory O'Donnell was attainted by .the Irish parliament in 
1614, but his son Hugh, who lived at the Spanish Court, assumed 
ti ". title of earl; and the last titular earl of Tyrconnel was this 
Hugh's son Hugh Albert, who died without heirs in 1642, and 
who by his will appointed Hugh Balldearg O'Donnell (see above) 
his heir, thus restoring the chieftainship to the elder branch of 
the family. To a still elder branch belonged Daniel O'Donnell 
(1666-1735), a general of the famous Irish brigade in the French 
service, whose father, Turlough, was a son of Hugh Dubh 
O'Donnell, elder brother of Manus, son of an earlier Hugh 
Dubh mentioned above. Daniel served in the French army 
in the wars of the period, fighting against Marlborough at 
Oudenarde and Malplaquet at the head of an O'Donnell regiment. 
He died in 1735. 

The famous Cathach, or Battle-Book of the O'Donnells, was in 
the possession of General Daniel O'Donnell, from whom it passed 
to more modern representatives of the family, who presented it to 
the Royal Irish Academy, where it is preserved. This relic, of which 
a curious legend is told (see P. W. Joyce, A Social History of Ancient 
Ireland, vol. i. p. 501), is a Psalter said to have belonged to Saint 
Columba, a kinsman of the O'Donnells, which was carried by them 
in battle as a charm or talisman to secure victory. Two other 
circumstances connecting the O'Donnells with ancient Irish literature 
may be mentioned. The family of O'Clery, to which three of the 
celebrated " Four Masters " belonged, were hereditary Ollaves 
(doctors of history, music, law, &c.) attached to the family of 
O'Donnell; while the " Book of the Dun Cow " (Lebor-na-h Uidhre), 
one of the most ancient Irish MSS., was in the possession of the 
O'Donnells in the 14th century; and the estimation in which it 
was held at that time is proved by the fact that it was given to the 
O'Conors of Connaught as ransom for an important prisoner, and 
was forcibly recovered some years later. 

See O'Neill, and the authorities there cited. (R. J. M.) 

O'DONNELL, HENRY JOSEPH (1760-1834), count of La 
Bisbal, Spanish soldier, was descended from the O'Donnells 
who left Ireland after the battle of the Boyne. 1 Born in Spain, 
he early entered the Spanish army, and in 1810 became general, 
receiving a command in Catalonia, where in that year he earned 
his title and the rank of field-marshal. He afterwards held 
posts of great responsibility under Ferdinand VII., whom he 
served on the whole with constancy; the events of 1823 compelled 
his flight into France, where he was interned at Limoges, and 
where he died in 1834. His second son Leopold O'Donnell 
(1809-1867), duke of Tetuan, Spanish general and statesman, 
was born at Santa Cruz, TenerifTe, on the 12th of January 1809. 
He fought in the army of Queen Christina, where he attained 
the rank of general of division; and in 1840 he accompanied 
the queen into exile. He failed in an attempt to effect a rising 
in her favour at Pamplona in 1841, but took a more successful 
part in the movement which led to the overthrow and exile of 

1 A branch of the family settled in Austria, and General Karl 
O'Donnell, count of Tyrconnel(i 71 5-1 771), held important commands 
during the Seven Years' War. The name of a descendant figures in 
the history of the Italian and Hungarian campaigns of 1848 and 1849, 


Espartero in 1843. From 1844 to 1848 he served the new 
government in Cuba; after his return he entered the senate. 
In 1854 he became war minister under Espartero, and in 1856 he 
plotted successfully against his chief, becoming head of the 
cabinet from the July revolution until October. This rank 
he again reached in July 1858; and in December 1859 he took 
command of the expedition to Morocco, and received the title 
of duke after the surrender of Tetuan. Quitting office in 1863, 
he again resumed it in June 1865, but was compelled to resign 
in favour of Narvaez in 1866. He died at Bayonne on the 5th 
of November 1867. 

There is a Life of Leopold O'Donnell in La Corona de laurel, by 
Manuel Ibo Alfaro (Madrid, i860). 

O'DONOVAN, EDMUND (1844-1883), British war-corre- 
spondent, was born at Dublin on the 13th of September 1844, 
the son of John O'Donovan (1809-1861), a well-known Irish 
archaeologist and topographer. In 1866 he began to contribute 
to the Irish Times and other Dublin papers. After the battle 
of Sedan he joined the Foreign Legion of the French army, 
and was wounded and taken prisoner by the Germans. In 1873 
the Carlist rising attracted him to Spain, and he wrote many 
newspaper letters on the campaign. In 1876 he represented 
the London Daily News during the rising of Bosnia and 
Herzegovina against the Turks, and in 1879, for the same paper, 
made his adventurous and famous journey to Merv. On his 
arrival at Merv, the Turcomans, suspecting him to be a Russian 
spy, detained him. It was only after several months' captivity 
that O'Donovan managed to get a message to his principals 
through to Persia, whence it was telegraphed to England. These 
adventures he described in The Merv Oasis (1882). In 1883 
O'Donovan accompanied the ill-fated expedition of Hicks 
Pasha to the Egyptian Sudan,. and perished with it. 

O'DONOVAN, WILLIAM RUDOLF (1844- ), American 
sculptor, was born in Preston county, Virginia, on the 28th 
of March 1844. He had no technical art training, but after 
the Civil War, in which he served in the Confederate army, 
he opened a studio in New York City and became a well-known 
sculptor, especially of memorial pieces. Among these are 
statues of George Washington (in Caracas), Lincoln and Grant 
(Prospect Park, Brooklyn), the captors of Major Andre (Tarry- 
town, N.Y.), and Archbishop Hughes (Fordham University, 
Fordham, N.Y.), and a memorial tablet to Bayard Taylor 
(Cornell University). In 1878 he become an associate of the 
National Academy of Design. 

ODONTORNITHES, the term proposed by O. C. Marsh (Am. 
Journ. Sci. ser 3, v. (1873) pp. 161-162) for birds possessed of 
teeth (Gr. odovs, tooth, opvis, opviBos, bird), notably the 
genera Hesperornis and Ichthyornis from the Cretaceous deposits 
of Kansas. In 1875 {op. cit. x. pp. 403-408) he divided the 
" subclass " into Odontolcae, with the teeth standing in grooves, 
and Odontotormae, with the teeth in separate alveoles or sockets. 
In his magnificent work, Glontomithes: A monograph on the 
extinct toothed birds of North America, New Haven, Connecticut, 
1880, he logically added the Saururae, represented by 
Archaeopteryx, as a third order. As it usually happens with 
the selection of a single anatomical character, the resulting 
classification was unnatural. In the present case the Odont- 
ornithes are a heterogeneous assembly, and the fact of their 
possessing teeth proves nothing but that birds, possibly all of 
them, still had these organs during the Cretaceous epoch. This, 
by itself, is a very interesting point, showing that birds, as a 
class, are the descendants of well-toothed reptiles, to the complete 
exclusion of the Chelonia with which various authors persistently 
try to connect them. No fossil birds of later than Cretaceous 
age are known to have teeth, and concerning recent birds they 
possess not even embryonic vestiges. 

E. Geoffroy St Hilaire stated in 1821 (Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. 
viii. pp. 373-380) that he had found a considerable number 
of tooth-germs in the upper and lower jaws of the parrot 
Palaeornis torquatus. E. Blanchard (" Observations sur le sys- 
teme dentaire chez les oiseaux," Comptes rendus 50, i860, pp. 
540-542) felt justified in recognizing flakes of dentine. However, 

M. Braun (Arbeit Zool. Inst., Wiirzhurg, v. 1879) and especially 
P. Fraisse (Phys. Med. Ges., Wurzburg, 1880) have shown that 
the structures in question are of the same kind as the well-known 
serrated " teeth " of the bill of anserine birds. In fact the 
papillae observed in the embryonic birds are the soft cutaneous 
extensions into the surrounding horny sheath of the bill, compar- 
able to the well-known nutritive papillae in a horse's hoof. 
They are easily exposed in the well-macerated under jaw of a 
parrot, after removal of the horny sheath. Occasionally calcifica- 
tion occurs in or around these papillae, as it does regularly in 
the " egg-tooth " of the embryos of all birds. 

The best known of the Odontornithes are Hesperornis regalis, 
standing about 3 ft. high, and the somewhat taller H.crassipes. 
Both show the general configuration of a diver, but it is only by 
analogy that Hesperornis can be looked upon as ancestral to 
the Colymbiformes. There are about fourteen teeth in a groove 
of the maxilla and about twenty-one in the mandible; the 
vertebrae are typically heterocoelous; of the wing-bones only 
the very slender and long humerus is known; clavicles slightly 
reduced; coracoids short and broad, movably connected with 
the scapula; sternum very long, broad and quite flat, without 
the trace of a keel. Hind limbs very strong and of the Colymbine 
type, but the outer or fourth capitulum of the metatarsus is the 
strongest and longest, an unique arrangement in an otherwise 
typically steganopodous foot. The pelvis shows much resem- 
blance to that of the divers, but there is still an incisura ischiadica 
instead of a foramen. The tail is composed of about twelve 
vertebrae, without a pygostyle. Enaliornis of the Cambridge 
Greensand of England, and Baptornis of the mid-Cretaceous of 
North America, are probably allied, but imperfectly known. 
The vertebrae are biconcave, with heterocoelous indications in 
the cervicals; the metatarsal bones appear still somewhat 
imperfectly anchylosed. The absence of a keel misled Marsh who 
suspected relationship of Hesperornis with the Ratitae, and 
L. Dollo went so far as to call it a carnivorous, aquatic ostrich 
(Bull. Sci. Depart, du Nord, ser. 2, iv. 1881, p. 300), and this 
mistaken notion of the " swimming ostrich " was popularized by 
various authors. B. Vetter (Festschr. Ges. Isis., Dresden, 1885) 
rightly pointed out that Hesperornis was a descendant of 
Carinatae, but adapted to aquatic life, implying reduction of 
the keel. Lastly, M. Furbringer (Untersuchungen, Amsterdam, 
1888, pp. 1543, 1505, 1580) relegated it, together with Enaliornis 
and the Colymbo-Podicipedes, to his suborder Podicipitiformes. 
The present writer does not feel justified in going so far. On 
account of their various, decidedly primitive characters, he 
prefers to look upon the Odontolcae as a separate group, one of 
the three divisions of the Neornithes, as birds which form an 
early offshoot from the later Colymbo-Pelargomorphous stock ; 
in adaptation to a marine, swimming life they have lost the 
power of flight, as is shown by the absence of the keel and 
by the great reduction of the wing-skeleton, just as in 
another direction, away from the later Alectoromorphous 
stock the Ratitae have specialized as runners. It is only in 
so far as the loss of flight is correlated with the absence of 
the keel that the Odontolcae and the Ratitae bear analogy to 
each other. 

There remain the Odontotormae, notably Ichthyornis victor, 
I. dispar, Apatornis and Graculavus of the middle and upper 
Cretaceous of Kansas. The teeth stand in separate alveoles; 
the two halves of the mandible are, as in Hesperornis, without 
a symphysis. The vertebrae are amphicoelous, but at least the 
third cervical has somewhat saddle-shaped articular facets. 
Tail composed of five free vertebrae, followed by a rather small 
pygostyle. Shoulder girdle and sternum well developed and 
of the typical carinate type. Pelvis still with incisura ischiadica. 
Marsh based the restoration of Ichthyornis, which was obviously a 
well-flying aquatic bird, upon the skeleton of a tern, a relation- 
ship which cannot be supported. The teeth* vertebrae, pelvis 
and the small brain are all so many low characters that the 
Odontotormae may well form a separate, and very low, order 
of the typical Carinatae, of course near the Colymbomorphowe 
Legion. (H. F. G."> 



DORIC (c. 1286-1331), styled "of Pordenone," one of the 
chief travellers of the later middle ages, and a Beatus of the 
Roman Church, was born at Villa Nuova, a hamlet near the town 
of Pordenone in Friuli, in or about 1286. According to the 
ecclesiastical biographers, in early years he took the vows of 
the Franciscan order and joined their convent at Udine, the 
capital of Friuli. 

Friar Odoric was despatched to the East, where a remarkable 
extension of missionary action was then taking place, about 
1316-1318, and did not return till the end of 1329 or beginning 
of 1330; but, as regards intermediate dates, all that we can 
deduce from his narrative or other evidence is that he was in 
western India soon after 1321 (pretty certainly in 1322) and that 
he spent three years in China between the opening of 1323 and 
the close of 1328. His route to the East lay by Trebizond and 
Erzerum to Tabriz and Sultanieh, in all of which places the order 
had houses. From Sultanieh he proceeded by Kashan and 
Yazd, and turning thence followed a somewhat devious route by 
Persepolis and the Shiraz and Bagdad regions, to the Persian 
Gulf. At Hormuz' he embarked for India, landing at Thana. 
near Bombay. At this city four brethren of his order, three of 
them Italians and the fourth a Georgian, had shortly before 
met death at the hands of the Mahommedan governor. The 
bones of the martyred friars had been collected by Friar Jordanus 
of Severac, a Dominican, who carried them to Supera — the 
Suppara of the ancient geographers, near the modern Bassein, 
about 26 m. north of Bombay — and buried them there Odoric 
tells that he disinterred these relics and carried them with 
him on his further travels. In the course of these he visited 
Malabar, touching at Pandarani (20 m. north of Calicut), at 
Cranganore, and at Kulam or Quilon, proceeding thence, appar- 
ently, to Ceylon and to the shrine of St Thomas at Maylapur 
near Madras. From India he sailed in a junk to Sumatra, 
visiting various ports on the northern coast of that island, and 
thence to Java, to the coast (it would seem) of Borneo, to 
Champa (South Cochin-China), and to Canton, at that time 
known to western Asiatics as Chin-Kalan or Great China (Maha- 
chin). From Canton he travelled overland to the great ports 
of Fukien, at one of which, Zayton or Amoy harbour, he found 
two houses of his order; in one of these he deposited the bones 
of the brethren who had suffered in India. From Fuchow he 
struck, across the mountains into Cheh-kiang and visited Hang- 
chow, then renowned, under the name of Cansay, Khanzai, 
or Quinsai (i.e. Kingsze or royal residence), as the greatest city 
in the world, of whose splendours Odoric, like Marco Polo, 
Marignolli, or Ibn Batuta, gives notable details. Passing 
northward by Nanking and crossing the Yangtsze-kiang, Odoric 
embarked on the Great Canal and travelled to Cambalec (other- 
wise Cambaleth, Cambaluc, &c.) or Peking, where he remained for 
three years, attached, no doubt, to one of the churches founded by 
Archbishop John of Monte Corvino, at this time in extreme old 
age. Returning overland across Asia, through the Land of Prester 
John and through Casan, the adventurous traveller seems to 
have entered Tibet, and even perhaps to have visited Lhasa. 
After this we trace the friar in northern Persia, in Millestorte, 
once famous as the Land of the Assassins in the Elburz highlands. 
No further indications of his homeward route (to Venice) are given, 
though it is almost certain that he passed through Tabriz. 
The vague and fragmentary character of the narrative, in this 
section, forcibly contrasts with the clear and careful tracing of 
the outward way. During a part at least of these long journeys 
the companion of Odoric was Friar James, an Irishman, as 
appears from a record in the public books of Udine, showing that 
shortly after Odoric's death a present of two marks was made 
to this Irish friar, Socio beati Fratris Odorici, amore Dei et Odorici. 
Shortly after his return Odoric betook himself to the Minorite 
house attached to St Anthony's at Padua, and it was there that 
in May 1330 he related the story of his travels, which was taken 
down in homely Latin by Friar William of Solagna, Travelling 
towards the papal court at Avignon, Odoric fell ill at Pisa, and 
turning back to Udine, the capital of his native province, died 
in the convent there on the 14th of January 1331. The fame of 

his vast journeys appears to have made a much greater impression 
on the laity of his native territory than on his Franciscan brethren. 
The latter were about to bury him without delay or ceremony, 
but the gastald or chief magistrate of the city interfered and 
appointed a public funeral; rumours of his wondrous travels and 
of posthumous miracles were diffused, and excitement spread 
like wildfire over Friuli and Carniola; the ceremony had to be 
deferred more than once, and at last took place in presence of the 
patriarch of Aquileia and all the local dignitaries. Popular 
acclamation made him an object of devotion the municipality 
erected a noble shrine for his body, and his fame as saint and 
traveller had spread far and wide before the middle of the 
century, but it was not till four centuries later (1755) that the 
papal authority formally sanctioned his beatification. A bust 
of Odoric was set up at Pordenone in 1881. 

The numerous copies of Odoric's narrative (both of the original 
text and of the versions in French, Italian, &c.) that have come 
down to our time, chiefly from the 14th century, show how 
speedily and widely it acquired popularity. It does not deserve 
the charge of mendacity brought against it by some, though 
the adulation of others is nearly as injudicious. Odoric's credit 
was not benefited by the , liberties which Sir John Mandeville 
took with it. The substance of that knight's alleged travels 
in India and Cathay is stolen from Odoric, though amplified 
with fables from other sources and from his own invention, and 
garnished with his own unusually clear astronomical notions. 
We may indicate a few passages which stamp Odoric as a genuine 
and original traveller. He is the first European, after Marco 
Polo, who distinctly mentions the name of Sumatra. The 
cannibalism and community of wives which he attributes to 
certain races of that island do certainly belong to it, or to islands 
closely adjoining. His description of sago in the archipelago 
is not free from errors, but they are the errors of an eye-witness. 
In China his mention of Canton by the name of Censcolam or 
Censcalani (Chin-Kalan), and his descriptions of the custom 
of fishing with tame cormorants, of the habit of letting the 
finger-nails grow extravagantly, and of the compression of 
women's feet, are peculiar to him among the travellers of that 
age; Marco Polo omits them all. 

Seventy-three MSS. of Odoric's narrative are known to exist in 
Latin, French and Italian: of these the chief is in Paris, National 
Library, MSS. Lat. 2584, fols. 118 r.-i27 v., of about 1350. The 
narrative was first printed at Pesaro in 1513, in what Apostolo Zeno 
calls lingua inculta e rozza. Ramusio's collection first contains it 
in the 2nd vol. of the 2nd edition (1574) (Italian version), in which 
are given two versions, diftering curiously from one another, but 
without any prefatory matter or explanation. (See also edition of 
1583, vol. ii. fols. 245 r.-256 r.) Another (Latin) version is given in 
the Acta Sanctorum (Bollandist) under the 14th of January. The 
curious discussion before the papal court respecting the beatification 
of Odoric forms a kind of blue-book issued ex typographia rev. 
camerae apostolicae (Rome, 1755). , Professor Friedrich Kunstmann 
of Munich devoted one of his valuable papers to Odoric's narrative 
(Histor.-polit. Blatter von Phillips und Gorres, vol. xxxviii. pp. 507- 
537)- The best editions of Odoric are by G. Venni, Elogio storico 
alle gesta del Beato Odorico (Venice, 1761); H. Yule in Cathay and 
the Way Thither, vol. i. pp. 1-162, vol. ii. appendix, pp. 1-42 (London, 
1866), Hakluyt Society; and H. Cordier, Les Voyages . . . du . . . 
frere Odoric . . . (Paris, 1891) (edition of Old French version of 
c- 1350). The edition by T. Domenichelli (Prato, 1881) may also be 
mentioned; likewise those texts of Odoric embedded in the Storia 
universale delle Missione Francescane, iii. 739-781, and in Hakluyt 's 
Principal Navigations (1599), ii. 39-67. See also John of Viktring 
(Joannes Victoriensis) in Pontes rerum Germanicarum, ed. J. F. 
Boehmer; vol. i. ed. by J . G. Cotta (Stuttgart, 1843), p. 391; 
Wadding, Annates Minorum, a.d. 1331, vol. vii. pp. 123-126; 
Bartholomew Albizzi, Opus conformitatum . . . B. Francisci . . ., 
bk. i. par. ii. conf. 8 (fol. 124 of Milan, edition of 1513); John of 
Winterthur in Eccard, Corpus historicum medii aevi, vol. i. cols. 
1 894- 1 897, especially 1894; C. R. Beazley, Dawn of Modern Geo- 
graphy, iii. 250-287, 548-549. 554. 565-566, 612-613, &c. 

(H. Y. ; G. R. B.) 

ODYLIC FORCE, a term once in vogue to explain the pheno- 
menon of hypnotism (q.v.). In 1845 considerable attention 
was drawn to the announcement by Baron von Reichenbach 
of a so-called new " imponderable " or " influence " developed 
by certain crystals, magnets, the human body, associated with 
heat, chemical action, or electricity, and existing throughout 



the universe, to which he gave the name of odyl. Persons 
sensitive to odyl saw luminous phenomena near the poles of 
magnets, or even around the hands or heads of certain persons 
in whose bodies the force was supposed to be concentrated. 
In Britain an impetus was given to this view of the subject by 
the translation in 1850 of Reichenbach's Researches on Magnetism, 
&c, in relation to Vital Force, by Dr Gregory, professor of' 
chemistry in the university of Edinburgh. These Researches 
show many of the phenomena to be of the same nature as those 
described previously by F. A. Mesmer, and even long before 
Mesmer's time by Swedenborg. 

ODYSSEUS (in Latin Ulixes, incorrectly written Ulysses), 
in Greek legend, son of Laertes and Anticleia, king of Ithaca, a 
famous hero and typical representative of the Greek race. In 
Homer he is one of the best and bravest of the heroes, and the 
favourite of Athena, whereas in later legend he is cowardly and 
deceitful. Soon after his marriage to Penelope he was summoned 
to the Trojan war. Unwilling to go, he feigned madness, 
ploughing a field sown with salt with an ox and an ass yoked 
together; but Palamedes discovered his deceit by placing his 
infant child Telemachus in front of the plough; Odysseus 
afterwards revenged himself by compassing the death ot Pala- 
medes. During the war, he distinguished himself as the wisest 
adviser of the Greeks, and finally, the capture of Troy, which 
the bravery of Achilles could not accomplish, was attained by 
Odysseus' stratagem of the wooden horse. After the death of 
Achilles the Greeks adjudged his armour to Odysseus as the man 
who had done most to end the war successfully. When Troy 
was captured he set sail for Ithaca, but was carried by unfavour- 
able winds to the coast of Africa. After encountering many 
adventures in all parts of the unknown seas, among the lotus- 
eaters and the Cyclopes, in the isles of Aeolus and Circe and the 
perils of Scylla and Charybdis, among the Laestrygones, and even 
in the world of the dead, having lost all his ships and companions, 
he barely escaped with his life to the island of Calypso, where he 
was detained eight years, an unwilling lover of the beautiful 
nymph. Then at the command of Zeus he was sent homewards, 
but was again wrecked on the island of Phaeacia, whence he 
was conveyed to Ithaca in one of the wondrous Phaeacian ships. 
Here he found that a host of suitors, taking advantage of the 
youth of his son Telemachus, were wasting his property and 
trying to force Penelope to marry one of them. The stratagems 
and disguises by which with the help of a few faithful friends 
he slew the suitors are described at length in the Odyssey. The 
only allusion to his death is contained in the prophecy of Teiresias, 
who promised him a happy old age and a peaceful death from 
the sea. According to a later legend, Telegonus, the son of 
Odysseus by Circe, was sent by her in search of his father. Cast 
ashore on Ithaca by a storm, he plundered the island to get pro- 
visions, and was attacked by Odysseus, whom he slew. The 
prophecy was thus fulfilled. Telegonus, accompanied by 
Penelope and Telemachus, returned to his home with the body 
of his father, whose identity he had discovered. 

According to E. Meyer (Hermes, xxx. p. 267), Odysseus is an 
old Arcadian nature god identical with Poseidon, who dies at 
the approach of winter (retires to the western sea or is carried 
away to the underworld) to revive in spring (but see E. Rohde, 
Rhein. Mus. 1. p. 631). A more suitable identification would 
be Hermes. Mannhardt and others regard Odysseus as a solar 
or summer divinity, who withdraws to the underworld during 
the winter, and returns in spring to free his wife from the suitors 
(the powers of winter). A. Gercke (Neue Jahrbiicher jilr das 
klassische Altertum, xv. p. 331) takes him to be an agricultural 
divinity akin to the sun god, whose wife is the moon-goddess 
Penelope, from whom he is separated and reunited to her on 
the day of the new moon. His cult early disappeared; in 
Arcadia his place was taken by Poseidon. But although the 
personality of Odysseus may have had its origin in some primitive 
religious myth, chief interest attaches to him as the typical 
representative of the old sailor-race whose adventurous voyages 
educated and moulded the Hellenic race. The period when the 
character of Odysseus took shape among the Ionian bards 

I was when the Ionian ships were beginning. to penetrate to the 
farthest shores of the Black Sea and to the western side of Italy, 
but when Egypt had not yet been freely opened to foreign 
intercourse. The adventures of Odysseus were a favourite subject 
in ancient art, in which he may usually be recognized by his 
conical sailor's cap. 

See article by J. Schmidt in Roscher'g Lexikon der Mythologie 
(where the different forms of the name and its etymology are fully 
discussed); O. Gruppe, Griechische Mythologie, ii. pp. 624, 705-718; 
J. E. Harrison, Myths of the Odyssey in Art and Literature (1881), 
with appendix on authorities. W. Mannhardt, Wald- und Feldkulte 
(1905), ii. p. 106; O. Seeck, Gesch. des Untergangs der antiken Welt, 
ii. p. 576; G. Fougeres, Mantinee et I'Arcadie orientate (1898), 
according' to whom Odysseus is an Arcadian chthonian divinity and 
Penelope a goddess of flocks and herds, akin to the Arcadian Artemis ; 
S. Eitrem, Die gottlichen Zwillinge bei den Griechen (1902), who 
identifies Odysseus with one of the Dioscuri ('OXi«7« = IIoXi>5euKijs); 
V. B<5rard, Les VMniciens et I'OdyssSe (1902-1903), who regards the 
Odyssey as "the integration in a Greek pAotos (home-coming) of a 
Semitic periplus," in the form of a poem written 900-850 B.C. by an 
Ionic poet at the court of one of the Neleid kings of Miletus. For an 
estimate of this work, the interest of which is mainly geographical, 
see Classical Review (April 1904) and Quarterly Review (April 1905). 
It consists of two large volumes, with 240 illustrations and maps. 

OEBEN, JEAN FRANCOIS, French 18th-century cabinet- 
maker, is believed to have been of German or Flemish origin; 
the date of his birth is unknown, but he was dead before 1767. 
In 1752, twenty years after Boulle's death, we find him occupying 
an apartment in the Louvre sublet to him by Charles Joseph 
Boulle, whose pupil he may have been. He has sometimes been 
confused with Simon Oeben, presumably a relative, who signed 
a fine bureau in the Jones collection at the Victoria and Albert 
Museum' J. F. Oeben is also represented in that collection by 
a pair of inlaid corner-cupboards. These with a bureau and a 
chiffonier in the Garde Meuble in which bouquets of flowers are 
delicately inlaid in choice woods are his best-known and most 
admirable achievements. He appears to have worked extensively 
for the marquise de Pompadour by whose influence he was 
granted lodgings at the Gobelins and the title of " Ebeniste 
du Roi " in 1754. There he remained until 1760, when he obtained 
an apartment and Workshops at the Arsenal. His work in 
marquetry is of very great distinction, but he would probably 
never have enjoyed so great a reputation had it not been for his 
connexion with the famous Bureau du Roi, made for Louis XV., 
which appears to have owed its inception to him, notwithstand- 
ing that it was not completed until some considerable time after 
his death and is signed by J. H. Riesener (q.v.) only. Docu- 
mentary evidence under the hand of the king shows that it was 
ordered from Oeben in 1760, the year in which he moved to the 
Arsenal. The known work of Oeben possesses genuine grace and 
beauty; as craftsmanship it is of the first rank, and it is remark- 
able that, despite his Teutonic or Flemish origin, it is typically 
French in character. 

OECOLAMPADIUS, JOHN (1482-1531), German Reformer, 
whose real name was Hussgen or Heussgen, 1 was born at Weins- 
berg, a small town in the north of the modern kingdom of 
Wiirttemberg, but then belonging to the Palatinate. He went 
to school at Weinsberg and Heilbronn, and then, intending to 
study law, he went to Bologna, but soon returned to Heidelberg 
and betook himself to theology. He became a zealous student 
of the new learning and passed from the study of Greek to that 
of Hebrew, taking his bachelor's degree in 1503. He became 
cathedral preacher at Basel in 151 5, serving under Christopher 
von Uttenheim, the evangelical bishop of Basel. From the 
beginning the sermons of Oecolampadius centred in the Atone- 
ment, and his first reformatory zeal showed itself in a protest 
(De risu paschali, 15 18) against the introduction of humorous 
stories into Easter sermons. In 1520 he published his Greek 
Grammar. The same year he was asked to become preacher 
in the high church in Augsburg. Germany was then ablaze 
with the questions raised by Luther's theses, and his introduction 
into this new world, when at first he championed Luther's 
position especially in his anonymous Canonici indocti (1519), 
seems to have compelled Oecolampadius to severe self-examina- 

1 Changed to Hausschein and then into the Greek equivalent. 



tion, which ended, in his entering a convent and becoming a 
monk. A short experience convinced him that this was not for 
him the ideal Christian life (" amisi monachum, inveni Christia- 
num "), and in February 1522 he made his way to Ebernburg, 
near Creuznach, where he acted as chaplain to the little group 
of men holding the new opinions who had settled there under 
the leadership of Franz von Sickingen. 

The second period of Oecolampadius's life opens with his 
return to Basel in November 1522, as vicar of St Martin's and 
(in 1523) reader of the Holy Scripture at the university. Lectur- 
ing on Isaiah he condemned current ecclesiastical abuses^ and 
in a public disputation (20th of August 1523) was so successful 
that Erasmus writing to Zurich said " Oecolampadius has 
the upper hand amongst us." He became Zwingli's best helper, 
and after more than a year of earnest preaching and four public 
disputations in which the popular verdict had been given in 
favour of Oecolampadius and his friends, the authorities of 
Basel began to see the necessity of some reformation. They 
began with the convents, and Oecolampadius was able to refrain 
in public worship on certain festival days from some practices 
he believed to be superstitious. Basel was slow to accept 
the Reformation; the news of the Peasants' War and the 
inroads of Anabaptists prevented progress; but at last, in 
1525, it seemed as if the authorities were resolved to listen to 
schemes for restoring the purity of worship and teaching. In 
the midst of these hopes and difficulties Oecolampadius married, 
in the beginning of 1528, Wilibrandis Rosenblatt, the widow 
of Ludwig Keller, who proved to be non rixosa vel garrula vel 
vaga, he says, and made him a good wife. After his death she 
married Capito, and, when Capito died, Bucer. She diet! in 1564. 
In January 1528 Oecolampadius and Zwingli took part in the 
disputation at Berne which led to the adoption of the new faith 
in that canton, and in the following year to the discontinuance 
of the mass at Basel. The Anabaptists claimed Oecolampadius 
for their views, but in a disputation with them he dissociated 
himself from most of their positions. He died on the 24th of 
November 1531. 

Oecolampadius was not a great theologian, like Luther, 
Zwingli or Calvin, and yet he was a trusted theological leader. 
With Zwingli he represented the Swiss views at the unfortunate 
conference at Marburg. His views on the Eucharist upheld 
the metaphorical against the literal interpretation of the word 
" body," but he asserted that believers partook of the sacrament 
more for the sake of others than for their own, though later he 
emphasized it as a means of grace for the Christian life. To 
Luther's doctrine of the ubiquity of Christ's body he opposed 
that of the presence and activity of the Holy Spirit in the church. 
He did not minutely analyse the doctrine of predestination as 
Luther, Calvin and Zwingli did, contenting himself with the 
summary " Our Salvation is of God, our perdition of ourselves." 

See J. J. Herzog, Leben Joh. Oecolampads u. die Reformation der 
Kirche zu Basel (1843); K. R. Hagenbach, Johann Oecolampad u. 
Oswald Myconius, die Reformatoren Basels (1859). For other 
literature see W. Hadorn's art. in Herzog-Hauck's Realencyklopddie 
fur prot. ReL u. Kirche. 

OECOLOGY, or Ecology (from Gr. oIkos, house, and X6-yos, 
department of science), that part of the science of biology which 
treats of the adaptation of plants or animals to their environ- 
ment (see Plants: Ecology). 

OECUMENICAL (through the Lat. from Gr. oUovfieviKos, 
universal, belonging to the whole inhabited world, 17 oUovnevr] 
sc. yrj, oIkuv, to dwell), a word chiefly used in the sense of 
belonging to the universal Christian Church. It is thus specifi- 
cally applied to the general councils of the early church (see 
Council). . In the Roman Church a council is regarded as 
oecumenical when it has been summoned from the whole church 
under the presidency of the pope or his legates; the decrees 
confirmed by the pope are binding. The word has also been 
applied to assemblies of other religious bodies, such as the 
Oecumenical Methodist Conferences, which met for the first 
time in 1881. " Oecumenical " has also been the title of the 
patriarch of Constantinople since the 6th century (see Orthodox 
Eastern Church). 

OECUS, the Latinized form of Gr. oIkos, house, used by 
Vitruvius for the principal hall or saloon in a Roman house, 
which was used occasionally as a triclinium for banquets. When 
of great size it became necessary to support its ceiling with 
columns; thus, according to Vitruvius, the tetrastyle oecus 
had four columns; in the Corinthian oecus there was a row 
of columns on each side, virtually therefore dividing the room 
into nave and aisles, the former being covered over with a semi- 
circular ceiling. The Egyptian oecus had a similar plan, but 
the aisles were of less height, so that clerestory windows were 
introduced to light the room, which, as Vitruvius states, presents 
more the appearance of a basilica than of a triclinium. 

OEDIPUS (OlSiirovs, OlSurobys, OlSLiros, from Gr. oiSelv swell, 
and tow foot, i.e. " the swollen-footed ") 1 in Greek legend, son 
of Laius, king of Thebes, and Jocasta (Iocaste). Laius, having 
been warned by an oracle that he would be killed by his son, 
ordered him to be exposed, with his feet pierced, immediately 
after his birth. Thus Oedipus grew up ignorant of his parentage, 
and, meeting Laius in a narrow way, quarrelled with him and 
slew him. The country was ravaged by a monster, the Sphinx; 
Oedipus solved the riddle which it proposed to its victims, 
freed the country, and married" his own mother. In the Odyssey 
it is said that the gods disclosed the impiety. Epicaste (as 
Jocasta is called in Homer) hanged herself, and Oedipus lived 
as king in Thebes tormented by the Erinyes of his mother. In 
the tragic poets the tale takes a different form. Oedipus fulfils 
an ancient prophecy in killing his father; he is the blind instru- 
ment in the hands of fate. The further treatment of the tale 
by Aeschylus is unknown. Sophocles describes in his Oedipus 
Tyrannus how Oedipus was resolved to pursue to the end the 
mystery of the death of Laiius, and thus unravelled the dark 
tale, and in horror put out his own eyes. The sequel of the tale is 
told in the Oedipus Coloneus. Banished by his sons, he is tended 
by the loving care of his daughters. He comes to Attica and 
dies in the grove of the Eumenides at Colonus, in his death 
welcomed and pardoned by the fate which had pursued him 
throughout his life. In addition to the two tragedies of Sophocles, 
the legend formed the subject of a trilogy by Aeschylus, of which 
only the Seven against Thebes is extant; of the Phoenissae of 
Euripides; and of the Oedipus and Phoenissae of Seneca. 

See A. Hofer's exhaustive article in Roscher's Lexikon der Mytho~ 
logie; F. W. Schneidewin, Die Sage von Oedipus (1852); D. Com- 
paretti, Edipo e la mitologia comparata (1867); M. Breal, " Le 
Mythe d'CEdipe," in Melanges de mythologie (1878), who explains 
Oedipus" as a personification of light, and his blinding as the dis- 
appearance of the sun at the end of the day; J. Paulson in Eranos. 
Acta philologica Suecana, i. (Upsala, 1896) places the original home 
of the legend in Egyptian Thebes, and identifies Oedipus with the 
Egyptian god Seth, represented as the hippopotamus " with swollen 
foot," which was said to kill its father in order to take its place 
with the mother. O. Crusius (Beitrdge zur griechischen Mythologie, 
1886, p. 21) sees in the marriage of Oedipus with his mother an 
agrarian myth (with special reference to Oed. Tyr. 1497), while 
Hofer (in Roscher's Lexikon) suggests that the episodes of the murder 
of his father and of his marriage are reminiscences of the overthrow 
of Cronus by Zeus and of the union of Zeus with his own sister. 

Medieval Legends. — In the Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voragine 
(13th century) and the Mystere de la Passion of Jean Michel (15th 
century) and Arnoul Gr^ban (15th century), the story of Oedipus is 
associated with the name of Judas. The main idea is the same 
as in the classical account. The Judas legend, however, never really 
became popular, whereas that of Oedipus was handed down both 
orally and in written national tales (Albanian, Finnish, Cypriote). 
One incident (the incest unwittingly committed) frequently recurs 
in connexion with the life of Gregory the Great. The Theban legend, 
which reached its fullest development in the Thebais of Statius and 
in Seneca, reappeared in the Roman de Thebes (the work of an un- 
known imitator of Benolt de Sainte-More). Oedipus is also the 
subject of an anonymous medieval romance (15th century) , Le Roman 
d'QLdipus, fits de Layus, in which the sphinx is depicted as a cunning 
and ferocious giant. The Oedipus legend was handed down to the 
period of the Renaissance by the Roman and its imitations, which 
then fell into oblivion. Even to the present day the 'egend has 

1 It is probable that the story of the piercing of his feet is a subse- 
quent invention to explain the name, or is due to a false etymology 
(from ol&eai), oltiivovs in reality meaning the " wise " (from olSa), 
chiefly in reference to his having solved the riddle, the syllable 
-tous having no significance. 



survived amongst the modern Greeks, without any traces of the 
influence of Christianity (B. Schmidt, Griechische Marchen, 1877). 
The works of the ancient tragedians (especially Seneca, in preference 
to the Greek) came into vogue, and were slavishly followed by 
French and Italian imitators down to the 17th century. 

See L. Constans, La Legende d'CEdipe dans I'antiquite, au moyen dge, 
et dans les temps modernes (1881); D. Comparetti's Edipo and Jebb's 
introduction for the Oedipus of Dryden, Corneille and Voltaire; 
A. Heintze, Gregorius auf dem Steine, der mittelalterliche Oedipus 
(progr., Stolp, 1877); V. Diederichs, " Russische Verwandte der 
Legende von Gregor auf dem Stein und der Sage von Judas Ischariot,'' 
in Russische Revue (1880); S. Novakovitch, "Die Oedipussage in 
der sildslavischen Volksdichtung," in Archiv fiir slavische Philologie 
xi. (1 

OEHLER, GUSTAV FRIEDRICH (1812-1872), German theo- 
logian, was born on the 10th of June 181 2 at Ebingen, Wurttem- 
berg, and was educated privately and at Tubingen where he 
was much influenced by J. C. F. Steudel, professor of Old Testa- 
ment Theology. In 1837, after a term of Oriental study at 
Berlin, he went to Tubingen as Repelent, becoming in -1840 
professor at the seminary and pastor in Schonthal. In 1845 
he published his Prolegomena zur Theologie des Alien Testaments, 
accepted an invitation to Breslau and received the degree of 
doctor from Bonn. In 1852 he returned to Tubingen as director 
of the seminary and professor of Old Testament Theology at 
the university. He declined a call to Erlangen as successor to 
Franz Delitzsch (1867), and died at Tubingen on the 19th of 
February 1872. Oehler admitted the composite authorship of 
the Pentateuch and the Book of Isaiah, and did much to counter- 
act the antipathy against the Old Testament that had been 
fostered by Schleiermacher. In church polity he was Lutheran 
rather than Reformed. Besides his Old Testament Theology 
(Eng. trans., 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1874-1875), his works were 
Gesammelle Seminarreden (1872) and Lehrbuch Symbolik 
(1876), both published posthumously, and about forty articles 
for the first edition of Herzog's Realencyklopddie which were 
largely retained by Delitzsch and von Orelli in the second. 

OEHRINGEN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Wiirt- 
temberg, agreeably situated in a fertile country, on the Ohrn, 
12 m. E. from Heilbronn by the railways to Hall and Crailsheim. 
Pop. (1905) 3,450. It is a quaint medieval place, and, among 
its ancient buildings, boasts a fine Evangelical church, con- 
taining carvings in cedar-wood of the 15th century and numerous 
interesting tombs and monuments; a Renaissance town hall; 
the building, now used as a library, which formerly belonged 
to a monastery, erected in 1034; and a palace, the residence 
of the princes of Hohenlohe-Oehringen. 

Oehringen is the Vicus Aurelii of the Romans. Eastwards 
of it ran the old Roman frontier wall, and numerous remains 
and inscriptions dating from the days of the Roman settle- 
ment have been recently discovered, including traces of three 

See Keller, Vicus Aurelii, oder Ohringen zur Zeit der Romer (Bonn, 

OELS, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, 
formerly the. capital of a mediatized principality of its own 
name. It lies in a sandy plain on the Oelsbach, 20 m. N.E. 
of Breslau by rail. Pop. (1905) 10,940. The princely chateau, 
now the property of the crown prince of Prussia, dating from 
1558 and beautifully restored in 1891-1894, contains a good 
library and a collection of pictures. Of its three Evangelical 
churches, the Schlosskirche dates from the 13th century and 
the Propstkirche from the 14th. The inhabitants are chiefly 
engaged in making shoes and growing vegetables for the Breslau 

Oels was founded about 940, and became a town in 1255. 
It appears as the capital of an independent principality at the 
beginning of the 14th century. The principality, with an area 
of 700 sq. m. and about 130,000 inhabitants, passed through 
various hands and was inherited by the ducal family of Bruns- 
wick in 1792. Then on the extinction of this family in 1884 
it lapsed to the crown of Prussia. 

See W. Hausler, Geschichte des Filrstentums Ols bis zum Aus- 
sterben der piastischen Herzogslinie (Breslau, 1883) ; and Schulze, 
Die Succession im Fiirstentum Ols (Breslau, 1884). 

OELSCHLAGER [Olearius], ADAM (1600-1671), German 
traveller and Orientalist, was born at Aschersleben, near Magde- 
burg, in 1599 or 1600. After studying at Leipzig he became 
librarian and court mathematician to Duke Frederick III. of 
Holstein-Gottorp, and in 1633 he was appointed secretary to 
the ambassadors Philip Crusius, jurisconsult, and Otto Briigge- 
mann or Brugman, merchant, sent by the duke to Muscovy 
and Persia in the hope of making arrangements by which his 
newly-founded city of Friedrichstadt should become the terminus 
of an overland silk-trade. This embassy started from Gottorp 
on the 22nd of October 1633, and travelled by Hamburg, Liibeck, 
Riga, Dorpat (five months' stay), Revel, Narva, Ladoga and 
Novgorod to Moscow (August 14, 1634). Here they con- 
cluded an advantageous treaty with Michael Romanov, 
and returned forthwith to Gottorp (December 14, 1634- 
April 7, 1635) to procure the ratification of this arrange- 
ment from the duke, before proceeding to Persia. This accom- 
plished, they started afresh from Hamburg on the 22nd of 
October 1635, arrived at Moscow on the 29th of March 1636; 
and left Moscow on the 30th of June for Nizhniy Novgorod, 
whither they had already sent agents (in 1634-1635) to prepare 
a vessel for their descent of the Volga. Their voyage down 
the great river and over the Caspian was slow and hindered 
by accidents, especially by grounding, as near Derbent on the 
14th of November 1636; but at last, by way of Shemakha 
(three months' delay here), Ardebil, Sultanieh and Kasvin, 
they reached the Persian court at Isfahan (August 3, 1637), 
and were received by the shah (August 16). Negotiations 
here were not as successful as at Moscow, and the embassy left 
Isfahan on the 21st of December 1637, and returned home by 
Resht, Lenkoran, Astrakhan, Kazan, Moscow, &c. At Revel 
Oelschlager parted from his colleagues (April 15, 1639) and 
embarked direct for Liibeck. On his way he had made a chart 
of the Volga, and partly for this reason the tsar Michael wished 
to persuade, or compel, him to enter his service. Once back 
at Gottorp, Oelschlager became librarian to the duke, who also 
made him keeper of his Cabinet of Curiosities, and induced the 
tsar to excuse his (promised) return to Moscow. Under his care 
the Gottorp library and cabinet were greatly enriched in MSS., 
books, and oriental and other works of art: in 1651 he pur- 
chased, for this purpose, the collection of the Dutch scholar and 
physician, Bernard ten Broecke (" Paludanus" ). He died 
at Gottorp on the 22nd of February 167 1. 

It is by his admirable narrative of the Russian and the Persian 
legation (Beschreibung der muscowitischen und persischen Reise, 
Schleswig, 1647, and afterwards in several enlarged editions, 1656, 
&c.) that Oelschlager is best known, though he also published a 
history of Holstein (Kurtzer Begriff einer holsteinischen Chronic, 
Schleswig, 1663), a famous catalogue of the Holstein-Gottorp 
cabinet (1666), and a translation of the Gulistan (Persianisches 
Rosenthal, Schleswig, 1654), to which was appended a translation 
of the fables of Lokman. A French veision of the Beschreibung 
was published by Abraham de Wicquefort {Voyages en Moscovie, 
Tartarie et Perse, par Adam Olearius, Paris, 1656), an English 
version was made by John Davies of Kidwelly {Travels of the Am- 
bassadors sent by Frederic, Duke of Holstein, to the Great Duke of, 
Muscovy and the King of Persia, London, 1662; 2nd ed., 1669), 
and a Dutch translation by Dieterius van Wageningen {Beschrijvingh 
van de nieuwe Parciaensche ofte Orientaelsche Reyse, Utrecht, 1651); 
an Italian translation of the Russian sections also appeared {Viaggi 
di Moscovia, Viterbo and Rome, 1658). Paul Flemming the poet 
and J. A. de Mandelslo, whose travels to the East Indies are usually 
published with those of Oelschlager, accompanied the embassy. 
Under Oelschlager's direction the celebrated globe of Gottorp 
(11 ft. in diameter) and armillary sphere were executed in 1654- 
1664; the globe was given to Peter the Great of Russia in 1 7 13 by 
Duke Frederick's grandson, Christian Augustus. Oelschlager's 
unpublished works include a Lexicon Persicum and several other 
Persian studies. (C. R. B.) 

OELSNITZ, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, 
on the Weisse Elster, 26 m. by rail S.W. of Zwickau. Pop. 
(1905) 13,966. It has two Evangelical churches, one of them 
being the old Gothic Jakobskirche, and several schools. There 
are various manufactories. Oelsnitz belonged in the 14th and 
15th centuries to the margraves of Meissen, anj later to the 
electors of Saxony. Near it is the village of Voigtsberg, with 



the remains of a castle, once a residence of the governor (Vogt) 
of the Vogtland. 

See Jahn, Chronik der Stadt Olsnitz (1875). 

OELWEIN, a city of Fayette county, Iowa, U.S.A., in the 
N.E. part of the state, about 132 m. N.E. of Des Moines. Pop. 
(1890) 830; (1900) 5142, of whom 789 were foreign-born; 
(1910 U.S. census) 6028. It is served by the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific and the Chicago Great Western railways, the 
latter having large repair shops here, where four lines of its 
road converge. Oelwein was named in honour of its founder, 
August Oelwein, who settled here in 1873; it was incorporated 
in 1888, and chartered as a city in 1897. 

OENOMAUS, in Greek legend, son of Ares and Harpinna, 
king of Pisa in Elis and father of Hippodameia. It was pre- 
dicted that he should be slain by his daughter's husband. His 
father, the god Ares-Hippius, gave him winged horses swift 
as the wind, and Oenomaus promised his daughter to the man 
who could outstrip him in the chariot race, hoping thus to 
prevent her marriage altogether. Pelops, by the treachery of 
Myrtilus, the charioteer of Oenomaus, won the race and married 
Hippodameia. The defeat of Oenomaus by Pelops, a stranger 
from Asia Minor, points to the conquest of native Ares- 
worshippers by immigrants who introduced the new religion of 

See Diod. Sic. iv. 73; Pausanias vi. 21, and elsewhere; Sophocles, 
Electra, 504; Hyginus, Fab. 84. 253. Fig. 33 in article Greek Art 
represents the preparations for the chariot race. 

OENONE, in Greek legend, daughter of the river-god Kebren 
and wife of Paris. Possessing the gift of divination, she warned 
her husband of the evils that would result from his journey 
to Greece. The sequel was the rape of Helen and the Trojan 
War. Just before the capture of the city, Paris, wounded by 
Philoctetes with one of the arrows of Heracles, sought the aid of 
the deserted Oenone, who had told him that she alone could 
heal him if wounded. Indignant at his faithlessness, she refused 
to help him, and Paris returned to Troy and died of his wound. 
Oenone soon repented and hastened after him, but finding that 
she was too late to save him slew herself from grief at the sight 
of his dead body. Ovid (Heroides, 5) gives a pathetic description 
of Oenone 's grief when she found herself deserted. 

OERLAMS, the name (said to be a corruption of the Dutch 
Oberlanders) for a Hottentot tribal group living in Great Nam- 
aqualand. They came originally from Little Namaqualand 
in Cape Colony. They are of very mixed Hottentot-Bantu 

OESEL (in Esthonian Kure-saare or Saare-ma), a Russian 
island in the Baltic, forming with Worms, Mohn and Runo, 
a district of the government of Livonia, and lying across the 
mouth of the Gulf of Riga, 106 m. N.N.W. of the city of Riga. 
It has a length of 45 m., and an area of 1010 sq. m. The coasts 
are bold and steep, and, especially towards the north and west, 
form precipitous limestone cliffs. Like those of Shetland, the 
Oesel ponies are small, but prized for their spirit and endurance. 
The population, numbering 50,566 in 1870 and 60,000 in 1900, 
is mainly Protestant in creed, and, with the exception of the 
German nobility, clergy and some of the townsfolk, Esthonian 
by race. The chief town, Arensburg, 021 the south coast, is a 
place of 4600 inhabitants, with summer sea-bathing, mud baths 
and a trade in grain, potatoes, whisky and fish. In 1227 Oesel 
was conquered by the Knights of the Sword, and was governed 
by its own bishops till 1561, when it passed into the hands of the 
Danes. By them it was surrendered to the Swedes by the peace 
of Bromsebro (1645), and, along with Livonia, it was united 
to Russia in 1721. 

OESOPHAGUS (Gr. oura = I will carry, and (bayelv, to eat), 
in anatomy, the gullet ; see Alimentary Canal for comparative 
anatomy. The human oesophagus is peculiarly liable to certain 
accidents and diseases, due both to its function as a tube to 
carry-food to the stomach and to its anatomical situation (see 
generally Digestive Organs). One of the commonest accidents 
is the lodgment of foreign bodies in some part of the tube. The 
situations in which they are arrested vary with the nature of the. 

body, whether it be a coin, fishbone, toothplate or a portion of 
food. An impacted substance may be removed by the oesophageal 
forceps, or by a coin-catcher; if it should be impossible to draw 
it up it may be pushed down into the stomach. When it is in 
the stomach a purgative should never be given, but soft food 
such as porridge. Should gastric symptoms develop it may 
have to be removed by the operation of gastrotomy. Charring 
and ulceration of the oesophagus may occur from the swallowing 
of corrosive liquids, strong acids or alkalis, or even of boiling 
water. Stricture of the oesophagus is a closing of the tube so 
that neither solids nor liquids are able to pass down into the 
stomach. There are three varieties of stricture; spasmodic, 
fibrous and malignant. Spasmodic stricture usually occurs in 
young hysterical women; difficulty in swallowing is complained 
of, and a bougie may not be able to be passed, but under an 
anaesthetic will slip down quite easily. Fibrous stricture is' 
usually situated near the commencement of the oesophagus, 
generally just behind the cricoid cartilage, and usually results 
from swallowing corrosive fluids, but may also result from the 
healing of a syphilitic ulcer. Occasionally it is congenital. 
The ordinary treatment is repeated dilatation by bougies. 
Occasionally division of a fibrous stricture has been practised, 
or a Symond's tube inserted. Mikulicz recommends dilatation 
of the stricture by the fingers from inside after an incision into 
the stomach or a permanent gastric fistula may have to be made. 
Malignant strictures are usually epitheliomatous in structure, 
and may be situated in any part of the oesophagus. They 
nearly always occur in males between the ages of 40 and 70 years. 
An X-ray photograph taken after the patient has swallowed 
a preparation of bismuth will show the situation of the growth, 
and Kilhan and Briinig have introduced an instrument called 
the oesophagoscope, which makes direct examination possible. 
The remedy of constant dilatation by bougies must not be 
attempted here, the walls of the oesophagus being so softened 
by disease and ulceration that severe haemorrhage or perforation 
of the walls of the tube might take place. The patient should 
be fed with purely liquid and concentrated nourishment in order 
to give the oesophagus as much rest as possible, or if the stricture 
be too tight rectal feeding may be necessary. Symond's method 
of tubage is well borne by some patients, the tube having attached 
to it a long string which is secured to the cheek or ear. The 
most satisfactory treatment, however, is the operation of gastro- 
tomy. a permanent artificial opening being made into the 
stomach through which the patient can be fed. 

OETA (mod. Kolavothra), a mountain to the south of Thessaly, 
in Greece, forming a boundary between the valleys of the 
Spercheius and the Boeotian Cephissus. It is an offshoot of the 
Pindus range, 7080 ft. high. In its eastern portion, called 
Callidromus, it comes close to the sea, leaving only a narrow 
passage known as the famous pass of Thermopylae (q.v.). There 
was also a high pass to the west of Callidromus leading over into 
the upper Cephissus valley. In mythology Oeta is chiefly 
celebrated as the scene of the funeral pyre on which Heracles 
burnt himself before his admission to Olympus. 

divine and theosophist, was born at Goppingen on the 6th of 
May 1702. He studied theology at Tubingen (1722-1728), 
and was much impressed by the works of Jakob Bohme. On 
the completion of his university course, Oetinger spent some 
years in travel. In 1 730 he visited Count Zinzendorf at Herrnhut, 
remaining there some months as teacher of Hebrew and Greek. 
During his travels, in his eager search for knowledge, he made 
the acquaintance of mystics and separatists, Christians and 
learned Jews, theologians and physicians alike. At Halle he 
studied medicine. After some delay he was ordained to the 
ministry, and held several pastorates. While pastor (from 1746) 
at Waldorf near Berlin, he studied alchemy and made many 
experiments, his idea being to use his knowledge for symbolic 
purposes. These practices exposed him to the attacks of persons 
who misunderstood him. " My religion," he once said, " is 
the parallelism of . Nature and Grace." Oetinger translated 
Swedenborg's philosophy of heaven and earth, and added notes 


of his own. Eventually (1766) he became prelate at Murrhardt, 
where he died on the 10th of February 1782. 

Oetinger's autobiography was published by J. Hamberger in 1845. 
He published about seventy works, in which he expounded his 
theosophic views. A collected edition, Sdmtliche Schriflen (1st 
section, Homiletische Schriflen, 5 vols., 1858-1866; 2nd section, 
Theosophische Werke, 6 vols., 1858-1863), was prepared by K. F. C. 
Ehmann, who also wrote Oetinger's Leben una Briefe (1859). See 
also C. A. Auberlen, Die Theosophie Friedr. Chr. Oetinger's (1847; 
2nd ed., 1859), and Herzog, Friedrich Christoph Otinger (1902). 

OEYNHAUSEN, a town and watering-place of Germany, in 
the Prussian province of Westphalia, on the Werre, situated 
just above its confluence with the Weser, 9 m. W. from Minden 
by the main line of railway from Hanover to Cologne, with a 
station on the Lohne-Hameln line. Pop. (1905) 3894. The 
place, which was formerly called Rehme, owes its development 
to the discovery in 1830 of its five famous salt springs, which 
are heavily charged with carbonic acid gas. The waters are used 
both for bathing and drinking, and are particularly efficacious 
for nervous disorders, rheumatism, gout and feminine complaints. 

OFFA, the most famous hero of the early Angli. He is said 
by the Anglo-Saxon poem Widsith to have ruled over Angel, 
and the poem refers briefly to his victorious single combat, 
a story which is related at length by the Danish historians Saxo 
and Svend Aagesen. Offa (Uffo) is said to have been dumb or 
silent during his early years, and to have only recovered his 
speech v/hen his aged father Wermund was threatened by the 
Saxons, who insolently demanded the cession of his kingdom. 
Offa undertook to fight against both the Saxon king 's son and 
a chosen champion at once. The combat took place at Rendsburg 
on an island in the Eider, and Offa succeeded in killing both his 
opponents. According to Widsith Offa's opponents belonged 
to a tribe or dynasty called Myrgingas, but both accounts state 
that he won a great kingdom as the result of his victory. A 
somewhat corrupt version of the same story is preserved in the 
Vitae duorum Off arum, where, however, the scene is transferred 
to England. It is very probable that the Offa whose marriage 
with a lady of murderous disposition is mentioned in Beowulf 
is the same person; and this story also appears in the Vitae 
duorum Offarum, though it is erroneously told of a later Offa, 
the famous king of Mcrcia. Offa of Mercia, however, was a 
descendant in the 12th generation of Offa, king of Angel. It is 
probable from this and other considerations that the early Offa 
lived in the latter part of the 4th century. 

See H. M. Chadwick, Origin of_ the English Nation (Cambridge, 
1907), where references to the original authorities will be found. 

OFFA (d. 796), king of Mercia, obtained that kingdom in a.d. 
757, after, driving out Beornred, who had succeeded a few 
months earlier on the murder of ^Ethelbald. He traced his 
descent from Pybba, the father of Penda, through Eowa, brother 
of that king, his own father's name being Thingferth. In 779 
he was at war with Cynewulf of Wessex from whom he wrested 
Bensington. It is not unlikely that the Thames became the 
boundary of the two kingdoms about this time. In 787 the 
power of Offa was displayed in a synod held at a place called 
Cealchyth. He deprived Jaenberht, archbishop of Canterbury, 
of several of his suffragan sees, and assigned them to Lichfield, 
which, with the leave of the pope, he constituted as a separate 
archbishopric under Hygeberht. He also took advantage 
of this meeting to have his son Ecgferth consecrated as his 
colleague, and that prince subsequently signed charters as 
Rex Merciorum. In 789 Offa secured the alliance of Berhtric 
of Wessex by giving him his daughter Eadburg in marriage. 
In 794 he appears to have caused the death of ^Ethelberht of 
East Anglia, though some accounts ascribe the murder to 
Cynethryth, the wife of Offa. In 796 Offa died after a reign of 
thirty-nine years and was succeeded by his son Ecgferth. It 
is customary to ascribe to Offa a policy of limited scope, namely 
the establishment of Mercia in a position equal to that of Wessex 
and of Northumbria. This is supposed to be illustrated by his 
measures with regard to the see of Lichfield. It cannot be 
doubted, however, that at this time Mercia was a much more 
formidable power than Wessex. Offa, like most of his predecessors, 

probably held a kind of supremacy over all kingdoms south of 
the Humber. He seems, however, not to have been contented 
with this position, and to have entertained the design of putting 
an end to the dependent kingdoms. At all events we hear of 
no kings of the Hwicce after about 780, and the kings of Sussex 
seem to have given up the royal title about the same time. 
Further, there is no evidence for any kings in Kent from 784 
until after Offa's death. To Offa is ascribed by Asser, in his 
life of Alfred, the great fortification against the Welsh which 
is still known as " Offa's dike." It stretched from sea to sea 
and consisted of a wall and a rampart. An account of his Welsh 
campaigns is given in the Vitae duorum Offarum, but it is difficult 
to determine how far the stories there given have an historical 

See Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ed. J. Earle and C. Plummer (Oxford, 
1899), s.a. 755, 777, 785, 787, 792, 794, 796, 836; W. de G. Birch, 
Carlularium Saxonicum (London, 1885-1893), vol. i. ; Asser, Life of 
Alfred, ed. W. H. Stevenson (Oxford, 1904) ; Vitae duorum Offarum 
(in works of Matthew Paris, ed. W. Wats, London, 1640). 

OFFAL, refuse or waste stuff, the " off fall," that which falls 
off (cf. Dutch afval, Ger. Abfall). The term is applied especially 
to the waste parts of an animal that has been slaughtered for 
food, to putrid flesh or carrion, and to waste fish, especially 
to the little ones that get caught in the nets with the larger 
and better fish, and are thrown away or used as manure. As 
applied to grain "offal" is used of grains too small or light for 
use for flour, and also in flour milling of the husk or bran of 
wheat with a certain amount of flour attaching, sold for feeding 
beasts (see Flour). 

OFFENBACH, JACQUES (1810-1880), French composer of 
oplra bouffe, was born at Cologne, of German Jewish parents, 
on the 21st of June 1819. His talent for music was developed 
at a very early age; and in 1833 he was sent to Paris to study 
the violoncello at the conservatoire, where, under the care of 
Professor Vaslin, he became a fairly good performer. In 1834 
he became a member of the orchestra of the Op6ra Comique; 
and he turned his opportunities to good account, so that 
eventually he was made conductor at the Theatre Francais. 
There, in 1848, he made his first success as a composer in the 
Chanson de Fortunio in Alfred de Musset's play Le Chandelier. 
From this time forward his life became a ceaseless struggle 
for the attainment of popularity. His power of production was 
apparently inexhaustible. His first complete work, Pepito, 
was produced at the Opera Comique in 1853. This was followed 
by a crowd of dramatic pieces of a light character, which daily 
gained in favour with Parisian audiences, and eventually effected 
a complete revolution in the popular taste of the period. En- 
couraged by these early successes, Offenbach boldly undertook 
the delicate task of entirely remodelling both the form and the 
style of the light musical pieces which had so long been welcomed 
with acclamation by the frequenters of the smaller theatres in 
Paris. With this purpose in view he obtained a lease of the 
Theatre Comte in the Passage Choiseul, reopened it in 1855 under 
the title of the Bouffes Parisiens, and night after night attracted 
crowded audiences by a succession of brilliant, humorous trifles. 
Ludovic Halevy, the librettist, was associated with him from 
the first, but still more after i860, when Halevy obtained Henri 
Meilhac's collaboration (see Halevy). Beginning with Les Deux 
Aveugles and Le Violoneux, the series of Offenbach's operettas 
was rapidly continued, until in 1867 its triumph culminated 
in La Grande Duchesse de Gerolstein, perhaps the most popular 
opera bouffe that ever was written, not excepting even his Orphee 
aux enfers, produced in 1858. From this time forward the success 
of Offenbach's pieces became an absolute certainty, and the 
new form of Optra bouffe, which he had gradually endowed 
with as much consistency as it was capable of assuming, was 
accepted as the only one worth cultivating. It found imitators 
in Lecocq and other aspirants of a younger generation, and 
Offenbach's works found their way to every town in Europe 
in which a theatre existed. Tuneful, gay and exhilarating, 
their want of refinement formed no obstacle to their popularity, 
and perhaps even contributed to it. In 1866 his own connexion 
with the Bouffes Parisiens ceased, and he wrote for various 



theatres. In twenty-five years Offenbach produced no less 
than sixty-nine complete dramatic works, some of which were 
in three or even in four acts. Among the latest of these were 
Le Docteur Ox, founded on a story by Jules Verne, and La Boite 
au lait, both produced in 1877, and Madame Favart (1879). 
Offenbach died at Paris on the 5th of October 1880. 

OFFENBACH, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of 
Hesse, on the left bank of the Main, 5 m. S.E. of Frankfort-on- 
Main, with which it is connected by the railway to Bebra and 
by a local electric line. Pop. (1905) 58,806, of whom about 
20,000 were Roman Catholics and 1400 Jews. The most interest- 
ing building in the town is the Renaissance chateau of the counts 
of Isenburg. Offenbach is the principal industrial town of the 
duchy, and its manufactures are of the most varied description. 
Its characteristic industry, however, is the manufacture of 
portfolios, pocket-books, albums and other fancy goods in 
leather. The earliest mention of Offenbach is in a document 
of 970. In i486 it came into the possession of the counts of 
Isenburg, who made it their residence in 1685, and in 1816, 
when their lands were mediatized, it was assigned to Hesse. 
It owes its prosperity in the first place to the industry of the 
French Protestant refugees who settled here at the end of the 
17th, and the beginning of the 18th century, and in the 
second place to the accession of Hesse to the German Zollverein 
in 1828. 

See Jost, Offenbach am Main in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart 
(Offenbach, 1901); Hager, Die Lederwareninduslrie in Offenbach 
(Karlsruhe, 1905). , 

OFFENBURG, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of 
Baden, 27 m. by rail S.W. of Baden, on the river Kinzig. Pop. 
(1905) 15,434. It contains a statue of Sir Francis Drake, a mark 
of honour due to the fact that Drake is sometimes regarded as 
having introduced the potato into Europe. The chief industries 
of the town are the making of cotton, linen, hats, malt, machinery, 
tobacco and cigars and glass. Offenburg is first mentioned about 
1 100. In 1223 it became a town; in 1248 it passed to the bishop 
of Strassburg; and in 1289 it became an imperial free city. 
Soon, however, this position was lost, but it was regained about 
the middle of the 16th century, and Offenburg remained a free 
city until 1802, when it became part of Baden. In 1632 it was 
taken by the Swedes, and in 1689 it was destroyed by the French. 

See Walter, Kurzer Abriss der Geschichte der Reichsstadt Offenburg 
(Offenburg, 1896). 

OFFERTORY (from the ecclesiastical Lat. offertorium, Fr. 
offertoire, a place to which offerings were brought), the alms of 
a congregation collected in church, or at any religious service. 
Offertory has also a special sense in the services of both the 
English and Roman churches. It forms in both that part of 
the Communion service appointed to be said or sung, during 
the collection of alms, before the elements are consecrated. In 
music, an offertory is the vocal or instrumental setting of the 
offertory sentences, or a short instrumental piece played by the 
organist while the collection is being made. 

OFFICE (from Lat. ojficium, " duty," " service," a shortened 
form of opifacium, from facere, " to do," and either the stem of 
opes, " wealth," " aid," or opus, " work "), a duty or service, 
particularly the special duty cast upon a person by his position ; 
also a ceremonial duty, as in the rites paid to the dead, the " last 
offices." The term is thus especially used of a religious service, 
the " daily office " of the English Church or the " divine office " 
of the Roman Church (see Breviary). It is also used in this 
sense of a service for a particular occasion, as the Office for the 
Visitation of the Sick, &c. From the sense of duty or function, 
the word is transferred to the position or place which lays 
on the holder or occupier the performance of such duties. 
This leads naturally to the use of the word for the buildings 
or the separate rooms in which the duties are performed, 
and for the staff carrying on the work or business in such 
offices. In the Roman curia the department of the Inquisi- 
tion is known as the Holy Office, in full, the Congregation 
of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (see Inquisition and 
Curia Romana). 

Offices of Profit. — The phrase " office of profit under the crown " 
is used with a particular application in British parliamentary 
practice. The holders of such offices of profit have been subject in 
regard to the occupation of seats in the House of Commons to 
certain disabilities which were in their origin due to the fear of 
the undue influence exercised by the crown during the constitu- 
tional struggles of the 17th century. Attempts to deal with the 
danger of the presence of " place-men " in the House of Commons 
were made by the Place Bills introduced in 1672-1673, 1694 and 
1743. The Act of Settlement 1700 (§ 3) laid it down that no 
person who has an office or place of profit under the king or 
receives a pension from the crown shall be capable of serving as 
a member of the House of Commons. This drastic clause, which 
would have had the disastrous effect of entirely separating the 
executive from the legislature, was repealed and the basis of 
the present law was laid down in 1706 by 6 Anne (c. 41). This 
first disqualifies (§ 24) from membership all holders of " new 
offices," 1 i.e. those created after October 1705; secondly (§ 25) 
it renders void the election of a member who shall accept any 
office of profit other than " new offices " but allows the member 
to stand for re-election. The disqualification attaching to many 
" new offices " has been removed by various statutes, and by 
§ 52 of the Reform Act 1867 the necessity of re-election is avoided 
when a member, having been elected subsequent to the accept- 
ance of any office named in a schedule of that act, is transferred 
to any other office in that schedule. The rules as to what offices 
disqualify from membership or render re-election necessary are 
exceedingly complicated, depending as they do on a large 
number of statutes (see Erskine May, Parliamentary Practice, 
nth ed., pp. 632-645, and Rogers, On Elections, vol. ii., 1906). 
The old established rule that a member, once duly elected, 
cannot resign his seat is evaded by the acceptance of certain 
minor offices (see Chiltern Hundreds) . 

OFFICERS. Historically the employment of the word 
" officer " to denote a person holding a military or naval com- 
mand as representative of the state, and not as deriving his 
authority from his own powers or privileges, marks an entire 
change in the character of the armed forces of civilized nations. 
Originally signifying an official, one who performs an assigned 
duty (Lat. officium), an agent, and in the 15th century actually 
meaning the subordinate of such an official (even to-day a constable 
is so called), the word seems to have acquired a military signific- 
ance late in the 16th century. 2 It was at this time that armies, 
though not yet " standing," came to be constituted almost 
exclusively of professional soldiers in the king's pay. Mercen- 
aries, and great numbers of mercenaries, had always existed, and 
their captains were not feudal magnates. But the bond between 
mercenaries and their captains was entirely personal, and the 
bond between the captain and the sovereign was of the nature 
of a contract. The non-mercenary portion of the older armies was 
feudal in character. It was the lord and not a king's officer who 
commanded it, and he commanded in virtue of his rights, not 
of a warrant or commission. 

European history in the late 15th century is the story of the 
victory of the crown over the feudatories. The instrument of 
the crown was its army, raised and commanded by its deputies. 
But these deputies were still largely soldiers of fortune and, in the 
higher ranks, feudal personages, who created the armies them- 
selves by their personal influence with the would-be soldier or 
the unemployed professional fighting man. Thus the first system 
to replace the obsolete combination of feudalism and " free 
companies " was what may be called the proprietary system. 
Under this the colonel was the proprietor of his regiment, the 
captain the proprietor of his company. The king accepted them 
as his officers, and armed them with authority to raise men, 
but they themselves raised the men as a rule from experienced 
soldiers who were in search of employment, although, like 

1 This section also disqualifies colonial governors and deputy 
governors and holders of certain other offices. 

2 At sea the relatively clear partition of actual duties amongst 
the authorities of a ship brought about the adoption of the term 
" officer " somewhat earlier. 



Falstaff, some captains and colonels " misused the King's press 
damnably." All alike were most rigorously watched lest by 
showing imaginary men on their pay-sheets they should make 
undue profits. A " muster " was the production of a number of 
living men on parade corresponding to the number shown on the 
pay-roll. An inspection was an inspection not so much of the 
efficiency as of the numbers and the accounts of units. A full 
account of these practices, which were neither more nor less 
prevalent in England than elsewhere, will be found in J. W. 
Fortescue's History of the British Army, vol. i. So faithfully 
was the custom observed of requiring the showing of a man for 
a man's pay, that the grant of a special allowance to officers 
administering companies was often made in the form of allowing 
them to show imaginary John Does and Richard Roes on the 

The next step was taken when armies, instead of being raised 
for each campaign and from the qualified men who at each 
recruiting time offered themselves, became " standing " armies 
fed by untrained recruits. During the late 17th and the 18th 
centuries the crown supplied the recruits, and also the money 
for maintaining the forces, but the colonels and captains re- 
tained in a more or less restricted degree their proprietorship. 

Thus, the profits of military office without its earlier burdens 
were in time of peace considerable, and an officer's commission 
had therefore a " surrender value." The practice of buying and 
selling commissions was a natural consequence, and this continued 
long after the system of proprietary regiments and companies 
had disappeared. In England " purchase " endured until 1873, 
nearly a hundred years after it had ceased on the continent of 
Europe and more than fifty after the clothing, feeding and pay- 
ment of the soldiers had been taken out of the colonels' hands. 
The purchase system, it should be mentioned, did not affect 
artillery and engineer officers, either in England or in the rest 
of Europe. These officers, who were rather semi-civil than 
military officials until about 1715, executed an office rather than 
a command — superintended gun-making, built fortresses and 
so on. As late as 1780 the right of a general officer promoted 
from the Royal Artillery to command troops of other arms was 
challenged. In its original form, therefore, the proprietary system 
was a most serious bar to efficiency. So long as war was chronic, 
and self-trained recruits were forthcoming, it had been a good 
working method of devolving responsibility. But when drill' 
and the handling of arms became more complicated, and, above 
all, when the supply of trained men died away, the state took 
recruiting out of the colonels' and captains' hands, and, as the 
individual officer had now nothing to offer the crown but his own 
potential military capacity (part of which resided in his social 
status, but by no means all), the crown was able to make him, 
in the full sense of the word, an officer of itself. This was most 
fully seen in the reorganization of the French army by Louis 
XIV. and Louvois. The colonelcies and captaincies of horse 
and foot remained proprietary offices in the hands of the nobles 
but these offices were sinecures or almost sinecures. The colonels, 
in peace at any rate, were not expected to do regimental duty. 
They were at liberty to make such profits as they could make 
under a stringent inspection system. But they were expected 
to be the influential figure-heads of their regiments and to pay 
large sums for the privilege of being proprietors. This classifica- 
tion of officers into two bodies, the poorer which did the whole 
of the work, and the richer upon which the holding of a com- 
mission conferred an honour that birth or wealth did not confer, 
marks two very notable advances in the history of army organiza- 
tion, the professionalization of the officer and the creation of the 
prestige attaching to the holder of a commission because he holds 
it and not for any extraneous reason. 

The distinction between working and quasi-honorary officers 
was much older, of course, than Louvois's reorganization. 
Moreover it extended to the highest ranks. About 1600 the 
"general" of a European army 1 was always a king, prince 
or nobleman. The lieutenant-general, by custom the com- 
mander of the cavalry, was also, as a rule, a noble, in 
1 Except in the Italian republics. 

virtue of his command of the aristocratic arm. But the 
commander of the foot, the " sergeant-major-general " or 
" major-general," was invariably a professional soldier. It was 
his duty to draw up the army (not merely the foot) for battle, 
and in other respects to act as chief of staff to the general. 
In the infantry regiment, the " sergeant-major " or " major " 
was second-in-command and adjutant combined. Often, if not 
always, he was promoted from amongst the lieutenants and 
not the (proprietary) captains. The lieutenants were the back- 
bone of the army. 

Seventy years later, on the organization of the first great 
standing army by Louvois, the " proprietors," as mentioned 
above, were reduced to a minimum both in numbers and in 
military importance. The word "major" in its various 
meanings had come, in the French service, to imply staff 
functions. Thus the sergeant-major of infantry became the 
" adjudant-major." The sergeant-major-general, as commander 
of the foot, had disappeared and given place to numerous 
lieutenant-generals and " brigadiers," but as chief of the staff 
he survived for two hundred years. As late as 1870 the 
chief of staff of a French army bore the title of " the major- 

Moreover a new title had come into prominence, that of 
" marshal " or " field marshal." This marks one of the most 
important points in the evolution of the military officer, his 
classification by rank and not by the actual command he holds. 
In the 1 6th century an officer was a lieutenant of, not in, 
a particular regiment, and the higher officers were general, 
lieutenant-general and major-general of a particular army. When 
their army was disbanded they had no command and possessed 
therefore no rank— except of course when, as was usually the 
case, they were colonels of permanent regiments or governors 
of fortresses. Thus in the British army it was not until 
late in the 18th century that general officers received any 
pay as such. The introduction of a distinctively military 
rank 2 of "marshal" or "field marshal," which took place in 
France and the empire in the first years of the 17th century, 
meant the establishment of a list of general officers, and the 
list spread downwards through the various regimental ranks, in 
proportion as the close proprietary system broke up, until it 
became the general army list of an army of to-day. At first 
field marshals were merely officers of high rank and experience, 
eligible for appointment to the offices of general, lieutenant- 
general, &c, in a particular army. On an army being formed, 
the list of field marshals was drawn upon, and the necessary 
number appointed. Thus an army of Gustavus Adolphus's 
time often included 6 or 8 field marshals as subordinate general 
officers. But soon armies grew larger, more mobile and more 
flexible and more general officers were needed. Thus fresh grades 
of general arose. The next rank below that of marshal, in France, 
was that of lieutenant-general, which had formerly implied the 
second-in-command of an army, and a little further back in 
history the king's lieutenant-general or military viceroy. 3 Below 
the lieutenant-general was the marSchal de camp, the heir of the 
sergeant-major-general. In the imperial service the ranks were 
field marshal and lieutenant field marshal (both of which survive 
to the present day) and major-general. A further grade of general 
officer was created by Louis XIV., that of brigadier, and this 
completes the process of evolution, for the regimental system 
had already provided the lower titles. 

The ranks of a modern army, with slight variations in title, 
are therefore as follows: 

(a) Field marshal: in Germany, Generalfeldmarschall; in Spain 
"captain-general"; in France (though the rank is in abeyance) 
" marshal." The marshals of France, however, were neither so 
few in number nor so restricted to the highest commands as are 
marshals elsewhere. In Germany a new rank, " colonel-general " 

2 The title was, of course, far older. 

3 In England, until after Marlborough's death, rank followed 
command and not vice versa. The first field marshals were the 
duke of Argyll and the earl of Cadogan. Marlborough's title, or 
rather office, was that of captain-general. 



(Generaloberst), has come into existence — or rather has been revived 1 
—of late years. Most of the holders of this rank have the honorary 
style of general-field-marshal. 2 

(b) General: in Germany and Russia, "general of infantry," 
" general of cavalry," " general of artillery." In Austria generals of 
artillery and infantry were known by the historic title of Feldzeug- 
meister (ordnance-master) up to 1909, but the grade of general of 
infantry was created in that year, the old title being now restricted 
to generals of artillery. In France the highest grade of general 
officer is the " general of division." In the United States army the 
grade of full " general " has only been held by Washington, Grant, 
Sherman and Sheridan. 

(c) Lieutenant-general (except in France) : in Austria the old title 
of lieutenant field marshal is retained. In the United States army 
the title " lieutenant-general," except within recent years, has been 
almost as rare as " general." Winfield Scott was a brevet lieutenant- 
general. The substantive rank was revived for Grant when he was 
placed in command of the Union Army in 1864. It was abolished 
as an American rank in 1907. 

(d) Major-general (in France, general of brigade): this is the 
highest grade normally found in the United States Army, generals 
and lieutenant-generals being promoted for special service only. 3 

(e) Brigadier-general, in the United States and (as a temporary 
rank only) in the British services. 

The above are the five grades of higher officers. To all intents 
and purposes, no nation has more than four of these five ranks, 
while France and the United States, the great republics, have only 
two. The correspondence between rank and functions cannot 
be exactly laid down, but in general an officer of the rank of 
lieutenant-general commands an army corps and a major-general 
a division. Brigades are commanded by major-generals, 
brigadier-generals or colonels. Armies are as a rule commanded 
by field marshals or full generals. In France generals of division 
command divisions, corps, armies and groups of armies. 

The above are classed as general officers. The " field officers " 
(French qfficiers sup&rieurs, German Stabsoffiziere) are as follows : 

(a) Colonel. — This rank exists in its primitive significance in every 
army. It denotes a regimental commander, or an officer of corre- 
sponding status on the staff. In Great Britain, with the " linked 
battalion " system, regiments of infantry do not work as units, 
and the executive command of battalions, regiments of cavalry 
and brigades of field artillery is in the hands of lieutenant-colonels. 
Colonels of British regiments who are quasi-honorary (though no 
longer proprietary) chiefs are royal personages or general officers. 
Colonels in active employment as such are either on the staff, 
commanders of brigades or corresponding units, or otherwise extra- 
regimentally employed. 

(b) Lieutenant-colonel: in Great Britain "the commanding 
officer " of a unit. Elsewhere, where the regiment and not the 
battalion is the executive unit, the lieutenant-colonel sometimes 
acts as second in command, sometimes commands one of the bat- 
talions. In Russia all the battalion leaders are lieutenant-colonels. 

(c) Major. — This rank does not exist in Russia, and in France is 
replaced by chef de bataillon or chef d'escadron, colloquially com- 
mandant. In the British infantry he preserves some of the character- 
istics of the ancient " sergeant-major," as a second in command 
with certain administrative duties. The junior majors command 
companies. In the cavalry the majors, other than the second-in- 
command, command squadrons; in the artillery they command 
batteries. In armies which have the regiment as the executive unit, 
majors command battalions ("wings" of cavalry, "groups" of 

Lastly the " company officers " (called in France and Germany 
subaltern officers) are as follows: — 

(a) Captain (Germany and Austria, Hauptmann, cavalry Ritt- 
meister) : in the infantry of all countries, the company commander. 
In Russia there is a lower grade of captain called " staff -captain," 
and in Belgium there is the rank of " second-captain." In all 
countries except Great Britain captains command squadrons and 
batteries. Under the captain, with such commands and powers as 
are delegated to them, are the subalterns, usually graded as— 

1 The 16th-century " colonel-general " was the commander of a 
whole section of the armed forces. In France there were several 
colonels-general, each of whom controlled several regiments, or 
indeed the whole of an " arm." Their functions were rather those 
of a war office than those of a troop-leader. If they held high 
commands in a field army, it was by special appointment ad hoc. 
Colonels-general were also proprietors in France of one company 
in each regiment, whose services they accepted. 

2 In Russia the rank of marshal has been long in abeyance. 

3 In the Confederate service the grades were general for army 
commanders, lieutenant-general for corps commanders, major- 
general for divisional commanders and brigadier-general for brigade 

(6) Lieutenant (first lieutenant in U.S.A., Oberleutnant in Germany 
and Austria). 

(c) Sub-lieutenant (second-lieutenant in Great Britain and U.S.A., 
Leutnant in Germany and Austria). 

(d) Aspirants, or probationary young officers, not of full com- 
missioned status. 

The continental officer is on an average considerably older, 
rank for rank, than the British; but he is neither younger 
nor older in respect of command. In the huge " universal 
service " armies of to-day, the regimental officer of France or 
Germany commands, in war, on an average twice the number of 
men that are placed under the British officer of equal rank. 
Thus a German or French major of infantry has about 900 
rifles to direct, while a British major may have either half a 
battalion, 450, or a double company, 220; a German captain 
commands a company of 250 rifles as against an English captain's 
no and so on. At the same time it must be remembered that 
at peace strength the continental battalion and company are 
maintained at little more than half their war strength, and the 
under-officering of European armies only makes itself seriously 
felt on mobilization. 

It is different with the questions of pay and promotion, which 
chiefly affect the life of an army in peace. As to the former 
(see also Pensions) the Continental officer is paid at a lower rate 
than the British, as shown by the table of ordinary pay per 
annum (without special pay or allowances) below: — 

Lieutenant-colonel l . 
Major 1 . . . . . . 

Captain 1 

Oberleutnant (Lieutenant) x . 

Second Lieutenant (Leutnant, 

Sous-lieutenant) l . . . 






139 to 200 
101 to 120 





150 to 195 


45 to 60 

1 Infantry, lowest scale, other arms and branches higher, often 
considerably higher. 

It must be noted that in France and Germany the major is a 
battalion commander, corresponding to the British lieutenant- 
colonel. But the significance of this table can only be realized 
when it is remembered that promotion is rapid in the British 
army and very slow in the others. The senior Oberleutnants' 
of the German army are men of 37 to 38 years of age; the senior 
captains 47 to 48. In 1908 the youngest captains were 36, the 
youngest majors 45 years of age. As another illustration, the 
captain's maximum pay in the French army, £10 per annum 
less than a British captain's, is only given after 12 years' service ' 
in that rank, i.e. to a man of at least twenty years' service. 
The corresponding times for British regular officers in 1905 
(when the effects of rapid promotions during the South African 
War were still felt) were 6 to 75 years from first commission to 
promotion to captain, and 14 to 19 years from first commission 
to promotion to major. In 1908, under more normal conditions, 
the times were 7 to 8j years to captain, 15 to 20 to major. In 
the Royal Engineers and the Indian army a subaltern is auto- 
matically promoted captain on completing 9 years' commissioned 
service, and a captain similarly promoted major after 18. 

The process of development in the case of naval officers (seeNAVY) 
presents many points of similarity, but also considerable differences. 
For from the first the naval officer could only offer to serve on the 
king's ship: he did not build a ship as a colonel raised a regiment, 
and thus there was no proprietary system. On the other hand the 
naval officer was even more of a simple office-holder than his comrade 
ashore. He had no rank apart from that which he held in the 
economy of the ship, and when the ship went out of commission 
the officers as well as the crew were disbanded. One feature of the 
proprietary system, however, appears in the navy organization; 
there was a marked distinction between the captain and the lieu- 
tenant who led the combatants and the master and the master's 
mate who sailed the ship. But here there were fewer " vested 
interests," and instead of remaining in the condition, so to speak, 
of distinguished passengers, until finally eliminated by the " levelling 
up " of the working class of officers, the lieutenants and captains 
were (in England) required to educate themselves thoroughly in 
the subjects of the sea officer's profession. When this process had 
gone on for two generations, that is, about 1670, the formation of a 


J 9 

permanent staff of naval officers was begun by the institution of 
half-pay for the captains, and very soon afterwards the methods of 
admission and early training of naval officers were systematized. 

The ranks in the British Royal Navy are shown with the relative 
ranks of the army in the following table (taken from King's Regu- 
lations), which also gives some idea of the complexity of the non- 
combatant branches of naval officers. 

Training of British Army Officers.— This may be conveniently 

by the Civil Service Commissioners as to their educational qualifica- 
tions. This examination is competitive in so far that vacancies at 
the Royal Military College at Sandhurst (for Cavalry, Infantry and 
Army Service Corps), or the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich 
(for Engineers and Artillery), go to those who pass highest, if physic- 
ally fit. Before presenting himself for this examination, the candidate 
must produce a " leaving certificate " from the school at which he 
was educated, showing that he already possesses a fair knowledge 

Corresponding Ranks. 



1. Field Marshals . 

2. Generals . 

3. Lieutenant-Generals 

4. Major-Generals . 

5. Brigadier-Generals . 

6. Colonels 

7. Lieutenant-Colonels 

Admirals of the Fleet 
Vice-Admirals . 
Rear-Admirals . 

8. Majors 


Captains of 3 years' seniority 

Captains under 3 years' seniority 

Commanders, but junior of that rank 

Lieutenants of 8 years' seniority . 

9. Captains 

10. Lieutenants .... 

1 1 . Second Lieutenants . 

12. Higher ranks of Warrant Officers 

Lieutenants under 8 years' seniority 


But junior of the army rank. 

Erigineer^in-Chief, if Engineer Vice-Admiral. 
Inspectors-General of Hospitals and Fleets. 
Engineer-in-Chief, if Engineer Rear-Admiral. 
Engineer Rear-Admiral. 

Deputy Inspectors-General of Hospitals and Fleets. 

Secretaries to Admirals of the Fleet. 


Engineer Captains of 8 years'seniority in that rank. 

Staff Captains of 4 years' seniority. 

Staff Captains under 4 years' seniority (navigating 

Secretaries to Commanders-in-Chief, of 5 years' 

service as such. 
Engineer Captains under 8 years' seniority in that 

Fleet-Surgeons. 1 
Secretaries to Commanders-in-Chief under 5 years' 

service. 1 
Fleet Paymasters. 1 
Engineer Commanders. 1 
Naval Instructors of 15 years' seniority. 1 
Engineer Lieutenants of 8 years' seniority, qualified 

and selected. 
Secretaries to Junior Flag Officers, Commodores, 1st 

Staff Paymasters and Paymaster. 
Naval Instructors of 8 years' seniority. 
Carpenter Lieutenant of 8 years' seniority. 

Secretaries to Commodores, 2nd Class. 
Naval Instructors under 8 years' seniority. 
Engineer Lieutenant under 8 years' seniority, or 

oyer if not duly qualified and selected. 
Assistant Paymasters of 4 years' seniority. 
Carpenter Lieutenant under 8 years' seniority. 
Assistant Paymasters under 4 years' seniority. 
Engineer Sub-Lieutenants. 
Chief Gunner. 1 
Chief Boatswain. 1 
Chief Carpenter. 1 
Chief Artificer Engineer. 1 
Chief Schoolmaster. 1 
Midshipmen. 2 
Clerks. 8 
Gunners. 1 
Boatswains. 1 
Carpenters. 1 
Artificer Engineer. 1 
Head Schoolmaster. 1 
Head Wardmaster. 1 

divided into two parts: (I.) that which precedes the appointment 
to a commission; (II.) that which succeeds it. 

I. Omitting those officers who obtain their commissions from 
the ranks, the training which precedes the appointment to a com- 
mission is subdivided into: (a) General Education; (b) Technical 

(a) General Education. — A fairly high standard of education is 
considered essential. Candidates from universities approved by the 
Army Council must have resided for three academic years at their 
university, and have taken a degree in any subject or group of 
subjects other than Theology, Medicine, Music and Commerce. A 
university candidate for a commission in the Royal Artillery must 
further be qualified in Mathematics. The obtaining of first-class 
honours is considered equivalent to one year's extra service in the 
army, and an officer can count that year for calculating his service 
towards his pension. University candidates are eligible for com- 
missions in the Cavalry, Royal Artillery, Infantry, Indian Army 
and Army Service Corps. For other branches of the service special 
regulations are, in force. 

Those candidates who have not been at a university are examined 

2 But senior of the army rank. 

of the subjects of examination. Candidates who fail to secure 
admission to these institutions, but satisfy the examiners that they 
are sufficiently well educated, can obtain commissions in the Special 

Candidates for commissions in the Royal Army Medical Corps 
and the Army Veterinary Corps are not required to pass an 
educational examination, the ordinary course of medical or veterinary 
education being deemed sufficient, but the Army Council may reject 
a candidate who shows any deficiency in his genera! education. 

Officers of the Colonial military forces wishing to obtain com- 
missions in the British Army must either produce a school or college 
"leaving certificate" or pass an examination held by the Army 
Qualifying Board, or must show that they have passed one of certain 
recognized examinations. 

(6) Technical Instruction. — In addition to general educational 
attainments, a fair knowledge of technical matters is expected from 

For Cavalry, Infantry, Royal Engineers, Royal Artillery and Army 
Service Corps, an examination must be passed in administration 
and organization; military history, strategy and tactics; military 



topography, engineering and law. In addition, the following 
conditions must be complied with: (i) University candidates are 
required to be members of the Senior Division of the Officers' 
Training Corps (see United Kingdom: Army) should there be a 
unit of that corps at the university to which they belong. They 
are further required to be attached for six weeks to a Regular unit 
during their residence at the university. If there is no Officers' 
Training Corps at his university, the candidate is attached to a 
Regular unit for twelve weeks (consecutively or in two stages). 
The final examination in military subjects is competitive. (2) 
Cadets of the Royal Military College are instructed in the following 
additional subjects: sanitation, French or German (or both), 
riding and horse management, musketry, physical training, drill 
and signalling. . Hindustani may be taken instead of French or 
German. (3) Cadets of the Royal Military Academy are instructed 
in the same subjects as the cadets at the Royal Military College, 
with the addition of artillery, advanced mathematics, chemistry, 
light, heat, electricity and workshop practice. Cadets who pass 
highest in the final examination for commissions are as a rule 
appointed to the Royal Engineers, the remainder to the Royal 
Artillery. (4) Officers of the Special Reserve, Territorial Force and 
certain other forces must have completed a continuous period of 
attachment of twelve months to a Regular unit of Cavalry, Artillery, 
Engineers or Infantry, and have served and been trained for at least 
one year in the force to which they belong, before presenting them- 
selves at the competitive examination in military subjects. The 
period of attachment to Regular units may be reduced if certain 
certificates are obtained. Candidates for commissions in the artillery 
must belong to the artillery branches of the above forces and have a 
certificate in riding and mathematics. They are not eligible for the 
Royal Engineers. (5) The conditions for Officers of the Colonial 
Military Forces are similar to those for the Special Reserve, &c, 
except that only two months' attachment to a Regular unit, or unit 
of the Permanent Colonial Forces, is required. (6) Commissions 
are also given to Cadets of the Royal Military College, Kingston, 
Canada; the training of that establishment being similar to that 
at the Royal Military College and the Royal Military Academy. 

Candidates for commissions in the Royal Army Medical Corps and 
Army Veterinary Corps are not examined in military subjects, 
but must pass in the appropriate technical subjects; those for the 
Royal Army Medical Corps passing two written and two oral 
examinations, one each in medicine and surgery ; those for the Army 
Veterinary Corps passing a written and an oral examination in 
veterinary medicine, surgery and hygiene. Candidates for the Royal 
Army Medical Corps have further to proceed to the Royal Army 
Medical College for instruction in recruiting duties, hygiene, 
pathology, tropical medicine, military surgery and military medical 

Royal Engineers attend the School of Military Engineering at 
Chatham, where long and elaborate courses of instruction are given 
in all subjects appertaining to the work of the corps, including 
practical work in the field and in fortresses. 

II. The training which succeeds the appointment to a commission 
consists partly of more detailed instruction in the subjects already 
learned, partly of the practical application of those subjects, and 
partly of more advanced instruction with its practical application. 

On first joining his unit the young officer is put through a course 
of preliminary drills, lasting, as a rule, for from three months 
(infantry) to six months (cavalry), though the time depends upon 
the individual officer's rate of progress. During this period, and for 
some considerable time afterwards, officers are instructed in " regi- 
mental duties," consisting of the interior economy of a regiment, 
such as financial accounts, stores, correspondence, the minor points 
of military law in their actual working, customs of the service, 
the management of regimental institutes, &c, with, in the case of 
the mounted branches, equitation and the care and management of 
horses. They are required to attend a number of courts-martial, 
as supernumerary members, before being permitted to attend one 
in the effective and official capacities of member or prosecutor, 
although from a legal point of view their qualification depends simply 
upon their rank and length of service. A course of musketry, 
theoretical and practical, is then gone through. Field training 
begins with lectures on the various evolutions of the squadron, 
battery or company, followed by actual practice in the field, arranged 
by the commanders of squadrons, batteries or companies. 

Before promotion from the rank of second-lieutenant to lieutenant, 
an examination must be passed in " Regimental Duties " (practical, 
oral and written) and " Drill and Field Training " (practical only). 
The officer is then taken in hand by the commanding officer of his 
regiment, battalion or brigade. He is frequently examined in the 
subjects in which he has already been instructed, and is practically 
taught the more advanced stages of topography, engineering, 
tactics, law and organization. The next stage consists of regimental 
drills, which include every kind of practical work in the field which 
can be done by a unit under the command of a lieutenant-colonel. 
After this come brigade, division and army manoeuvres. Officers 
have to pass examinations in military subjects for promotion until 
they attain the rank of major. The chief of these subjects are 
tactics, military topography, military engineering, military law, 
administration and military history. For majors, before promotion 

to lieutenant-colonel, an examination in " Tactical Fitness for 
Command " has to be passed. This examination is a test of ability 
in commanding the " three arms " in the field; a course of attach- 
ment to the two arms to which the officer does not belong being a 
necessary preliminary. 

Army Service Corps. — The officers of this corps have usually served 
for at least one year in the cavalry, infantry or Royal Marines, 
though commissions are also given to cadets of the Royal Military 
College. On joining, the officer first spends nine months on proba- 
tion, during which he attends lectures and practical demonstrations 
in the following subjects: military administration and organization 
generally; and as regards Army Service Corps work, in detail; 
organization of the Field Army and Lines of Communication; war 
organization and duties of the A.S.C. ; registry and care of corre- 
spondence; contracts; special purchases; precautions in receiving 
supplies, and care and issue of same; accounts, forms, vouchers 
and office work in general and in detail; barrack duties (including 
all points relating to coal, wood, turf, candles, lamps, gas, water, &c ). 
A thorough and detailed description of all kinds of forage, bread- 
stuffs, meat, groceries and other field supplies is given. The lectures 
and demonstrations in transport include, beside mounted and dis- 
mounted drill, wagon drill; carriages; embarkation and disem- 
barkation of men and animals; entraining and detraining; harness 
and saddlery; transport by rail and sea, with the office work 
involved. This course of instruction is given at the Army Service 
Corps Training Establishment at Aldershot. 

A satisfactory examination having been passed, the officer is 
permanently taken into the corps. Before promotion to captain he 
is examined in accounts, correspondence and contracts; judging 
cattle and supplies; duties of an A.S.C. officer in charge of a 
sub-district; interior economy of a company; military vehicles 
and pack animals; embarkation, disembarkation and duties on 
board ship; convoys; duties of brigade supply and transport 
officer in war. Captains, before promotion to major, are examined 
in lines of communication of an army in war; method of obtaining 
supplies and transport in war, and formation and working of depots; 
organization of transport in war; schemes of supply and transport 
for troops operating from a fixed base; duties of a staff -officer 
administering supply, transport and barrack duties at home. These 
are in addition to general military subjects. 

Royal Army Medical Corps. — On completion of the course of 
instruction at the Royal Army Medical College, lieutenants on pro- 
bation proceed to the R.A.M.C. School of Instruction at Aldershot 
for a two months' course in the technical duties of the corps, and at 
the end of the course are examined in the subjects taught. This 
passed, their commissions are confirmed. After eighteen months' 
service, officers are examined in squad, company and corps drills 
and exercises; the Geneva Convention; the administration, 
organization and equipment of the army in its relation to the medical 
services; duties of wardmasters and stewards in military hospitals 
and returns, accounts and requisitions connected therewith; duties 
of executive medical officers; military law. These successful candi- 
dates are then eligible for promotion to captain. Before promotion 
to major the following examination must be passed, after a course of 
study under such arrangements as the director-general of the Army 
Medical Service may determine: (1) medicine, (2) surgery, (3) 
hygiene, (4) bacteriology, (5) one out of seven special subjects named, 
and (6) military law. The examination for promotion from major 
to lieutenant-colonel embraces army medical organization in peace 
and war; sanitation of towns, camps, transports, &c. ; epidemiology 
and the management of epidemics; medical history of important 
campaigns; the Army Medical Service of the more important 
powers; the laws and customs of war, so far as they relate to the 
sick and wounded ; and a tactical problem in field medical adminis- 
tration. Officers who pass these examinations with distinction are 
eligible for accelerated promotion. 

Army Ordnance Department. — An officer of this department must 
have had at least four years' service in other branches of the army 
and must have passed for the rank of captain. They are then eligible 
to present themselves at an elementary examination in mathe- 
matics, -after passing which they attend a one year's course at the 
Ordnance College, Woolwich. The course comprises the following: 
(a) Gunnery (including principles of gun construction and practical 
optics); (b) Materiel, guns, carriages, machine guns, small arms 
and ammunition of all descriptions; (c) Army Ordnance Duties 
(functions of the corps; supply, receipt and issue of stores, &c); 
(d) Machinery; (e) Chemistry and Metallurgy; (/) Electricity. 
An advanced course follows in which officers take up any two of the 
subjects of applied mathematics, chemistry and electricity, combined 
with either small arms, optics or mechanical design. They are then 
appointed to the department and hold their appointments for four 
years, with a possible extension of an additional three years. 

Army Veterinary Corps. — A candidate on appointment as veterinary 
officer, on joining at Aldershot, undergoes a course of special training 
at the Army Veterinary School. The course lasts one year, and 
consists of (a) hygiene; conformation of the foot and shoeing, 
conformation, points, colours, markings; stable construction and 
management ; management of horses in the open and q{ large bodies 
of sick; saddles and sore backs; collars and sore shoulders; bits 
and bitting; transport by sea and rail; mules, donkeys, camels 



and oxen; remount depots; training of army horses; marching. 
(b) Diseases met with specially on active service, (c) Military 
etiquette and ethics; accounts and returns; administration and 
organization; veterinary hospitals, mobilization, map-reading and 
law. At the end of the course he is examined, and if found satis- 
factory, is retained in the service. Before promotion to captain 
he is examined in the duties of executive veterinary officers and in 
law: before promotion to major, in medicine, surgery, hygiene, 
bacteriology and tropical diseases, and in one special subject selected 
by the candidate; and before promotion to lieutenant -colonel, 
in law, duties of administrative veterinary officers at home and 
abroad, management of epizootics, sanitation of stables, horse-lines 
and transports. 

Army Pay Department. — Officers are appointed to the department, 
on probation for a period not exceeding one year, after serving for 
five years in one of the other arms or branches of the service. At 
the end of this period the candidates are examined in the following 
subjects: examination of company pay lists and pay and mess 
book; method of keeping accounts and preparing balance-sheets 
and monthly estimates; knowledge of pay- warrant, allowance 
regulations and financial instructions, book-keeping, by double entry 
and the. duties attending the payment of soldiers; aptitude for 
accounts, and quickness and neatness in work. On completion of 
five years' service, officers return to their regiments, unless they 
elect to remain with the department or are required by the Army 
Council to be permanently attached to it. 

Schools and Colleges. — The training of the officer in his regiment is 
necessarily incomplete, owing to a far wider knowledge of his pro- 
fession in general, and of his own branch of the service in particular, 
being essential, than can be acquired within the comparatively 
confined limits of his own unit. Accordingly, schools and colleges 
have been established, in which special courses of instruction are 
given, dealing more fully with the generalities and details of the 
various branches of the service. 

There is a cavalry school at Netheravon. 

Mounted Infantry schools have been established at Longmoor, 
Bulford and Kilworth, which train both officers and men in mounted 
infantry duties. The officers selected to be trained at these schools 
must have at least two years' service, have completed a trained 
soldier's course of musketry and should have some knowledge of 
horsemanship and be able to ride. The instruction consists for the 
most part of riding school and field training. 

The School of Gunnery at Shoeburyness gives five courses of 
instruction per annum; one " Staff " course for Ordnance officers, 
lasting one month; two courses for senior officers of the Royal 
Artillery, lasting a fortnight each, and two courses for junior officers 
of the same regiment, lasting one month each. For Royal Garrison 
Artillery officers there is one " Staff " course lasting for seven months 
(this being a continuation of tne previous "Staff " course), and two 
courses, lasting four months each, for junior officers. There is also 
a school of gunnery at Lydd, where two courses, lasting for three 
weeks each, in siege artillery, are given each year. 

The Ordnance College at Woolwich provides various courses of 
instruction in addition to those intended for officers of the Ordnance 
Department. There is a " Gunnery Staff Course " for senior officers, 
in gunnery, guns, carriages, ammunition, electricity and machinery ; 
two courses for junior officers of the Royal Artillery in the same 
subjects ; a course for officers of the Army Service Corps in mechanical 
transport, which includes instruction in allied subjects, such as 
electricity and chemistry. It also gives courses of instruction to 
officers of the Royal Navy. 

The School of Military Engineering at Chatham trains officers of 
the Royal Engineers, compiles official text-books on field defences, 
attack and defence of fortresses, military bridging, mining, encamp- 
ments, railways. 

The School of Musketry at Hythe (besides assisting and directing 
the musketry training of the army at large by revising regulations, 
experiments, &c.) trains officers of all branches of the service in 
theoretical and practical musketry, the courses lasting about a month 
each and embracing fire control, the training of the eye in quick 
perception, fire effect and so on. Courses in the Maxim gun usually 

The Staff College (see also Staff) at Camberley is the most im- 
portant of the military colleges. Only specially selected officers 
are eligible to attempt the entrance examination. The course lasts 
two years, and is divided into: (a) military history, strategy, 
tactics, imperial strategy, strategic distribution, coast defence, 
fortification, war organization, reconnaissance; (b) staff duties, 
administration, peace distribution, mobilization, movements of 
troops by land and sea, supply, transport, remounts, organization, 
law and topographical reconnaissance. Visits are paid to workshops, 
fortresses, continental battlefields, &c, and staff tours are carried 
out. Officers of the non-mounted branches attend riding school, 
and students can be examined in any foreign languages they may 
have previously studied. They are also attached for short periods 
to arms of the service other than those to which they belong, and 
attend at staff offices to ensure their being conversant with the work 
done there. 

The Army Service Corps Training Establishment at Aldershot 
gives courses of instruction to senior officers of the corps at which 

a limited number of officers of other corps may attend, provided 
they have passed through or been recommended for the Staff College. 
Other courses, in addition to the nine months' course for officers 
on probation for the corps are, one of twelve days for senior officers 
of the corps in mechanical transport; two (one long and one 
short) in the same subject for other officers; one for officers 
in other branches of the service in judging provisions; and one 
for lieutenants of the Royal Army Medical Corps in supply and 

Other colleges and schools are: the Balloon School at Farn- 
borough, for officers of the Royal Engineers; Schools of Electric 
Lighting at Plymouth and Portsmouth; the School of Signalling at 
Aldershot, for officers of all branches of the service; the School of 
Gymnastics, also at Aldershot; and the Army Veterinary School, 
where a one month's course is given to officers of the mounted 
branches in the main principles of horsemastership, stable manage- 
ment and veterinary first aid, in addition to the one year's course for 
officers on probation for the Army Veterinary Corps. 

To encourage the study of foreign languages, officers who pass a 
preliminary examination in any language they may select are allowed 
to reside in the foreign country for a period of at least two months. 
After such residence they may present themselves for examination, 
and if successful, receive a grant in aid of the expenses incurred. 
The grant is £80 for Russian, £50 for German, £24 for French and 
£30 for other languages. The final or " Interpretership " examina- 
tion for which the grant is given is of a very high standard. In the 
case of Russian, £80 is paid to the officer during his residence 
in Russia, in addition to the grant. Special arrangements are 
made with regard to the Chinese and Japanese languages; three 
officers for the former and four officers for the latter being selected 
annually for a two years' residence in those countries. During such 
residence officers receive £150 per annum, in addition to their pay, 
and a reward of £175 on passing the " Interpretership " examination. 

There has been a tendency of late years to give officers facilities 
for going through civilian courses of instruction; for example, at 
the London School of Economics and in the workshops of the 
principal railway companies. These courses enable the officer not 
only to profit by civilian experience and progress, but also to form 
an opinion as to his own knowledge, as compared with the knowledge 
of those outside his immediate surroundings. 

Promotion from the Ranks. — In several armies aspirant officers 
may join as privates and pass through all grades. This is hardly 
promotion from the ranks, however, because it is understood from 
the first that the young avantageur, as he is called in Germany, is a 
candidate for officer's rank, and he is treated accordingly generally 
living in the officers' mess and spending only a brief period in each 
of the non-commissioned ranks. True promotion from the ranks, 
won by merit and without' any preferential treatment, is practically 
unknown in Germany. In France, on the other hand, one-third of 
the officers are promoted non-commissioned officers. In Italy also 
a large proportion of the officers comes from the ranks. In Great 
Britain, largely owing to the chances of distinction afforded by 
frequent colonial expeditions, a fair number of non-commissioned 
officers receive promotion to combatants' commissions. The 
number is, however, diminishing, as shown by the following extracts 
from a return of 1909 (combatants only) : — 

1 885-1 888 annual average 34 (Sudan Wars, &c.) 

1889-1892 " " 25 

1893-1898 " " 19 

1899-1902 " " 35 (S. African War) 

1903-1908 " " 14 

Quartermasters and riding masters are invariably promoted from 
the lower ranks. 

Officers of reserve and second line forces are recruited in Great 
Britain both by direct appointment and by transfer from the regular 
forces. In universal service armies reserve officers are drawn from 
retired regular officers, selected non-commissioned officers, and 
most of all from young men of good social standing who are gazetted 
after serving their compulsory period as privates in the ranks. 

Foreign Armies 

The training of the officer of a foreign army differs very slightly 
from that of the British officer. Each country specializes according 
to its individual requirements, but in the main the training is much 
the same. 

Germany. — The Germans attend more closely to detail — being even 
microscopical — and it has been said that a little grit in the German 
military machine would cause a cessation of its working. Unfor- 
tunately for this argument, the German army has not yet given any 
signs of cessation of work, so few deviations from the smooth working 
of the military machine being permitted that the introduction of 
grit into this air-tight casing is practically impossible. At the same 
time, the German officer is trained to have initiative and to use 
that initiative, but he is expected to be discreet in the use of it and 
consequently undue insistence on literal obedience to instructions 
(as distinct from formal orders), and undue reticence on the part of 
senior, especially staff, officers is held to be dangerous, in that the 
regimental officer, if ignorant of the military situation, may, by acts 
of initiative out of harmony with the general plan, seriously prejudice 



the issue. The Germans attach special importance to instruction in 
the tactical handling of artillery. 

Italy. — The Italians make a speciality of horsemanship, their 
cavalry officers studying for two years at the cavalry school at 
Modena ; later at the school at Pinerolo, and later still at the school 
at Tor di Quinto. They also attach much importance to mountain 

France. — The formal training of the French officer does not appear 
to differ seriously from that of the British officer, with this exception, 
that as one-third or so of French officers are promoted from the 
non-commissioned ranks, a great feature of the educational system 
is the group of schools comprising the Saumur (cavalry), St Maixent 
(infantry) and Versailles (artillery and engineers), which are intended 
for under-officer candidates for commissions. The generality of the 
officers comes from the " special school " of St. Cyr (infantry and 
cavalry) and the Hcole Polytechnique (artillery and engineers). 

(R.J. G.) 

United States. — The principal source from which officers are 
supplied to the army is the famous Military Academy at West Point, 
N.Y. The President may appoint forty cadets and generally chooses 
sons of army and navy officers. Each senator and each representa- 
tive and delegate in Congress may appoint one. These appointments 
are not made annually, but as vacancies occur through graduation of 
cadets, or their discharge before graduation. The maximum number of 
cadets under the Twelfth Census is 533. The commanding officer of 
the academy has the title of superintendent and commandant. He'is 
detailed from the army, and has the temporary rank of colonel. The 
corps of cadets is organized as a battalion, and is commanded by an 
officer detailed from the army, having the title of commandant of 
cadets. He has the temporary rank of lieutenant-colonel. An 
officer of engineers and of ordnance are detailed as instructors of 
practical military engineering and of ordnance and gunnery respec- 
tively. The heads of the departments of instruction have the title 
of professors. They are selected generally from officers of the army, 
and their positions are permanent. The officers above mentioned 
and the professors constitute the academic board. The military staff 
and assistant instructors are officers of the army. The course of 
instruction covers four years and is very thorough. Theoretical 
instruction comprises mathematics, French, Spanish, English, 
drawing, physics, astronomy, chemistry, ordnance and gunnery, art 
of war, civil and military engineering, law (international, con- 
stitutional and military), history and drill regulations of all arms. 
Practical instruction comprises the, service drills in infantry, cavalry 
and artillery, surveying, reconnaissances, field engineering, construc- 
tion of temporary bridges, simple astronomical observations, fencing, 
gymnastics and swimming. Cadets are a part of the army, and 
rank between second lieutenants and the highest grade of non- 
commissioned officers. They receive from the government a rate 
of pay sufficient to cover all necessary expenses at the academy. 
About 50 % of those entering are able to complete the course. The 
graduating class each year numbers, On an average, about 60. A 
class, on graduating, is arranged in order according to merit, and its 
members are assigned as second lieutenants to corps and arm, 
according to the recommendation of the academic board. A few at 
the head of the class go into the corps of engineers ; the next in order 
generally go into the artillery, and the rest of the class into the 
cavalry and infantry. The choice of graduates as to arm of service 
and regiments is consulted as far as practicable. Any enlisted man 
who has served honestly and faithfully not less than two years, who 
is between twenty-one and thirty years of age, unmarried, a citizen 
of the United States and of good moral character, may aspire to a 
commission. To obtain it he must pass an educational and physical 
examination before a board of five officers. This board must, also 
inquire as to the character, capacity and record of the candidate. 
Many well-educated young men, unable to obtain appointments to 
West Point, enlist in the army for the express purpose of obtaining 
a commission. Vacancies in the grade of second lieutenant remain- 
ing, after the graduates of the Military Academy and qualified 
enlisted men have been appointed, are filled from civil life. To be 
eligible for appointment a candidate must be a citizen of the United 
States, unmarried, between the ages of twenty-one and twenty- 
seven years, and must be approved by an examining board of five 
officers as to habits, moral character, physical ability, education 
and general fitness for the service. In time of peace very few 
appointments from civil life are made, but in time of war there is a 
large number. 

There are, in addition to the Engineer School at Washington, 
D.C. four service schools for officers. These are: the Coast Artillery 
School at Fort Monroe, Virginia; the General Service and Staff 
College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas; the Mounted Service 
School at Fort Riley, Kansas; the Army Medical School at Wash- 
ington. The commandants, staffs and instructors at these schools 
are officers specially selected. The garrison at Fort Monroe is 
composed of several companies of coast artillery. The lieutenants 
of these companies, who constitute the class, are relieved and replaced 
by others on 1st September of each year. The course of instruction 
comprises the following subjects: artillery, ballistics, engineering, 
steam and mechanics, electricity and mines, chemistry and explosives, 
military science, practical military exercises, photography, telegraphy 
and cordage (the use of ropes, the making of various kinds of knots 

and lashings, rigging shears, &c, for the handling of heavy guns). 
July and August of each year are ordinarily devoted to artillery 
target practice. The course at the General Service and Staff 
College is for one year in each School. The class of student officers 
is made up of one lieutenant from each regiment of infantry arid 
tavalry, and such others as may be detailed. They are assigned to 
the organizations comprising the garrison, normally a regiment of 
infantry, a squadron (four troops) of cavalry and a battery of field 
artillery. The departments of instruction are: military art, 
engineering, law, infantry, cavalry, military hygiene. Much attention 
is paid to practical work in the minor operations of war, the troops 
of the garrison being utilized in connexion therewith. At the close 
of the final examinations of each class at Fort Monroe and Fort 
Leavenworth, those officers most distinguished for proficiency are 
reported to the adjutant-general of the army. Two from each class 
of the Artillery School, and not more than five from each class at 
the General Service and Staff College, are thereafter, so long as they 
remain in the service, noted in the annual army register as " honour 
graduates." The work of the Mounted Service School at Fort Riley 
is mainly practical, .and is carried on by the regular garrison, which 
usually, in time of peace, consists of two squadrons of cavalry and 
three field batteries, T ne government reservation at Fort Riley 
comprises about 40 sq. m. of varied terrain, so that opportunities are 
afforded, and taken advantage of, for all kinds of field operations. 
The Army Medical School is established at Washington. The faculty 
consists of four or more instructors selected from the senior officers 
of the medical department. The course of instruction covers a period 
of five months, beginning annually in November. The student officers 
are recently appointed medical officers, and such other medical 
officers, available for detail, as may desire to take the course. In- 
struction is by lecture and practical work, special attention being 
given to the following subjects: duties of medical officers in peace 
and war; hospital administration; military medicine, surgery and 
hygiene; microscopy and bacteriology; hospital corps drill and 
first aid to the wounded. (W. A. S.) 

OFFICIAL (Late Lat. officialis, for class. Lat. apparitor, from 
officium, office, duty), in general any holder of office under the 
state or a public body. In ecclesiastical law the word " official " 
has a special technical sense as applied to the official exercising 
a diocesan bishop's jurisdiction as his representative and in 
his name (see Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction). The title of 
" official principal," together with that of " vicar-general," is in 
England now merged in that of " chancellor " of a diocese (see 

OFFICINAL, a term applied in medicine to drugs, plants and 
herbs, which are sold in chemists' and druggists' shops, and to 
medical preparations of such drugs, &c, as are made in accord- 
ance with the prescriptions authorized by the pharmacopoeia. 
In the latter sense, modern usage tends to supersede " officinal " 
by " official." The classical Lat. officina meant a workshop, 
manufactory, laboratory, and in medieval monastic Latin was 
applied to a general store-room (see Du Cange, Gloss., s.v.); 
it thus became applied to a shop where goods were sold rather 
than a place where things were made. 

OGDEN, a city and the county-seat of Weber county, Utah, 
U.S.A., at the confluence of the Ogden and Weber rivers, and 
about 3.5 m. N. of Salt Lake City. Pop. (1890) 14,889; (1900) 
I 6,3i3, of whom 3302 were foreign-born; {1910 census) 
25,580. It is served by the Union Pacific, the Southern Pacific, 
the Oregon Short Line, and the Denver & Rio Grande railways. 
It is situated at an elevation of about 4300 ft. in the picturesque 
region of the Wasatch Range, Ogden Canon and the Great 
Salt Lake. Ogden is in an agricultural and fruit-growing 
region, and gold and silver are mined in the vicinity. It has 
various manufactures, and the value of the factory product 
increased from $1,242,214 in 1900 to $2,997,057 in 1905, or 
141-3%. Ogden, which is said to have been named in honour 
of John Ogden, a trapper, was laid out under the direction of 
Brigham Young in 1850, and was incorporated in the next year; 
in 1861 it received a new charter, but since 1898 it has been 
governed under a general law of the state. 

OGDENSBURG, a city and port of entry of St Lawrence 
county, New York, U.S.A., on the St Lawrence river, at the 
mouth of the Oswegatchie, 140 m. N. by E. of Syracuse, New 
York. Pop. (1890) 11,662; (1900) 12,633, oi whom 3222 were 
foreign-born; (190:0 census) 15,933. It is served by the New 
York Central & Hudson River and the Rutland railways, and 
by several lake and river steamboat lines connecting with ports 
on the Great Lakes, the city being at the head of lake navigation 



on the St Lawrence. Steam ferries connect Ogdensburg with 
Prescott, Ontario. The city is the seat of the St Lawrence State 
Hospital for the Insane (1890), and has a United States Customs 
House and a state armoury. The city became the see of a Roman 
Catholic bishop in 1872, and here Edgar Philip Wadhams (1817- 
1891) laboured as bishop in 1872-1891. It is the port of entry 
of the Oswegatchie customs district, and has an extensive 
commerce, particularly in lumber and grain. The city has 
various manufactures, including lumber, flour, wooden-ware, 
brass-ware, silks, woollens and clothing. The value of the 
factory products increased from $2,260,889 in 1900 to $3,057,271 
in 1905, or 35-2%. The site of Ogdensburg was occupied in 
1749 by the Indian settlement of La Presentation, founded by 
the Abbe Francois Piquet (1 708-1 781) for the Christian converts 
of the Iroquois. At the outbreak of the War of Independence 
the British built here Fort Presentation, which they held until 
1796, when, in accordance with the terms of the Jay Treaty, 
the garrison was withdrawn. Abraham Ogden (1 743-1 798), 
a prominent New Jersey lawyer, bought land here, and the 
settlement which grew up around the fort was named Ogdensburg. 
During the early part of the War of 1812 it was an important 
point on the American line of defence. On the 4th of October 
1 81 2 Colonel Lethbridge, with about 750 men, prepared to 
attack Ogdensburg but was driven off by American troops 1 
under General Jacob Brown. On the 22nd of February 1813 
both fort and village were captured and partially destroyed 
by the British. During the Canadian rising of 1837-1838 
Ogdensburg became a rendezvous of the insurgents. Ogdensburg 
was incorporated as a village in 181 8, and was chartered as a 
city in 1868. 

OGEE (probably an English corruption of Fr. ogive, a diagonal 
groin rib, being a moulding commonly employed; equivalents 
in other languages are Lat. cyma-reversa, Ital. gola, Fr. cymaise, 
Ger. Kehlleisten) , a term given in. architecture to a' moulding 
of a double curvature, convex and concave, in which the former 
is the uppermost (see Moulding). The name "ogee-arch" 
is often applied to an arch formed by the meeting of two con- 
trasted ogees (see Arch). 

OGIER THE DANE, a hero of romance, who is identified with 
the Frankish warrior Autchar (Autgarius, Auctarius, Otgarius, 
Oggerius) of the old chroniclers. In 771 or 772 Autchar accom- 
panied Gerberga, widow of Carloman, Charlemagne's brother, 
and her children to the court of Desiderius, king of the Lombards, 
with whom he marched against Rome. In 773 he submitted 
to Charles at Verona. He finally entered the cloister of St Faro 
at Meaux, and Mabillon {Acta SS. ord. St Benedicti, Paris, 1677) 
has left a description of his monument there, which had figures 
of Ogier and his friend Benedict or Benoit, with smaller images 
of Roland and la belle Aude and other Carolingian personages. 
In the chronicle of the Pseudo Turpin it is stated that innumer- 
able cantilenae were current on the subject of Ogier, and his 
deeds were probably sung in German as well as in French. The 
Ogier of romance may be definitely associated with the flight 
of Gerberga and her children to Lombardy, but it is not safe 
to assume that the other scattered references all relate to the 
same individual. Colour is lent to the theory of his Bavarian 
origin by the fact that he, with Duke Naimes of Bavaria, led 
the Bavarian contingent to battle at Roncesvaux. 

In the romances of the Carolingian cycle he is, on account 
of his revolt against Charlemagne, placed in the family of Doon 
de Mayence, being the son of Gaufrey de " Dannemarche." 
The Enfances Ogier of Adenes le Rois, and the Chevalerie Ogier 
de Dannemarche of Raimbert de Paris, are doubtless based on 
earlier chansons. The Chevalerie is divided into twelve songs or 
branches. Ogier, who was the hostage for his father at Charle- 
magne's court, fell into disgrace, but regained the emperor's 
favour by his exploits in Italy. One Easter at the court of Laon, 
however, his son Balduinet was slain by Charlemagne's son, 
Chariot, with a chess-board (cf. the incident of Renaud and 
Bertholais in the Quatre Fils Aymon). Ogier in his rage slays 
the queen's nephew Loher, and would have slain Charlemagne 
himself but for the intervention of the knights, who connived 

at his flight to »Lombardy. In his stronghold of Castelfort he 
resisted the imperial forces for seven years, but was at last taken 
prisoner by Turpin, who incarcerated him at Reims, while his 
horse Broiefort, the sharer of his exploits, was made to draw 
stones at Meaux. He was eventually released to fight the 
Saracen chief Brehus or Braihier, whose armies had ravaged 
France, and who had defied Charlemagne to single combat. 
Ogier only consented to fight after the surrender of Chariot, 
but the prince was saved from his barbarous vengeance by the 
intervention of St Michael. The giant Brehus, despite his 
17 ft. of stature, was overthrown, and Ogier, after marrying an 
English princess, the daughter of Angart (or Edgard), king of 
England, received from Charlemagne the fiefs of Hainaut and 

A later romance in Alexandrines (Brit. Mus. MS. Royal 15 E vi.) 
contains marvels added from Celtic romance. Six fairies visit 
,his cradle, the sixth, Morgan la Fay, promising that he shall 
be her lover. He has a conqueror's career in the East, and after 
two hundred years in the " castle " of Avalon returns to France 
in the days of King Philip, bearing a firebrand on which his life 
depends. This he destroys when Philip's widowed queen 
wishes to marry him, and he is again carried off by Morgan la 
Fay. The prose romance printed at Paris in 1498 is a version 
of this later poem. The fairy element is prominent in the Italian 
legend of Uggieri il Danese, the most famous redaction being 
the prose Libro dele balaglie del Danese (Milan, 1498), and in the 
English Famous and renowned history of Morvine, son to Oger 
the Dane, translated by J. M. (London, 1612). The Spanish 
Urgel was the hero of Lope de Vega's play, the Marques de 
Mantua. Ogier occupies the third branch of the Scandinavian 
Karlamagnus saga; his fight with Brunamont {Enfances Ogier) 
was the subject of a Danish folk-song; and as Holger Danske 
he became a Danish national hero, who fought against the 
German Dietrich of Bern (Theodoric " of Verona "), and was 
invested with the common tradition of the king who sleeps in 
a mountain ready to awaken at need. Whether he had originally 
anything to do with Denmark seems doubtful. The surname 
le Danois has been explained as a corruption of 1'Ardennois and 
Dannemarche as the marches of the Ardennes. 

Bibliography. — La Chevalerie Ogier de Danemarche, ed. J. B. 
Barrois (2 vols., Paris, 1845O; Les Enfances Ogier, ed. A. Scheler 
(Brussels, 1874) ; Hist. lilt, de la France, vols. xx. and xxii. ; G. Paris, 
Hist. poet, de Charlemagne (Paris, 1856); L. Gautier, Les Epopies 
francaises (2nd ed., 1878-1896); L. Pio, Sagnet om Holger Danske 
(Copenhagen, 1870); H. L. Ward, Catalogue of Romances, vol. i. 
pp. 604-610; C. Voretzsch, Uber die Sage von Ogier dem Danen 
(Halle, 1891); P. Paris, " Recherches sur Ogier le Danois," Bibl. de 
VEcole des Chartes, vol. iii. ; P. Rajna, Le Origini dell' epopea francese. 
(1884); Riezler, "Naimes v. Bayem und Ogier der Dane," in 
Sitzungsberichte der phil. hist. Classe der kl. Akad. d. Wiss., vol. iv. 
(Munich, 1892). 

OGILBY, JOHN (1600-1676), British writer, was born in or 
near Edinburgh in November 1600. His father was a prisoner 
within the rules of King's Bench, but by speculation the son 
found money to apprentice himself to a dancing master and to 
obtain his father's release. He accompanied Thomas Wentworth, 
earl of Strafford, when he went to Ireland as lord deputy, and 
became tutor to his children. Strafford made him deputy-master 
of the revels, and he built a little theatre in St Werburgh Street, 
Dublin, which was very successful. The outbreak of the Civil 
War ruined his fortunes, and in 1646 he returned to England. 
Finding his way to Cambridge, he learned Latin from kindly 
scholars who had been impressed by his industry. He then 
ventured to translate Virgil into English verse (1649-1650), 
which brought him a considerable sum of money. The success 
of this attempt encouraged Ogilby to learn Greek from David 
Whitford, who was usher in the school kept by James Shirley the 
dramatist. Homer his Iliads translated . . . appeared in 1660, 
and in 1665 Homer his Odysses translated . . . Anthony a. 
Wood asserts that in these undertakings he had the assistance 
of Shirley. At the Restoration Ogilby received a commission 
for the " poetical part " of the coronation. His property was 
destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666, but he rebuilt his house 
in Whitefriars, and set up a printing press, from which he issued 



many magnificent books, the most important of which were a 
series of atlases, with engravings and maps by Hollar and 
others. He styled himself " His Majesty's Cosmographer and 
Geographic Printer." He died in London on the 4th of 
September 1676. 

Ogilby also translated the fables of Aesop, and wrote three epic 
poems. His bulky output was ridiculed by John Dryden in Mac- 
Flecknoe and by Alexander Pope in the Dunciad. 

OGILVIE (or Ogilby), JOHN (c. 1580-1615), English Jesuit, 
was born in Scotland and educated mainly in Germany, where 
he entered the Society of Jesus, being ordained priest at Paris 
in 1613. As an emissary of the society he returned to Scotland 
in this year disguised as a soldier, and in October 1614 he was 
arrested in Glasgow. He defended himself stoutly when he was 
tried in Edinburgh, but he was condemned to death and was 
hanged on the 28th of February 161 5. 

A True Relation of the Proceedings against John Ogilvie, a Jesuit 
(Edinburgh, 1615), is usually attributed to Archbishop Spottiswoode. 
See also James Forbes, L'Eglise catholique en Ecosse: martyre de 
Jean Ogilvie (Paris, 1885) ; and W. Forbes-Leith, Narratives of 
Scottish Catholics (1885). 

OGILVY, the name of a celebrated Scottish family of which 
the earl of Airlie is the head. The family was probably descended 
from a certain Gillebride, earl of Angus, who received lands from 
William the Lion. Sir Walter Ogilvy (d. 1440) of Lintrathen, 
lord high treasurer of Scotland from 1425 to 1431, was the son 
of Sir Walter Ogilvy of Wester Powrie and Auchterhouse, a 
man, says Andrew of Wyntoun, " stout and manfull, bauld 
and wycht," who was killed in 1392. He built a castle at Airlie 
in Forfarshire, and left two sons. The elder of these, Sir John 
Ogilvy (d. c. 1484), was the father of Sir James Ogilvy (c. 1430-c. 
1504), who was made a lord of parliament in 1491; and the 
younger, Sir Walter Ogilvy, was the ancestor of the earls of 
Findlater. The earldom of Findlater, bestowed on James 
Ogilvy, Lord Ogilvy of Deskford, in 1638, was united in 1711 
with the earldom of Seafield and became dormant after the 
death of James Ogilvy, the 7th earl, in October 181 1 (see Sea- 
field, Earls of). 

Sir James Ogilvy's descendant, James Ogilvy, 5th Lord 
Ogilvy of Airlie (c. 1541-1606), a son of James Ogilvy, master 
of Ogilvy, who was killed at the battle of Pinkie in 1547, took a 
leading part in Scottish politics during the reigns of Mary and 
of James VI. His grandson, James Ogilvy (c. 1 593-1666), was 
created earl of Airlie by Charles I. at York in 1639. A loyal 
partisan of the king, he joined Montrose in Scotland in 1644 and 
was one of the royalist leaders at the battle of Kilsyth. The 
destruction of the earl's castles of Airlie and of Forther in 1640 
by the earl of Argyll, who " left him not in all his lands a cock 
to crow day," gave rise to the song " The bonny house o'Airlie." 
His eldest son, James, the 2nd earl (c. 161 5-c. 1704) also fought 
among the royalists in Scotland; in 1644 he was taken prisoner, 
but he was released in the following year as a consequence of 
Montrose's victory at Kilsyth. He was again a prisoner after 
the battle of Philiphaugh and was sentenced to death in 1646, 
but he escaped from his captivity at St Andrews and was after- 
wards pardoned. Serving with the Scots against Cromwell 
he became a prisoner for the third time in 165 1, and was in the 
Tower of London during most of the years of the Commonwealth. 
He was a fairly prominent man under Charles II. and James 
II., and in 1689 he ranged himself on the side of William of 
Orange. This earl's grandson, James Ogilvy (d. 1731), took part 
in the Jacobite rising of 171 5 and was attainted; consequently 
on his father's death in 171 7 he was not allowed to succeed 
to the earldom, although he was pardoned in 1725. When he 
died his brother John (d. 1761) became earl dejure, and John's 
son David (1725-1803) joined the standard of Prince Charles 
Edward in 1 745. He was attainted, and after the defeat of the 
prince at Culloden escaped to Norway and Sweden, afterwards 
serving in the French army, where he commanded " le regiment 
Ogilvy " and was known as " le bel Ecossais." In 1778 he was 
pardoned and was allowed to return to Scotland, and his family 
became extinct when his son David died unmarried in April 
181 2. After this event David's cousin, another David Ogilvy 

(1 785-1 849), claimed the earldom. He asserted that he was 
unaffected by the two attainders, but the House of Lords decided 
that these barred his succession; however, in 1826 the attainders 
were reversed by act of parliament and David became 6th 
earl of Airlie. He died on the 20th of August 1849 and was 
succeeded by his son, David Graham Drummond Ogilvy (1826- 
1881), who was a Scottish representative peer for over thirty 
years. The latter's son, David Stanley William Drummond 
Ogilvy, the 8th earl (1856-1900), served in Egypt in 1882 and 
1885, and was killed on the nth of June 1900 during the Boer 
War while at the head of his regiment, the 12th Lancers. His 
titles then passed to his son, David Lyulph Gore Wolseley 
Ogilvy, the 9th earl (b. 1893). 

A word may be said about other noteworthy members of the 
Ogilvy family. John Ogilvy, called Powrie Ogilvy, was a 
political adventurer who professed to serve King James VI. 
as a spy and who certainly served William Cecil in this capacity. 
Mariota Ogilvy (d. 1575) was the mistress of Cardinal Beaton. 
Sir George Ogilvy (d. 1663), a supporter of Charles I. during 
the struggle with the Covenanters, was created a peer as lord 
of Banff in 1642; this dignity became dormant, or extinct, 
on the death of his descendant, William Ogilvy, the 8th lord, 
in June 1803. Sir George Ogilvy of Barras (d. c. 1679) defended 
Dunnottar Castle against Cromwell in 1651 and 1652, and was 
instrumental in preventing the regalia of Scotland from falling 
into his hands; in 1660 he was created a baronet, the title 
becoming extinct in 1837. 

See Sir R. Douglas, Peerage of Scotland, new ed. by Sir J. B. Paul 
(1904 fol.). 

OGIVE (a French term, of which the origin is obscure; auge, 
trough, from Lat. augere, to increase, and an Arabic astrological 
word for the " highest point." have been suggested as derivations), 
a term applied in architecture to the diagonal ribs of a vault. 
In France ' the name is generally given to the pointed arch, 
which has resulted in its acceptance as a title for Gothic archi- 
tecture, there often called " le style ogival." 

OGLETHORPE, JAMES EDWARD (1696-1785), English 
general and philanthropist, the founder of the state of Georgia, 
was born in London on the 21st of December 1696, the son of 
Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe (1650-1702) of Westbrook Place, 
Godalming, Surrey. He entered Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
in 1 7 14, but in the same year joined the army of Prince Eugene. 
Through the recommendation of the duke of Marlborough he 
became aide-de-camp to the prince, and he served with distinction 
in the campaign against the Turks, 1716-17, more especially at 
the siege and capture of Belgrade. After his return to England 
he was in 1722 chosen member of parliament for Haslemere. 
He devoted much attention to the improvement of the circum- 
stances of poor debtors in London prisons; and for the purpose 
of providing an asylum for persons who had become insolvent, 
and for oppressed Protestants on the continent, he projected 
the settlement of a colony in America between Carolina and 
Florida (see Georgia). In 1745 Oglethorpe was promoted to 
the rank of major-general. His conduct in connexion with the 
Scottish rebellion of that year was the subject of inquiry by court- 
martial, but he was acquitted. In 1765 he was raised to the 
rank of general. He died at Cranham Hall, Essex, on the 1st of 
July 1785. ' 

Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe, the father, had four sons and four 
daughters, James Edward being the youngest son, and another 
James (b. 1688) having died in infancy. Of the daughters, Anne 
Henrietta (b. 1680-1683), Eleanor (b. 1684) and Frances Charlotte 
(Bolingbroke's " Fanny Oglethorpe ") may be specified as having 
played rather curious parts in the Jacobitism of the time; their 
careers are described in the essay on " Queen Oglethorpe " by^liss 
A. Shield and A. Lang, in the latter's Historical Mysteries (1904). 

OGOW£, one of the largest of the African rivers of the second 
class, rising in 3 S. in the highlands known as the Crystal range, 
and flowing N.W. and W. to the Atlantic, a little south of the 
equator, and some 400 m. following the coast, north of the mouth 
of the Congo. Its course, estimated at 750 m., lies wholly within 
the colony of Gabun, French Congo. In spite of its considerable 
size, the river is of comparatively little use for navigation, as 



rapids constantly occur as it descends the successive steps of the 
interior tablelands. The principal obstructions are the falls of 
Dume, in 13 E.; Bunji, in 12 35'; Chengwe, in 12° 16'; Boue, 
in 1 1° 53' ; and the rapids formed in the passes by which it breaks 
through the outei chains of the mountainous zone, between 10J 
and nf° E. In its lower course the river passes through a 
lacustrine region in which it sends off secondary channels. 
These channels, before reuniting with the main stream, traverse 
a series of lakes, one north, the other south, of the river. These 
lakes are natural regulators of the river when in flood. The 
Ogow6 has a large number of tributaries, especially in its upper 
course, but of these few are navigable. The most important are 
the Lolo, which joins on the south bank in 12 20' E., and the 
Ivindo, which enters the Ogowe a few miles lower down. Below 
the Ivindo the largest tributaries are the Ofowe, 400 yds. wide 
at its mouth (n° 47' E.), but unnavigable except in the rains, 
and the Ngunye, the largest southern tributary, navigable for 
60 m. to the Samba or Eugenie Falls. Apart from the narrow 
coast plain the whole region of the lower Ogowe is densely 
forested. It is fairly thickly populated by Bantu tribes who 
have migrated from the interior. The fauna includes tht ,gorilla 
and chimpanzee. 

The Ogowe rises in March and April, and again in October and 
November; it is navigable for steamers in its low- water condition 
as far as the janction of the Ngunye. At flood time the river 
can be ascended by steamers for a distance of 235 m. to a place 
called N'Jole. The first person to explore the valley of the 
Ogowe was Paul du Chaillu, who travelled in the country during 
1857-1859. The extent of the delta and the immense volume 
of water carried by the river gave rise to the belief that it must 
either be a bifurcation of the Congo or one of the leading rivers of 
Africa. However, in 1882 Savorgnan de Brazza (the founder of 
French Congo) reached the sources of the river in a rugged, sandy 
and almost treeless plateau, which forms the watershed between 
its basin and that of the Congo, whose main stream is only 140 m. 
distant. Since that time the basin of the Ogowe has been fully 
explored by French travellers. 

OGRE, the name in fairy tales and folk-lore of a malignant- 
monstrous giant who lives on human flesh. The word is French, 
and occurs first in Charles Perrault's Histoires ou contes du 
temps passi (1697). The first English use is in the translation of 
a French version of the Arabian Nights in 1713, where it is spelled 
hogre. Attempts have been made to connect the word with 
Ugri, the racial name of the Magyars or Hungarians, but it is 
generally accepted that it was adapted into French from the 
O. Span, huerco, huergo, uergo, cognate with Ital. orco, i.e. Orcus, 
the Latin god of the dead and the infernal regions (see Pluto) , 
who in Romance folk-lore became a man-eating demon of the 

OGYGES, or Ogygus, in Greek mythology, the first king of 
Thebes. During his reign a great flood, called the Ogygian 
deluge, was said to have overwhelmed the land. Similar legends 
were current in Attica and Phrygia. Ogyges is variously 
described as a Boeotian autochthon, as the son of Cadmus, or 
of Poseidon. 

O'HAGAN, THOMAS O'HAGAN, ist Baron (1812-1885), lord 
chancellor of Ireland, was born at Belfast, on the 29th of May 
181 2. He was educated at Belfast Academical Institution, and 
was called to the Irish bar in 1836. In 1840 he removed to Dublin, 
where he appeared for the repeal party in many political trials. 
_His advocacy of a continuance of the union with England, 
and his appointment as solicitor-general for Ireland in 1861 and 
attorney-general in the following year, lost him the support of 
the Nationalist party, but he was returned to parliament as 
member for Tralee in 1863. In 1865 he was appointed a judge of 
common pleas, and in 1868 became lord chancellor of Ireland in 
Gladstone's first ministry. He was the first Roman Catholic to 
hold the chancellorship since the reign of James II., an act 
throwing open the office to Roman Catholics having been passed 
in 1867. In 1870 he was raised to the peerage, and held office until 
the resignation of the ministry in 1874. In 1880 he again became 
lord chancellor on Gladstone's return to office, but resigned in 

1881. He died in London on the ist of February 1885, and was 
succeeded by his eldest son, Thomas Towneley (1878-1900), 
and then by another son, Maurice Herbert Towneley (b. 1882). 

O'HIGGINS, BERNARDO (1778-1842), one of the foremost 
leaders in the Chilean struggle for independence and head of 
the first permanent national government, was a natural son of 
the Irishman Ambrosio O'Higgins, governor of Chile (1 788-1 796), 
and was born at Chilian on the 20th of August 1778. He was 
educated in England, and after a visit to Spain he lived quietly 
on his estate in Chile till the revolution broke out. Joining the 
nationalist party led by Martinez de Rozas, he distinguished 
himself in the early fighting against the royalist troops despatched 
from Peru, and was appointed in November 1813 to supersede 
J. M. Carrera in command of the patriot forces. The rivalry that 
ensued, in spite of O'Higgins's generous offer to serve under 
Carrera, eventually resulted in O'Higgins being isolated and 
overwhelmed with the bulk of the Chilean forces at Rancagua 
in 1814. O'Higgins with most of the patriots fled across the 
Andes to Mendoza, where Jose de San Martin (q.v.) was prepar- 
ing a force for the liberation of Chile. San Martin espoused 
O'Higgins's part against Carrera, and O'Higgins, recognizing the 
superior ability and experience of San Martin, readily consented 
to serve as his subordinate. The loyalty and energy with which 
he acted under San Martin contributed not a little to the organiza- 
tion of the liberating army, to its transportation over the Andes, 
and to the defeat of the royalists at Chacabuco (1817) and Maipo 
(1818). After the battle of Chacabuco O'Higgins was entrusted 
with the administration of Chile, and he ruled the country firmly 
and well, maintaining the close connexion with the Argentine, 
co-operating loyally with San Martin in the preparation of the 
force for the invasion of Peru, and Seeking, as far as the confusion 
and embarrassments of the time allowed, to improve the welfare 
of the people. After the overthrow of the Spanish supremacy 
in Peru had freed the Chileans from fear of attack, an agitation 
set in for constitutional government. O'Higgins at first tried 
to maintain his position by calling a congress and obtaining a 
constitution which invested him with dictatorial powers. But 
popular discontent grew in force; risings took place in Concepcion 
and Coquimbo, and on the 28th of January 1823 O'Higgins 
was finally patriotic enough to resign his post of director-general, 
without attempting to retain it by force. He retired to Peru, 
where he was granted an estate and lived quietly till his death on 
the 24th of October 1842. 

See B. Vicuna Machenna, Vida de O'Higgins (Santiago, 1882), 
and M. L. Armunategni, La O'Higgins (Santiago, 1853) ; 
both containing good accounts of O'Higgins's career. Also P. B. 
Figueroa, Diccionario biogrdfico de Chile, 1550-1887 (Santiago, 
1888), and J. B. Suarez, Rasgos biogrdficos de hombres notables de 
Chile (Valparaiso, 1886). 

OHIO, a north central state of the United States of America, 
lying between latitudes 38 27' and 41 57' N. and between 
longitudes 80° 34' and 84° 49' W. It is bounded N. by Michigan 
and Lake Erie, E. by Pennsylvania and by the Ohio river which 
separates it from West Virginia, S. by the Ohio river which 
separates it from West Virginia and Kentucky, and W. by 
Indiana. The total area is 41,040 sq. m., 300 sq. m. being water 

Pkysiography.^-The state lies on the borderland between 
the Prairie Plains and the Alleghany Plateau. The disturbances 
among the underlying rocks of Ohio have been slight, and 
originally the surface was a plain only slightly undulating; 
stream dissection changed the region to one of numberless hills 
and valleys; glacial drift then filled up the valleys over large 
broken areas, forming the remarkably level till plains of north- 
western Ohio ; but at the same time other areas were broken by 
the uneven distribution of the drift, and south-eastern Ohio, 
which was unglaciated, retains its rugged hilly character, gradu- 
ally merging with the typical plateau country farther S.E. The 
average elevation of the state above the sea is about 850 ft., 
but extremes vary from 425 ft. at the confluence of the Great 
Miami and Ohio rivers in the S.W. corner to 1540 ft. on the 
summit of Hogues Hill about ij m. E. of Bellefontaine in the 
west central part. 



The main water-parting is formed by a range of hills which are 
composed chiefly of drift and extend W.S.W. across the state from 
' Trumbull county in the N.E. to Darke county, or about the middle 
of the W. border. North of this water-parting the rivers flow into 
Lake Erie; S. of it into the Ohio river. Nearly all of the streams 
in the N.E. part of the state have a rapid current. Those that flow 
directly into the lake are short, but some of the rivers of this region, 
such as the Cuyahoga and the Grand, are turned by drift ridges into 
circuitous courses and flow through narrow valleys With numerous 
falls and rapids. Passing the village of Cuyahoga Falls the Cuyahoga 
river descends more than 200 ft. in 3 m.; a part of its course is 
between walls of sandstone 100 ft. 01 more in height, and near its 
mouth, at Cleveland, its bed has been cut down through 60 ft. of 
drift. In the middle N. part of the state the Black, Vermilion and 
Huron rivers have their sources in swamps on the water-parting and 
flow directly to the lake through narrow valleys. The till plains of 
north-western Ohio are drained chiefly by the Maumee and San- 
dusky rivers, with their tributaries, and the average fall of the 
Maumee is only i-i ft. per mile, while that of the Sandusky decreases 
from about 7 ft. per mile at Upper Sandusky to 2-5 ft. per mile below 
Fremont. South of the water-parting the average length of the 
rivers is greater than that of those N. of it, and their average fall per 
mile is much less. In the S.W. the Great Miami and Little Miami 
rivers have uniform falls through basins that are decidedly rolling 
and that contain the extremes of elevation for the entire state. 
The central and S. middle part is drained by the Scioto river and its 
tributaries. The basin of this river is formed mostly in Devonian 
shale, and is bounded on the W. by a limestone rim and on the E. 
by preglacial valleys filled with glacial drift. In its middle portion 
the basin is about 40 m. wide and only moderately rolling, but toward 
the mouth of the river the basin becomes narrow and is shut in by 
high hills. In the E. part of Ohio the Muskingum river and its 
tributaries drain an area of about 7750 sq. m. or nearly one-fifth 
of the entire state. Much of the unglacial or driftlesg portion of the 
state is embraced within its limits, and although the streams now 
have a gentle or even sluggish flow, they have greatly broken the 
surface of the country. The upper portion of the basin is about 
100 m. in width, but it becomes quite narrow below Zanesville. The 
Ohio river flows for 436 m. through a narrow valley on the S. border 
of the state, and Lake Erie forms the N. boundary for a' distance of 
230 m. At the W. end of the lake are Sandusky and Maumee bays, 
each with a good natural harbour. In this vicinity also are various 
small islands of limestone formation which are attractive summer 
resorts. On Put-in-Bay Island are some interesting "hydration " 
caves, i.e. caves formed by the uplifting and folding of the rocks 
while gypsum was forming beneath, followed by the partial collapse 
of those rocks when the gypsum passed solution. Ohio has no 
large lakes within its limits, but there are several small ones on the 
water-parting, especially in the vicinity of Akron and Canton, 
and a few laige reservoirs in the W. central section. 

Fauna. — Bears, wolves, bison, deer, wild turkeys and wild pigeons 
were common in the primeval forests of Ohio, but they long ago 
disappeared. Foxes are still found in considerable numbers in 
suitable habitats; opossums, skunks and raccoons are plentiful in 
some parts of the state; and rabbits and squirrels are still numerous. 
AH the song-birds and birds of prey of the temperate zone are 
plentiful. Whitefish, bass, trout and pickerel are an important food 
supply obtained from the waters of the lake, and some perch, catfish 
and sunfish are caught in the rivers and brooks. 

Flora. — Ohio is known as the " Buckeye State " on account of 
the prevalence of the buckeye (Aesculus glabra). The state was 
originally covered with a dense forest mostly of hardwood timber, 
and although the merchantable portion of this has been practically 
all cut away, there, are still undergrowths of young timber and a 
great variety of trees. The white oak is the most common, but there 
are thirteen other varieties of oak, six of hickory, five of ash, five of 
poplar, five of pine, three of elm, three of birch, two of locust and 
two of cherry. Beech, black walnut, butternut, chestnut, catalpa, 
hemlock and tamarack trees are also common. Among native fruits 
^ire the blackberry, raspberry, elderberry, cranberry, wild plum and 
pawpaw (Asimina triloba). Buttercups, violets, anemones, spring 
beauties, trilliums, arbutus, orchids, columbine, laurel, honeysuckle, 
golden rod and asters are common wild flowers, and of ferns there 
are many varieties. 

Climate. — The mean annual temperature of Ohio is about 51 ° F.; 
in the N., 49-5°, and in the S., 53-5°. But except where influenced by 
Lake Erie the temperature is subject to great extremes; at Coalton, 
Jackson county, in the S.fc-. part of the state, the highest recorded 
range of extremes is from 104 to — 38° or 142 ; at Wauseon, 
Fulton county, near the N.W. corner, it is from 104 to —32° or 136°; 
while at Toledo on the lake shore the range is only from 99° to — 16 
or 1 1 5° F. July is the warmest month, and in most parts of the state 
January is the coldest; in a few valleys, however, February has a 
colder record than January. The normal annual precipitation for 
the entire state is 38-4 in. It is greater in the S.E. and least in the 
N.W. At Marietta, for example, it is 42-1 in., but at Toledo it is 
only 30-8 in. Nearly 60% of it comes in the spring and summer. 
The average annual fall of snow is about 37 in. in the N. and 22 in. 
in the S. The prevailing winds in most parts' are westerly, but 
sudden changes, as well as the extremes of temperature, are caused 

\ rnainly by the frequent shifting of the wind from N.W. to S.W. 
I and from S.W. to N.W. At Cleveland and Cincinnati the winds 
I blow mostly from the S.E. 

Soil. — In the driftless area, the S.E. part of the state, the soil is 
largely a decomposition of the underlying rocks, and its fertility 
varies according to their composition; there is considerable lime- 
stone in the E. central portion, and this renders the soil very pro- 
ductive. In the valleys also are strips covered with a fertile alluvial 
deposit. In the other parts of the state* the soil is composed mainly 
of glacial drift, and is generally deep and fertile. It is deeper and 
more fertile, however, in the basins of the Great Miami and Little 
Miami rivers, where there is a liberal mixture of decomposed limestone 
arid where extensive areas with a clay subsoil are covered with 
alluvial deposits. North of the lower course of the Maumee river is a 
belt of sand, but Ohio drift generally contains a large mixture of clay. 
Agriculture. — Ohio ranks high as an agricultural state. Of its 
total land surface 24^01,820 acres or nearly 94% was, in 1900, 
included in farms and 78-5 % of all the farm land was improved. 
There were altogether 276,719 farms; of these 93,028 contained less 
than 50 acres, 182,802 contained less than 100 acres, 150,060 con- 
tained less than 175 acres, 26,659 contained 175 acres or more, and 
164 contained 1000 acres or more. The average size of the farms 
decreased from 125-2 acres in 1850 to 99-2 acres in 1880 and 88-5 
acres in 1900. Nearly seven-tenths of the farms were worked in 
I900 by owners or part owners, 24,051 were Worked by cash tenants, 
51,880 were worked by share tenants, and 1969 were worked by 
negroes as owners, tenants or managers. There is a great variety of 
produce, but the principal crops are Indian corn, wheat, oats, hay, 
potatoes, apples and tobacco. In 1900 the acreage of cereals con- 
stituted 68-4 % of the acreage of all crops, and the acreage of 
Indian corn, wheat and oats constituted 99-3% of the total acreage 
of cereals. The Indian corn crop was 67,501,144 bushels in 1870; 
152,055,390 bushels in 1899 and 153,062,000 in 1909, when it was 
grown on 3,875,000 acres and the state ranked seventh among the 
states of the Union in the production of this cereal. The wheat Crop 
was 27,882,159 bushels in 1870; 50,376,800 bushels (grown on 
3,209,014 acres) in 1899; and 23,532,000 bushels (grown on 1,480,000 
acres) in 1909. The oat crop was 25,347,549 bushels in 1870; 
42,050,910 bushels (grown on 1,115,149 acres) in 1899; and 
56,225,000 bushels (grown on 1,730,000 acres) in 1909. The barley 
crop decreased from 1,715,221 bushels in 1870 to 1,053,240 bushels 
in 1899 and 829,000 bushels in 1909. The number of swine was 
1,964,770 in 1850; 3,285,789 in 1900; and 2,047,000 in 1910. 
The number of cattle was 1,358,947 in 1850; 2,117,925 in 1900; 
and 1,925,000 in 1910. In 1900 there were 868,832 and in 1910 
947,000 milch cows in the state. The number of sheep decreased 
slightly between 1870 and 1900, when there were 4,030,021; in 
19,16 there were 3,203,000 sheep in the state. The number of horses 
was 463,397 in 1850; 1,068,170 in 1900; and 977,000 in 1910. 
The cultivation of tobacco was of little importance in the state until 
about 1840; but the product increased from 10,454,449 lb in 1850 
to 34,735,235 lb in 1880, and to 65,957,100 lb in 1899, when the crop 
was grown on 71,422 acres; in 1909 the crop was 83,250,000 lb, 
grown on 90,000 acres. The value of all farm products in 1899 was 
$257,065,826. Indian corn, wheat and oats are grown in all parts, 
but the W. half of the state produces about three- fourths of the Indian 
corn and two-thirds of the wheat, and in the N. half, especially in 
the N.W. corner, are the best pat-producing counties. The N.E. 
quarter ranks highest in the production of hay. Domestic animals 
are evenly distributed throughout the state; in no county was their 
total value, in June 1900, less than $500,000, and in only three 
counties (Licking, Trumbull and Wood) did their value exceed 
$2,000,000; in 73 counties their value exceeded $1,000,000, but 
was less than $2,000,000. Dairying and the production of eggs are 
also important industries in all sections. Most of the tobacco is 
grown in the counties on or near the S.W. border. 

Fisheries. — Commercial fishing is important only in Lake Erie. 
In 1903 the total catch there amounted to 10,748,986 lb, valued at 
$317,027. Propagation facilities are being greatly improved, and 
tl\ere are stringent laws for the protection of immature fish. Inland 
streams and lakes are well supplied with game fish; state laws 
prohibit the sale of game fish and their being taken, except with 
hook and line. 

Mineral Products. — The mineral wealth of Ohio consists largely of 
bituminous coal and petroleum, but the state also ranks high in the 
production of natural gas, sandstone, limestone, grindstone, lime 
and gypsum. The coal fields, comprising a total area of 10,000 sq. m. 
or more, are in the E. half of the state. Coal was discovered here as 
early as 1770, and the mining of it was begun not later than 1828, 
but no accurate account of the output was kept until 1872, in which 
year it was 5,315,294 short tons; this was increased to 18,988,150 
short tons in 1900, and to 26,270,639 short tons in 1908— in 1907 
it was 32,142,419 short tons. There are 29 counties in which 
coal is produced, but 81-4% of it in 1908 came from Belmont, 
Athens, Jefferson, Guernsey, Perry, Hocking, Tuscarawas and 
Jackson counties. Two of the most productive petroleum fields of 
the United States are in part in Ohio ; the Appalachian field in the 
E. and S. parts of the state, and the Lima-Indiana field in the N.W. 
part. Some petroleum was obtained in the S.E. as early as 1859, 
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was discovered in the N.W. in 1884; in 1883 the output was only 
47,632 barrels, four years later it was 5,022,632 barrels, and in 
1896 it was 23,941,169 barrels, or 39% of the total output in the 
United States. For the next ten years, however, there was a decrease, 
and in 1908 the output had fallen to 10,858,797 barrels, of which 
6,748,676 barrels (valued at $6,861,885) was obtained in the Lima 
district, 4,109,935 barrels (valued at $7,315,667) from the south- 
east district, and 186 barrels (valued at $950), suitable for lubricat- 
ing purposes, from the Mecca-Belden district in Trumbull and 
Lorain counties. Natural gas abounds in the eastern, central and 
north-western parts of the state. That in the E. was first used 
in 1866, the N.W. field was opened in 1884, and the central field 
was opened in 1887. The value of the state's yearly flow increased 
steadily from $100,000 in 1885 to $5,215,669 in 1889, decreased 
from the latter year to $1,171,777 in 1897, and then increased to 
$8,244,835 in 1908. Some of the best sandstone in the United States 
is obtained from Cuyahoga and Lorain counties; it is exceptionally 
pure in texture (about 97% being pure silica), durable and evenly 
coloured light buff, grey or blue grey. From the Ohio sandstone 
known as Berea grit a very large portion of the country's grindstones 
and pulpstones has been obtained; in 1908 the value of Ohio's 
output of these stones was $482,128. Some of the Berea grit is also 
suitable for making oilstones and scythestones. Although the state 
has a great amount of limestone, especially in Erie and Ottawa 
counties, its dull colour renders it unsuitable for most building 
purposes. It is, however, much used as a flux for melting iron 
and for making quick lime. The quantity of Portland cement 
made in Ohio increased from 57,000 barrels in 1890 to, 563,113 
barrels in 1902 and to 1,521,764 barrels in 1908. Beds of rock 
gypsum extend over an area of 150 acres or more in Ottawa county. 
There is some iron ore in the eastern and south-eastern parts of the 
state, and the mining of it was begun early in the 19th century; 
but the output decreased from 254,294 long tons in 1889 to only 
26,585 long tons (all carbonate) in 1908. Ohio, in 1908, produced 
3,427,478 barrels of_ salt valued at $864,710. Other valuable 
minerals are clay suitable for making pottery, brick and tile (in 
1908 the value of the clay working products was $26,622,490) and 
sand suitable for making glass. The total value of the state's 
mineral products in 1908 amounted to $134,499,335. 

Manufactures. — The total value of the manufactures increased from 
$348,298,390 in 1880 to $641,688,064 in 1890, and to $832,438,113 
in 1900. The value of the factory product was $748,670,855 in 1900 
and $960,811,857 in 1905. 1 The most important manufacturing 
industry is that of iron and steel. This industry was established 
near Youngstown in 1804. The value of the products increased 
from $65,206,828 in 1890 to $138,935,356 in 1900 and to $152,859,124 
in 1905. Foundry and machine-shop products, consisting largely of 
engines, boilers, metal- working machinery, wood- working machinery, 
pumping machinery, mining machinery and stoves, rank second 
among the state's manufactures; their value increased from 
$43,617,072 in 1890 to $72,399,632 in 1900, and to $94,507,691 in 
1905. Flour and grist mill products rank third in the state; the 
value of the products decreased from $39,468,409 in 1890 to 
$37,390,367 in 1900, and then increased tc $40,855,566 in 1905. 
Meat (slaughtering and packing) was next in the value of the product, 
and increased from $20,660,780 in 1900 to $28,729,044 in 1905. 
Clay products rank fifth in the state; they increased in value from 
$16,480,812 in 1900 to $25,686,870 in 1905. Boots and shoes rank 
sixth; their value increased from $8,489,728 in 1890 to $17,920,854 
in 1900 and to $25,140,220 in 1905. Other leading manufactures are 
malt liquors ($21,620,794 in 1905), railway rolling-stock consisting 
largely of cars ($21,428,227), men's clothing ($18,496,173), planing 
mill products ($17,725,711), carriages and wagons ($16,096,125), 
distilled liquors ($ 1 5,976,523) , rubber and elastic goods ($ 1 5,963,603) , 
furniture ($13,322,608), cigars and cigarettes ($13,241,230), agri- 
cultural implements ($12,891,197), women's clothing ($12,803,582), 
lumber and timber products (812,567,992), soap and candles 
($11,791,223), electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies 
($11,019,235), paper and wood pulp ($10,961,527) and refined 
petroleum ($10,948,864). 

The great manufacturing centres are Cleveland, Cincinnati, 
Youngstown, Toledo, Columbus, Dayton and Akron, and in 1905 
the value of the products of these, cities amounted to 56-7% of 
that for the entire state. A large portion of the iron and steel is 
manufactured in Cleveland, Youngstown, Steubenville, Bellaire, 
Lorain and Ironton. Most of the automobiles are manufactured 
in Cleveland; most of the cash registers and calculating machines 
in Dayton; most of the rubber and elastic goods in Akron; nearly 
one-half of the liquors and about three-fourths of the men's clothing 
in Cincinnati. East Liverpool leads in the manufacture of pottery; 
Toledo in flour and grist mill products; Springfield in agricultural 
implements; Cincinnati and Columbus in boots and shoes; Cleve- 
land in women's clothing. 

Transportation and Commerce. — The most important natural 
means of transportation are the Ohio river on the S. border and Lake 

1 The statistics of 1905 were taken under the direction of the 
United States Census Bureau, but products other than those of the 
factory system, such, for example, as those of the hand trades, were 

Erie on the N. border. One of the first great public improvements 
made within the state was the connexion of these waterways by 
two canals — the Ohio & Erie Canal from Cleveland to Portsmouth, 
and the Miami & Erie Canal from Toledo to Cincinnati. The Ohio & 
Erie was opened throughout its entire length (309 m.) in 1832. The 
Miami & Erie was completed from Middletown to Cincinnati in 1827 ; 
in 1845 it was opened to the lake (250 m. from Cincinnati). The 
national government began in 1825 to extend the National Road 
across Ohio from Bridgeport, opposite Wheeling, West Virginia, 
through Zanesville and Columbus, and completed it to Springfield 
in 1837. Before the completion of the Miami & Erie Canal to Toledo, 
the building of railways was begun in this region, and in 1836 a 
railway was completed from that city to Adrian, Michigan. By 
the close of 1850 the railway mileage had increased to 575 m., 
and for the next forty years, with the exception of the Civil War 
period, more than 2000 m. of railways were built during each decade. 
At the close of 1908 there was a total mileage of 9,300-45 m. Among 
the railways are the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, 
the Baltimore & Ohio, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the 
New York, Chicago & St Louis, the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago 
& St Louis (Pennsylvania), the Pittsburgh, Ft. Wayne & Chicago 
(Pennsylvania), the Nypano (Erie), the Wheeling & Lake Erie, the 
Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, the Detroit, Toledo & Ironton, 
and the Norfolk & Western. As the building of steam railways 
lessened, the building of suburban and interurban electric railways 
was begun, and systems of these railways have been rapidly extended 
until all the more populous districts are connected by them. 

Ohio has six ports of entry. They are Cleveland, Toledo, San- 
dusky, Cincinnati, Columbus and Dayton, and the value of the foreign 
commerce passing through these in 1909 amounted to $9,483,974 
in imports (more than one-half to Cleveland) and $10,920,083 in 
exports (nearly eight-ninths from Cleveland). Of far greater volume 
than the foreign commerce is the domestic trade in coal, iron, lumber, 
&c, largely by way of the Great Lakes. 

Population. — The population of Ohio in the various census 
years was: (1800) 4S,3 6 S; (1810) 230,760; (1820) 581,434; 
(1830) 937,903; (1840) 1,519,467; (1850) 1,980,329; (i860) 
2 i339>5"; (1870) 2,665,260; (1880) 3,198,062; (1890) 
3,672,316; (1900) 4,157,545; (1910) 4,767,121. In 1900 and 
1910 it ranked fourth in population among the states. Of the 
total population in 1900, 4,060,204 or 97-6% were white and 
97,341 were coloured (96,901 negroes, 371 Chinese, 27 Japanese 
and 42 Indians). Of the same total 3,698,811 or 88-9% were 
native-born and 458,734 were foreign-born; 93-8% of the 
foreign-born consisted of the following: 204,160 natives of 
Germany, 65,553 of Great Britain, 55,018 of Ireland, 22,767 
of Canada (19,864 English Canadian), 16,822 of Poland, 15,131 
of Bohemia, 11,575 °f Austria and 11,321 of Italy. In 1906 
there were 1,742,873 communicants of different religious de- 
nominations, over one-third being Roman Catholics and about 
one-fifth Methodists. From 1890 to 1900 the urban population 
{i.e. population of incorporated places having 4000 inhabitants 
or more) increased from 1,387,884 to 1,864,519, and the semi- 
urban {i.e. population of incorporated places having less than 
4000 inhabitants) increased from 458,033 to 549,741, but the 
rural {i.e. population outside of incorporated places) decreased 
from 1,826,412 to 1,743,285. The largest cities are Cleveland, 
Cincinnati, Columbus (the capital), Toledo, Dayton, Youngstown, 
Akron, Canton, Springfield, Hamilton, Lima and Zanesville. 

Administration. — Ohio is governed under the constitution of 
1851 as amended in 1875, 1883, 1885, 1902, 1903, and 1905. An 
amendment may be proposed at any time by either branch of the 
General Assembly, and if after being approved by three-fifths of 
the members of both branches it is also approved at a general 
election by a majority of those voting on the question it is declared 
adopted; a constitutional convention may be called after a 
favourable two-thirds vote of the members of each branch of 
the Assembly and a favourable popular vote — a majority of those 
voting on the question; and the question of calling such a 
convention must be submitted to a popular vote at least once 
every twenty years. Under the constitution of 1802 and 1851 
the suffrage was limited to " white male " citizens of the 
United States, but since the adoption of the Fifteenth Amend- 
ment to the Federal Constitution (1870), negroes vote, though 
the constitution is unchanged. Since 1894 women who possess 
the usual qualifications required of men may vote for and be voted 
for as members of boards of education. The constitution requires 
that all elections be by ballot, and the Australian ballot system 
was adopted in 1891; registration is required in cities having 



a population of 11,800 or more. The executive department 
consists of a governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, 
auditor, treasurer and attorney-general. As a result of the 
dispute between Governor Arthur St Clair and the Territorial 
legislature, the constitution of 1802 conferred nearly all of the 
ordinary executive functions on the legislature. The governor's 
control over appointments was strengthened by the constitution 
of 1 85 1 and by the subsequent creation of statutory offices, 
boards and commissions, but the right of veto was not given to 
him until the adoption of the constitutional amendments of 
1903. The power as conferred at that time, however, is broader 
than usual, for it extends not only to items in appropriation bills, 
but to separate sections in other measures, and, in addition to the 
customary provision for passing a bill over the governor's veto 
by a two-thirds vote of each house it is required that the votes 
for repassage in each house must not be less than those given on 
the original passage. The governor is elected in November of 
even-numbered years for a term of two years. He is commander- 
in-chief of the state's military and naval forces, except when 
they are called into the service of the United States. He grants 
pardons and reprieves on the recommendation of the state 
board of pardons. If he die in office, resign or be impeached, the 
officers standing next in succession are the lieutenant-governor, 
the president of the Senate, and the speaker of the House of 
Representatives in the order named. 

Members of the Senate and House of Representatives are 
elected for terms of two years; they must be residents of their 
respective counties or districts for one year preceding election, 
unless absent on public business of the state or of the United 
States. The ratio of representation in the Senate is obtained 
by dividing the total population of the state by thirty-five, the 
ratio in the House by dividing the population by one hundred. 
The membership in each house, however, is slightly above these 
figures, owing to a system of fractional representation and to the 
constitutional amendment of 1903 which allows each county at 
least one representative in the House of Representatives. The 
constitution provides for a reapportionment every ten years 
beginning in 1861. Biennial sessions are held beginning on the 
first Monday in January of the even-numbered years. The 
powers of the two houses are equal in every respect except 
that the Senate passes upon the governor's appointments and 
tries impeachment cases brought before it by the House of 
Representatives. The constitution prohibits special, local and 
retroactive legislation, legislation impairing the obligation of 
contracts, and legislation levying a poll tax for county or state 
purposes or a tax on state, municipal and public school bonds 
(amendment of 1905), and it limits the amount and specifies the 
character of public debts which the legislature may contract. 

The judicial department in 1910 was composed of a supreme 
court of six judges, eight circuit courts. 1 of three judges each, 
ten districts (some with sub-divisions) of the common pleas 
court, the superior court of Cincinnati, probate courts, courts 
of insolvency in Cuyahoga and Hamilton counties, juvenile 
courts (established in 1904), justice of the peace courts and 
municipal courts. Under the constitution of 1802 judges were 
chosen by the legislature, but since 1851 they have been elected 
by direct popular vote — the judges of the supreme court being 
chosen at large. They are removable on complaint by a con- 
current resolution approved by a two-thirds majority in each 
house of the legislature. The constitution provides that the 
terms of supreme and circuit judges shall be such even number 
cf years not less than six as may be prescribed by the legislature — ■ 
the statutory provision is six years — that of the judges of the 
common pleas six years, that of the probate judges four years, 
that of other judges such even number of years not exceeding 
six as may be prescribed by the legislature — the statutory 
provision is six years — and that of justices of the peace such 
even number of years not exceeding four as may be thus 
p rescribed — the statutory provision is four years. 

Local Government. — The county and the township are the units 
of the rural, the city and the village t he units of the urban local 

1 The provision for circuit courts was first made in the constitution 
by an amendment of 1883. 

government. The chief county authority is the board of com- 
missioners of three members elected for terms of two years. The 
other officials are the sheriff, treasurer and coroner, elected for two 
years; the auditor, recorder, clerk of courts, prosecuting attorney, 
surveyor and infirmary directors, elected for two years; and the 
board of school examiners (three) and the board of county visitors 
(six, of whom three are women); appointed usually by the probate 
judge for three years. The chief township authority is the board of 
trustees of three members, elected by popular vote for two years. 
In the parts of the state settled by people from New England 
township meetings were held in the early days, but their functions 
were gradually transferred to the trustees, and by 1820 the meetings 
had been given up almost entirely. The other township officials are 
the clerk, treasurer, assessor, supervisor of roads, justices of the 
peace, constables, board of education and board of health. Under 
the constitution of 1802, municipal corporations were established 
by special legislation. The constitution of 1 85 1, however, provided 
for a general law, and the legislature in 1852 enacted a " general 
municipal corporations act," the first of its kind in the United States. 
The system of classification adopted in time became so elaborate 
that many municipalities became isolated, each in a separate class, 
and the evils of special legislation were revived. Of the two chief 
cities, Cleveland (under a special act providing for the government 
of Columbus and Toledo, also) in 1892-1902 was governed under the 
federal plan, which centralized power in the hands of the mayor; 
in Cincinnati there was an almost hopeless diffusion of responsibility 
among the council and various executive boards. The supreme court 
in June 1902 decided that practically all the existing municipal 
legislation was special in character and was therefore unconstitu- 
tional. (State ex. rel. Kniseley vs. Jones, 66 Ohio State Reports, 
453. See also 66 Ohio State Reports, 491.) A special session of the 
legislature was called, and a new municipal code was adopted on 
the 22nd of October which went into effect in April 1903; it was 
a compromise between the Cleveland and the Cincinnati plans, 
with some additional features necessary to meet the conditions 
existing in the smaller cities. In order to comply with the court's 
interpretation of the constitution, municipalities were divided into 
only two classes, cities and villages, the former having a population 
of five thousand or more; the chief officials in both cities and 
villages were the mayor, council, treasurer and numerous boards of 
commissions. This was an attempt to devise a system of government 
that would apply to Cleveland, a city of 400,000 inhabitants, and to 
Painesville with its 5000 inhabitants. The code was replaced by 
the Paine Law of 1909, which provided for a board of control (some- 
thing like that under the " federal plan " in Cleveland, Columbus 
and Toledo) of three members: the mayor and the directors (ap- 
pointed and removable by the mayor) of two municipal departments 
— public service and public safety, the former including public works 
and parks, and the latter police, fire, charities, correction and 
buildings. The mayor's appointments are many, and are seldom 
dependent on the consent of the council. A municipal civil service 
commission of three members (holding office for three years) is chosen 
by the president of the board of education, the president of the city 
council, and the president of the board of sinking fund commissioners ; 
the pay (if any) of these commissioners is set by each city. The 
city auditor, treasurer and solicitor are elected, as under the 

In 1908 a direct primary law was passed providing for party 
primaries, those of all parties in each district to be held at the same 
time (annually) and place, before the same election hoard, and at 
public expense, to nominate candidates for township and municipal 
offices and members of the school board; nominations to be by 
petition signed by at least 2 % of the party voters of the political 
division, except that for United States senators J of I % is the 
minimum. The law does not make the nomination of candidates 
for the United States Senate by this method mandatory nor such 
choice binding upon the General Assembly. 

Laws. — The property rights of husband and wife are nearly equal ; 
a wife may hold her property the same as if single, and a widower 
or a widow is entitled to the use for life of one-third of the real estate 
of which his or her deceased consort was seized at the time of his or 
her death. Among the grounds on which a divorce may be obtained 
are adultery, extreme cruelty, fraud, abandonment for three years, 
gross neglect of duty, habitual drunkenness, a former existing 
marriage, procurement of divorce without the state by one party, 
which continues marriage binding on the other, and imprisonment in 
a penitentiary. For every family in which there is a wife, a minor 
son, or an unmarried daughter, a homestead not exceeding $1000 
in value, or personal property not exceeding $500 in value, is exempt 
from sale for the satisfaction of debts. 

In 1908 an act was passed providing for local option in regard 
to the sale of intoxicating liquors, by an election to be called an 
initiative petition, signed by at least 35 % of the electors of a county. 

Charitable and Penal Institutions. — The state charitable and penal 
institutions are supervised by the board of charities of six members 
(" not more than three . . . from the same political party ") 
appointed by the governor, and local institutions by boards of county 
visitors of six members appointed by the probate judge. Each state 
institution in addition has its own board of trustees appointed by 
the governor, and each county infirmary is under the charge of three 



infirmary directors chosen by popular vote. There are hospitals for 
the insane at Athens, Columbus, Dayton, Cleveland, Carthage (10 m. 
from Cincinnati; Longview Hospital), Massillon, Toledo and Lima; 
a hospital for epileptics at Gallipolis, opened in 1893; institutions 
for feeble-minded, for the blind (opened 1839) and for the deaf 
(opened 1829) at Columbus; a state sanatorium for tuberculous 
patients at Mt. Vernon (opened 1909) ; an institution for crippled 
and deformed children (authorized in 1907) ; a soldiers' and sailors' 
orphans' home at Xenia (organized in 1869 by the Grand Army of 
the Republic); a home for soldiers, sailors, marines, their wives, 
mothers and widows, and army nurses at Madison (established by 
the National Women's Relief Corps; taken over by the state, 1904); 
and soldiers' and sailors' homes at Sandusky (opened 1888), supported 
by the state, and at Dayton, supported by the United States. The 
state penal institutions are the boys' industrial school near Lancaster 
(established in 1854 as a Reform Farm), the girls' industrial home 
(1869) at Rathbone near Delaware, the reformatory at Mansfield 
(authorized 1884, opened 1896) and the penitentiary at Columbus 

Education. — Congress in 1785 set apart I sq. m. in each township 
of 36 sq. m. for the support of education The public school system, 
however, was not established until 1825, and then it developed very 
slowly. The office of state commissioner of common schools was 
created in 1837, abolished in 1840 and revived in 1843. School 
districts fall into four classes — cities, villages, townships and special 
districts — each of which has its own board of education elected by 
popular vote. Laws passed in 1877, 1890, 1893 and 1902 have made 
education compulsory for children between the ages of eight and 
fourteen. The school revenues are derived from the sale and rental 
of public lands granted by Congress, and of the salt and swamp lands 
devoted by the state to such purposes, from a uniform levy of one 
mill on each dollar of taxable property in the state, from local levies 
(averaging 7-2 mills in township districts and 10-07 mills in separate 
districts in 1908), from certain fines and licences, and from tuition 
fees paid by non-resident pupils. The total receipts from all sources 
in 1908 amounted to $25,987,021; the balance from the preceding 
year was $11,714,135, and the total expenditures were $24,695,157. 
Three institutions for higher education are supported in large measure 
by the state: Ohio University at Athens, founded in 1804 on the 
proceeds derived from two townships granted by Congress to the 
Ohio Company; Miami University (chartered in 1809) at Oxford, 
which received the proceeds from a township granted by Congress in 
the Symmes purchase; and Ohio State University (1873) at Colum- 
bus, which received the proceeds from the lands granted by Congress 
under the act of 1862 for the establishment of agricultural and 
mechanical colleges, and reorganized as a university in 1878. Wilber- 
force University (1856), for negroes, near Xenia, is under the control 
of the African Methodist Episcopal Church ; but the state established 
a normal and industrial department in 1888, and has since contributed 
to its maintenance. Under an act of 1902 normal colleges, supported 
by the state, have also been created in connexion with Ohio and 
Miami universities. Among the numerous other colleges and uni- 
versities in the state are Western Reserve University (1826) at 
Cleveland, the university of Cincinnati (opened 1873) at Cincinnati, 
and Oberlin College (1833) at Oberlin. 

Finance. — The revenues of the state are classified into four funds; 
the general revenue fund, the sinking fund, the state common school 
fund and the university fund. The chief sources of the general 
revenue fund are taxes on real and personal property, on liquors and 
cigarettes, on corporations and on inheritances; in 1909 the net 
receipts for this fund were $8,043,257, the disbursements $9,103,301, 
and the cash balance at the end of the fiscal year $3,428,705. There 
is a tendency to reduce the rate on real property, leaving it as a 
basis for local taxation. The rate on collateral inheritances is 5 %, 
on direct inheritances 2 %, on the excess above $3000. There are 
state, county and municipal boards of equalization. A special tax 
is levied for the benefit of the sinking fund — one-tenth of a mill in 
1909. The commissioners of the fund are the auditor, the secretary 
of state and the attorney-general. The public debt, which began to 
accumulate in 1825, was increased by the canal expenditures to 
$16,880,000 in 1843. The constitution of 1851 practically deprived 
the legislature of the power to create new obligations. The funded 
debt was then gradually reduced until the last installment was paid 
in 1903. There still remains, however, an irredeemable debt due 
to the common schools, Ohio University and Ohio State University, 
in return for their public lands. About one-half of the annual common 
school fund is derived from local taxes; the state levy for this fund 
in 1909 was one mill, and the total receipts were $2,382,353. The 
university fund is derived from special taxes levied for the four 
institutions which receive aid from the state; in 1909 the levy was 
0-245 mills and the total receipts were $582,843. Several banks and 
trading houses with banking privileges were incorporated by special 
statutes between 1803 and 1817. Resentment was aroused by the 
establishment of branches of the Bank of the United States at Chilli- 
cothe and Cincinnati in 1817, and an attempt was made to tax them 
out of existence. State officials broke into the vaults of the Chilli- 
cothe branch in 1819 and took out $100,000 due for taxes. The 
Federal^ courts compelled a restoration of the money and pronounced 
the taxing law unconstitutional. In 1845 the legislature chartered 
for twenty years the State Bank of Ohio, based on the model of the 

State Bank of Indiana of 1834. It became a guarantee of conservative 
banking, and was highly successful. There were at one time thirty- 
six branches. Most of the state institutions secured Federal charters 
after the establishments of the national banking system (1863-1864), 
but the high price of government bonds and the large amount of capital 
required led to a reaction, which was only partially checked by the 
reduction of the minimum capital to $25,000 under the currency act 
of the 14th of March 1900. 

History. — Ohio was the pioneer state of the old North-West 
Territory, which embraced also what are now the states of 
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, and the N.E. corner 
of Minnesota. When discovered by Europeans, late in the first 
half of the 17th century, the territory included within what is 
now Ohio was mainly a battle-ground of numerous Indian tribes 
and the fixed abode of none except the Eries who occupied a 
strip along the border of Lake Erie. From the middle to the 
close of the 17th century the French were establishing a claim to 
the territory between the "Great Lakes and the Ohio river by 
discovery and occupation, and although they had provoked 
the hostility of the Iroquois Indians they had helped the 
Wyandots, Miamis and Shawnees to banish them from all 
territory W. of the Muskingum river. Up to this time the English 
had based their claim to the same territory on the discovery 
of the Atlantic Coast by the Cabots and upon the Virginia, 
Massachusetts and Connecticut charters under which these 
colonies extended westward to the Pacific Ocean. In 1701, 
New York, seeking another claim, obtained from the Iroquois 
a grant to the king of England of this territory which they claimed 
to have conquered but from which they had subsequently been 
expelled, and this grant was confirmed in 1726 and again in 1744. 
About 1730 English traders from Pennsylvania and Virginia 
began to visit the eastern and southern parts of the territory 
and the crisis approached as a French Canadian expedition under 
Celeron de Bienville took formal possession of the upper Ohio 
Valley by planting leaden plates at the mouths of the principal 
streams. This was in 1749 and in the same year George II. 
chartered the first Ohio Company, formed by Virginians and 
London merchants trading with Virginia for the purpose of 
colonizing the West. This company in 1750 sent Christopher 
Gist down the Ohio river to explore the country as far as the 
mouth of the Scioto river; and four years later the erection 
of a fort was begun in its interest at the forks of the Ohio. The 
French drove the English away and completed the fort (Fort 
Duquesne) for themselves. The Seven Years' War was the 
immediate consequence and this ended in the cession of the entire 
North-West to Great Britain. The former Indian allies of the 
French, however, immediately rose up in opposition to British 
rule in what is known as the Conspiracy of Pontiac (see Pontiac), 
and the supression of this was not completed until Colonel 
Henry Bouquet made an expedition (1764) into the valley of the 
Muskingum and there brought the Shawnees, Wyandots and 
Delawares to terms. With the North-West won from the French 
Great Britain no longer recognized those claims of her colonies 
to this territory which she had asserted against that nation, but 
in a royal proclamation of the 7th of October 1763 the granting 
of land W. of the Alleghanies was forbidden and on the 22nd of 
June 1774 parliament passed the Quebec Act which annexed 
the region to the province of Quebec. This was one of the 
grievances which brought on the War of Independence and during 
that war the North-West was won for the Americans by George 
Rogers Clark (q.v.). During that war also, those states which 
had no claims in the West contended that title to these western 
lands should pass to the Union and when the Articles of Con- 
federation were submitted for ratification in 1777, Maryland 
refused to ratify them except on that condition. The result 
was that New York ceded its claim to the United States in 1780, 
Virginia in 1784, Massachusetts in 1785 and Connecticut in 1786. 
Connecticut, however, excepted a strip bordering on Lake Erie 
for 120 m. and containing 3,250,000 acres. This district, known 
as the Western Reserve, was ceded in 1800 on condition that 
Congress would guarantee the titles to land already granted by 
the state. Virginia reserved a tract between the Little Miami 
and Scioto rivers, known as the Virginia Military District for 
her soldiers in the War of Independence. 



When the war was over and these cessions had been made 
a great number oi war veterans wished an opportunity to repair 
their broken fortunes in the West, and Congress, hopeful of 
receiving a large revenue from the sale of lands here, passed an 
ordinance on the 20th of May 1785 by which the present national 
system of land-surveys into townships 6 m. sq. was inaugurated 
in what is now S.W. Ohio in the summer of 1786. In March 
1786 the second Ohio Company (q.v.), composed chiefly of New 
England officers and soldiers, was organized in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, with a view to founding a new state between Lake 
Erie and the Ohio river. The famous North- West Ordinance 
was passed by Congress on the 13th of July 1787. This instru- 
ment provided a temporary government for the Territory with 
the understanding that, as soon as the population was sufficient, 
the representative system should be adopted, and later that 
states should be formed and admitted into the Union. There 
were to be not less than three nor more than five states. Of 
these the easternmost (Ohio) was to be bounded on the N., E. 
and S. by the Lakes, Pennsylvania and the Ohio river, and on 
the W. by a line drawn due N. from the mouth of the Great Miami 
river to the Canadian boundary, if there were to be three states, 
or to its intersection with an E. and W. line drawn through the 
extreme S. bend of Lake Michigan, if there were to be five. 
Slavery was forbidden by the sixth article of the ordinance; 
and the third article read: " Religion, morality and knowledge 
being necessary to good government and the happiness of man- 
kind, schools and the means of education shall for ever be 
encouraged." After the adoption of the North- West Ordinance 
the work of settlement made rapid progress. There were four 
main centres. The Ohio Company founded Marietta at the 
mouth of the Muskingum in 1788, and this is regarded as the 
oldest permanent settlement in the state. An association of 
New Jerseymen, organized by John Cleves Symmes, secured 
a grant from Congress in 1788-1792 to a strip of 248,540 acres 
on the Ohio between the Great Miami and the Little Miami, which 
came to be known as the Symmes Purchase. Their chief settle- 
ments were Columbia (1788) and Cincinnati (1789). The Virginia 
Military District, between the Scioto and the Little Miami, 
reserved in 1784 for bounties to Virginia continental troops, 
was colonized in large measure by people from that state. Their 
chief towns were Massieville or Manchester (1790) and Chillicothe 
(1796). A small company of Connecticut people under Moses 
Cleaveland founded Cleveland in 1796 and Youngstown was 
begun a few years later, but that portion of the state made very 
slow progress until after the opening of the Ohio & Erie Canal 
in 1832. 

During the Territorial period (1 787-1803) Ohio was first a 
part of the unorganized North-West Territory (1787-1799), 
then a part of the organized North-West Territory (1799-1800), 
and then the organized North-West Territory (1800-1803), 
Indiana Territory having been detached from it on the W. 
in 1800. The first Territorial government was established at 
Marietta in July 1788, and General Arthur St Clair (1784- 
1818), the governor, had arrived in that month. His ad- 
ministration was characterized by the final struggle with the 
Indians and by a bitter conflict between the executive and the 
legislature, which greatly influenced the constitutional history 
of the state. The War of Independence was succeeded by a 
series of Indian uprisings. Two campaigns, the first under 
General Josiah Harmar (1753-1813) in 1790, and the second 
under General St Clair in 1791, failed on account of bad manage- 
ment and ignorance of Indian methods of warfare, and in 1793 
General Anthony Wayne (q.v.) was sent out in command of a 
large force of regulars and volunteers. The decisive conflict, 
fought on the 20th of August 1 794, near the rapids of the Maumee, 
is called the battle of Fallen Timbers, because the Indians 
concealed themselves behind the trunks of trees which had been 
felled by a storm. Wayne's dragoons broke through the brush- 
Wood, attacked the left flank of the Indians and soon put them 
to flight. In the treaty of Greenville (3rd August 1795) the 
Indians ceded their claims to the territory E. and S. of the 
Cuyahoga, the Tuscarawas, and an irregular line from Fort 

Laurens (Bolivar) in Tuscarawas county to Fort Recovery in 
Mercer county, practically the whole E. and S. Ohio. The 
Jay Treaty was ratified in the same year, and in 1796 the British 
finally evacuated Detroit and the Maumee and Sandusky forts. 
By cessions and purchases in 1804, 1808 and 1817-1818 the 
state secured all of the lands of the Indians except their immediate 
' homes, and these were finally exchanged for territory W. of the 
Mississippi. The last remnant migrated in 1841. General 
Wayne's victory was followed by an extensive immigration of 
New Englanders, of Germans, Scotch-Irish and Quakers from 
Pennsylvania, and of settlers from Virginia and Kentucky, 
many of whom came to escape the evils of slavery. This rapid 
increase of population led to the establishment of the organized 
Territorial government in 1799, to the restriction of that govern- 
ment in Ohio in 1800, and to the admission of the state into the 
Union in 1803. , 

The Congressional Enabling Act of the 30th of April 1802 
followed that alternative of the North-West Ordinance which 
provided for five states in determining the boundaries, and in 
consequence the Indiana and Michigan districts were detached. 
A rigid adherence to the boundary authorized in 1787, however, 
would have resulted in the loss to Ohio of 470 sq. m. of territory 
in the N.W. part of the state, including the lake port of Toledo. 
After a long and bitter dispute — the Toledo War (see Toledo) — 
the present line, which is several miles N. of the S. bend of Lake 
Michigan, was definitely fixed in 18^7, when Michigan came into 
the Union. (For the settlement of the eastern boundary, see 

After having been temporarily at Marietta, Cincinnati, Chilli- 
cothe and Zanesville the capital was established at Columbus 
in 1816. 

Since Congress did not pass any formal act of admission there 
has been some controversy as to when Ohio became a state. 
The Enabling Act was passed on the 30th of April 1802, the 
first state legislature met on the 1st of March 1803, the Territorial 
judges gave up their offices on the 15th of April 1803, and the 
Federal senators and representatives took their seats in Congress 
on the 17th of October 1803. Congress decided in 1806 in 
connexion with the payment of salaries to Territorial officials 
that the 1st of March 1803 was the date when state government 
began. During the War of 181 2 the Indians under the lead of 
Tecumseh were again on the side of the British. Battles were 
fought at Fort Meigs (1813) and Fort Stephenson (Fremont, 
1813) and Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry's naval victory on 
Lake Erie in 1813 was on the Ohio side of the boundary line. 

Owing to the prohibition of slavery the vast majority of the 
early immigrants to Ohio came from the North, but, until the 
Mexican War forced the slavery question into the foreground, 
the Democrats usually controlled the state, because the principles 
of that party were more in harmony with frontier ideas of 
equality. The Whigs were successful in the presidential elections 
of 1836 and 1840, partly because of the financial panic and 
partly because their candidate, William Henry Harrison, was a 
" favourite son," and in the election of 1844, because of the 
unpopularity of the Texas issue. Victory was with the Democrats 
in 1848 and 1852, but since the organization of the Republican 
party in 1854 the state has uniformly given to the Republican 
presidential candidates its electoral votes. In the Civil War 
Ohio loyaUy supported the Union, furnishing 319,659 men for 
the army. Dissatisfaction with the President's emancipation 
programme resulted in the election of a Democratic Congressional 
delegation in 1862, but the tide turned again after Gettysburg 
and Vicksburg; Clement L. Vallandigham, the Democratic 
leader, was deported from the state by military order, and the 
Republicans were successful in the elections of 1863 and 1864. 
A detachment of the Confederate cavalry under General John 
Morgan invaded the state in 1863, but was badly defeated in the 
battle of Buffington's Island (July 18th). Democratic governors 
were elected in 1873, l8 77> l88 3> 1889, 1905, 1908 and 1910. 
Five presidents have come from Ohio, William Henry Harrison, 
Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, William McKinley, Jr., 
and William Howard Taft. 



Governors of Ohio 

Territorial Period (1787-1803). 

Arthur St Clair 

. 1 787-1 802 Federalist 

Charles W. Byrd (Acting) 

. 1802-1803 Dem.-Repub 

Period t 

/ Statehood. 

Edward Tiffin 

. 1803-1807- Dem.-Repub 

Thomas Kirker (Acting) 

. 1 807-1 809 „ 

Samuel Huntington 

. 1809-1811 „ 

Return Jonathan Meigs 

. 1811-1814 „ 

Othniel Looker (Acting) 

. 1814-1815 

Thomas Worthington . 

. 1815-1819 

Ethan Allen Brown 

. 1819-1822- „ 

Allen Trimble (Acting) 

. 1822-1823 „ 

Jeremiah Morrow. 

. 1 823-1 827 Democrat. 

Allen Trimble 

. 1827-1831 

Duncan McArthur 

. 1831-1833 Nat.-Repub. 

Robert Lucas 

. 1833-1837 Democrat 

Joseph Vance 

• i837-l 8 39 Whig 

Wilson Shannon . 

• 1 839-1 84 1 Democrat 

Thomas Corwin . 

. 1841-1843 Whig 

Wilson Shannon . 

. 1 843-1 844 Democrat 

Thomas W. Bartley (Acting 

;) . 1844-1845 

Mordecai Bartley. 

. 1 845-1 847 Whig 

William Bebb . . 

. 1847-1849 „ . 

Seabury Ford 

. 1849-1851 

Reuben Wood 

. 1851-1853 Democrat 

William Medill (Acting, 1 8, 

53) • 1 853-1 856 

Salmon P. Chase . 

. 1 856-1 860 Republican 

William Dennison, Jr. . 

. 1860-1862 

David Tod . 

. 1862-1864 „ 

John Brough 

. 1 864-1 865 

Charles Anderson (Acting) 

. 1865-1866 

Jacob D. Cox 

. 1866-1868 

Rutherford B. Hayes . 

. 1868-1872 

Edward F. Noyes. 

. 1872-1874 

William Allen 

. 1 874-1 876 Democrat 

Rutherford B. Hayes . 

. 1876-1877 Republican 

Thomas L. Young (Acting) 

. . 1877-1878 

Richard M. Bishop 

. 1878-1880 Democrat 

Charles Foster 

. 1 880-1 884 Republican 

George Hoadley . 

. 1 884-1 886 Democrat 

Joseph B. Foraker 

. 1 886-1 890 Republican 

James E. Campbell 

.1890-1892 Democrat 

William McKinley, Jr. . 

. 1 892-1 896 Republican 

Asa S. Bushnell . 

. 1896-1900 „ 

George K. Nash . 

. 1900-1904 „ 

Mvron T. Herrick . 

. 1904-1906 „ 

John M. Pattison 1 

. 1906 Democrat 

Andrew Lintner Harris 

. 1 906-1 909 Republican 

Judson Harmon 

. 1909- Democrat 

Bibliography.— For a brief but admirable treatment of the 
physiography see Stella S. Wilson, Ohio (New York, 1902), and a 
great mass of material on this subject is contained in the publications 
of the Geological Survey of Ohio (1837 et seq.). For the administra- 
tion see the Constitution of the State of Ohio, adopted June 18 '51 
(Norwalk, Ohio, 1897), and amendments of 1903 and 1905 published 
separately; the annual reports of the state treasurer, auditor, 
board of state charities and commissioner of common schools, the 
Ellis municipal code (1902) and the Harrison school code (1904). 
The Civil Code, issued 1852, the Criminal Code in 1869 and the 
Revised Statutes in 1879, have several times been amended and 
published in new editions. There are two excellent secondary 
accounts: Samuel P. Orth, The Centralization of Administration 
in Ohio, in the Columbia University Studies in History, Economics 
and Public Law, xvi. No. 3 (New York, 1903); and Wilbur H. 
Siebert, The Government of Ohio, its History and Administration 
(New York, 1904). B. A. Hinsdale's History and Civil Government 
of Ohio (Chicago, 1896) is more elementary. For local government 
see J. A. Wilgus, " Evolution of Township Government in Ohio," 
in the Annual Report of the American Historical Association for 
1894, pp. 403-412 (Washington, 1895); D. F. 'Wilcox, Municipal 
Government in Michigan and Ohio, in the Columbia University Studies 
in History, Economics and Public Law, v. No. 3 (New York, 1895) ; 
J. A. Fairlie, " The Municipal Crisis in Ohio," in the Michigan Law 
Review for February 1903; and Thomas L. Sidlo, "Centralization 
in Ohio Municipal Government," in the American Political Science 
Review for November 1909. On education see George B. Germann, 
National Legislation concerning Education, its Influence and Effect 
in the Public Lands east of the Mississippi River, admitted prior to 
1820 (New York, 1899); J. J. Burns, Educational History of Ohio 
(Columbus, 1905). 

Archaeology and History: P. G. Thomson's Bibliography of' Ohio 
(Cincinnati, 1880) is an excellent guide to the study of Ohio's history. 
For archaeology see Cyrus Thomas's Catalogue of Prehistoric Works 

1 Died in office. 

East of the Rocky Mountains (Washington, 1891), and his Report on 
the Mound Explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology in the 12th Report 
(1894) of that- Bureau, supplementing his earlier bulletins, Problem 
of the Ohio Mounds and the Circular, Square and Octagonal Earthworks 
of Ohio, (1889); and W. K. Moorehead, Primitive Man in Ohio 
(New York, 1892). The best history is Rufus King, Ohio; First 
Fruits of the Ordinance of 1787 (Boston arid New York,' 1888), in the 
"American Commonwealths" series. Alexander Black's Story of 
Ohio (Boston, 1888) is a short popular account. B. A. Hinsdale, 
The Old North-west (2nd ed„ New York, 1899), is good for the period 
before 1 803. Of the older histories Caleb Atwater, History of the State 
of Ohio, Natural and Civil (Cincinnati, 1838), and James W. Taylor, 
History of the State of Ohio: First Period 1650-1787 (Cincinnati, 
1854), are useful. For the Territorial period, and especially for the 
Indian wars of 1790-1794, see W. H. Smith (ed.) > The St Clair Papers: 
Life and. Services of Arthur St Clair (2 vols., Cincinnati, 1882); Jacob 
Burnet, Notes on the Early Settlement of the North-Western Territory 
(Cincinnati, 1847), written from the Federalist point of view, and 
hence rather favourable to St Clair; C. E. Slocum, Ohio Country 
between 1783 and 1815 (New York, 1910); and John Armstrong's 
Life of Anthony Wayne in Sparks' " Library of American Biography^ " 
(Boston, 1834-1838), series i. vol. iv. See also F. P. Goodwin, 
The Growth of Ohio (Cincinnati, 1907) and R. E. Chaddock, Ohio 
before 1850 (New York, 1908). There is considerable material of 
value, especially for local history, in the Ohio Archaeological and 
Historical Society Publications (Columbus, 1887), and in Henry Howe, 
Historical Collections of Ohio (1st ed., Cincinnati, 1847; Centennial 
edition [enlarged], 2 vols., Columbus, 1889-1891). T. B. Galloway, 
" The Ohio-Michigan Boundary Line Dispute," in the Ohio Archaeo- 
logical and Historical Society Publications, vol. iv. pp. 199-230, 
is a good treatment of that complicated question. W. F. Gephart's 
Transportation.and Industrial Development in the Middle West (New 
York, 1909), in the Columbia University Studies in History, 
Economics and Public Law, is a commercial history of Ohio. 

OHIO COMPANY, a name of two 18th century companies 
organized for the colonization of the Ohio Valley. The first 
Ohio Company was organized in 1749, partly to aid in securing 
for the English control of the valley, then in dispute between 
England and France, and partly as a commercial project for 
trade with the Indians. The company was composed of Vir- 
ginians, including Thomas Lee (d. 1750) and the two brothers of 
George Washington, Lawrence (who succeeded to the manage- 
ment upon the death of Lee) and Augustine; and of Englishmen, 
including John Hanbury, a wealthy London merchant. George 
II. sanctioned a grant to the company of 500,000 acrea generally 
N.W. of the Ohio, and to the eastward, between the Monongahela 
and the Kanawha rivers, but the grant was never actually 
issued. In 1 750-1751 Christopher Gist, a skilful woodsman and 
surveyor, explored for the company the Ohio Valley as far as 
the mouth of the Scioto river. In 1752 the company had a 
pathway blazed between the small fortified posts at Will's Creek 
(Cumberland), Maryland, and at Redstone Creek (Brownsville), 
Pennsylvania, which it had established in 1750; but it was 
finally merged in the Walpole Company (an organization in 
which Benjamin Franklin was interested), which in 1772 had 
received from the British government a grant of a large tract 
lying along the southern bank of the Ohio as far west as the 
mouth of the Scioto river. The War of Independence interrupted 
colonization and nothing was accomplished. 

The second company, the Ohio Company of Associates, was 
formed at Boston on the 3rd of March 1786. The leaders in the 
movement were General Rufus Putnam, Benjamin Tupper 
(1738-1792), Samuel Holden Parsons (1737-1789) and Manasseh 
Cutler. Dr Cutler was selected to negotiate with Congress, and 
seems to have helped to secure the incorporation in the Ordinance . 
for the government of the North- West Territory of the paragraphs 
which prohibited slavery and provided for public education and 
for the support of the ministry. Cutler's original intention was 
to buy for the Ohio Company only about 1,500,000 acres, but 
on the 27th of July Congress authorized a grant of about 
5,000,000 acres of land for $3,500,000; a reduction of one-third 
was allowed for bad tracts, and it was also provided that the 
lands could be paid for in United States securities. On the 27th 
of October 1787 Cutler and Major Winthrop Sargent (1753- 
1820), who had joined him in the negotiations, signed two con- 
tracts; one was for the absolute purchase for the Ohio Company, 
at 66| cents an acre, of 1,500,000 acres of land lying along the 
north bank of the Ohio river, from a point near the site of the 



present Marietta, to a point nearly opposite the site of the present 
Huntington, Kentucky; the other was for an option to buy all 
the land between the Ohio and the Scioto rivers and the western 
boundary line of the Ohio Company's tract, extending north of 
the tenth township from the Ohio, this tract being pre-empted by 
" Manasseh Cutler and Winthrop Sargent for themselves and 
others " — actually for the Scioto Company (see Gallipolis). 
On the same day Cutler and Sargent " for themselves and 
associates " transferred to William Duer, then Secretary of the 
Treasury Board, and his associates " one equal moiety of the 
Scioto tract of land mentioned in the second contract," it being 
provided that both parties were to be equally interested in the 
sale of the land, and were to share equally any profit or loss. 
Colonists were sent out by the Ohio Company from New England, 
and Marietta, the first permanent settlement in the present state 
of Ohio, was founded in April 1788. 

OHIO RIVER, the principal eastern tributary of the Mississippi 
river, U.S.A. It is formed by the confluence of the Allegheny 
and Monongahela rivers at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and flows 
N.W. nearly to the W. border of Pennsylvania, S.S.W. between 
Ohio and West Virginia, W. by N. between Ohio and Kentucky, 
and W.S.W. between Indiana and Illinois on the N. and Kentucky 
on the S. It is the largest of all the tributaries of the Mississippi 
in respect to the amount of water discharged (an average of about 
158,000 cub. ft. per sec), is first in importance as a highway of 
commerce, and in length (967 m.) as well as in the area of its 
drainage basin (approximately 210,000 sq. m.) it is exceeded only 
by the Missouri. The slope of the river at low water ranges 
from 1 ft. or more per mile in the upper section to about 0-75 ft. 
per mile in the middle section and 0-29 ft. per mile in the lower 
section, and the total fall is approximately 500 ft. Nearly two- 
thirds of the bed is occupied by 187 pools, in which the fall is very 
gentle; and the greater part of the descent is made over inter- 
vening bars, which are usually composed of sand or gravel but 
occasionally of hard pan or rock. The greatest falls are at 
Louisville, where the river within a distance of 2-25 m. descends 
23-9 ft. over an irregular mass of limestone. The rock floor of the 
valley is usually 30 to 50 ft. below low water level, and when 
it comes to the surface, as it occasionally does, it extends at this 
height only part way across the valley. In the upper part of the 
river the bed contains much coarse gravel and numerous boulders, 
but lower down a sand bed prevails. The ordinary width of the 
upper half of the river is quite uniform, from 1200 to 1500 ft., but 
it widens in the pool above Louisville, contracts immediately 
below the Falls, and then gradually widens again until it reaches 
a maximum width of more than a mile about 20 m. from its 
mouth. Islands are numerous and vary in size from an acre or 
less to 5000 acres; above Louisville there are fifty or more, and 
below it about thirty. Many of them are cultivated. 

Besides its parent streams, the Allegheny and the Monongahela, 
the Ohio has numerous large branches. On the N. it receives the 
waters of the Muskingum, Scioto, Miami and Wabash rivers, and 
on the S. those of the Kanawha, Big Sandy, Licking, Kentucky, 
Green, Cumberland and Tennessee rivers. 

The drainage basin of the Ohio, in which the annual rainfall 
averages about 43 in., is, especially in the S. part of the river, 
of the " quick-spilling " kind, and as the swift mountain streams 
in that section are filled in February or March by the storms from 
the Gulf of Mexico, while the northern streams are swollen by 
melting snow and rain, the Ohio rises very suddenly and not 
infrequently attains a height of 30 to 50 ft. or more above low 
water level, spreads out ten to fifteen times its usual width, 
submerges the bottom lands, and often causes great damage to 
property in the lower part of the cities along its banks. 

Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, asserted that he discovered 
the Ohio and descended it until his course was obstructed by 
a fall (thought to be the Falls at Louisville) ; this was probably 
in 1670, but until the middle of the next century, when its 
strategic importance in the struggle of the French and the 
English for the possession of the interior of the continent became 
fully recognized, little was generally known of it. By the treaty 
of 1763 ending the Seven Years' War the English finally gained 

undisputed control of the territory along its banks. After 
Virginia had bought, in 1768, the claims of the Six Nations to the 
territory south of the Ohio, immigrants, mostly Virginians, began 
to descend the river in considerable numbers, but the Shawnee 
Indians, whose title to the land was more plausible than that of 
the Six Nations ever was, resisted their encroachments until the 
Shawnees were defeated in October 1774 at the battle of Point 
Pleasant. By the treaty of 1783 the entire Ohio country became 
a part of the United States and by the famous Ordinance of 1787 
the north side was opened to settlement. Most of the settlers 
entered the region- by the headwaters of the Ohio and carried 
much of their market produce, lumber, &c, down the Ohio and 
Mississippi to New Orleans or beyond. Until the successful 
navigation of the river by steamboats a considerable portion of 
the imports was carried overland from Philadelphia or Baltimore 
to Pittsburg. The first steamboat on the Ohio was the " New 
Orleans," which was built in 181 1 by Nicholas J. Roosevelt 
and sailed from Pittsburg to New Orleans in the same year, 
but it remained for Captain Henry M. Shreve (1785-1854) to 
demonstrate with the " Washington," which he built in 1816, 
the success of this kind of navigation on the river. From 1820 
to the Civil War the steamboat on the system of inland water- 
ways of which the Ohio was a part was a dominant factor in the 
industrial life of the Middle West. Cincinnati, Louisville and 
Pittsburg on its banks were extensively engaged in building 
these vessels. The river was dotted with floating shops — dry- 
goods boats fitted with counters, boats containing a tinner's 
establishment, a blacksmith's shop, a factory, or a lottery office. 
Until the Erie Canal was opened in 1825 the Ohio river was the 
chief commercial highway between the East and the West. 
It was connected with Lake Erie in 1832 by the Ohio & Erie 
Canal from Portsmouth to Cleveland, and in 1845 by the Miami 
& Erie Canal from Cincinnati to Toledo. 

In the natural state of the river navigation was usually almost 
wholly suspended during low water from July to November, 
and it was dangerous at all times on account of the numerous 
snags. The Federal government in 1827 undertook to remove 
the snags and to increase the depth of water on the bars by the 
construction of contraction works, such as dikes and wing dams, 
and appropriations for these purposes as well as for dredging 
were continued until 1844 and resumed in 1866; but as the 
channel obtained was less than 3 ft. in 1870, locks with movable 
dams — that is, dams that can be thrown down on the approach 
of a flood — were then advocated, and five years later Congress 
made an appropriation for constructing such a dam, the Davis 
Island Dam immediately below Pittsburg, as an experiment. 
This was opened in 1885 and was a recognized success; and in 
1895 the Ohio Valley Improvement Association was organized 
in an effort to have the system extended. At first the association 
asked only for a channel 6 ft. -in depth; and between 1896 and 
1905 Congress authorized the necessary surveys and made appro- 
priations for thirty-six locks and dams from the Davis Island 
Dam to the mouth of the Great Miami river. As the association 
then urged that the channel be made 9 ft. in depth Congress 
authorized the secretary of war to appoint a board of engineers 
which should make a thorough examination and report on the 
comparative merits of a channel 9 ft. in depth, and one 6 ft. in 
depth. The board reported in 1908 in favour of a 9-ft. channel 
and stated that fifty-four locks and dams would be necessary for 
such a channel throughout the course of the river, and Congress 
adopted this project. At the Falls is the Louisville & Portland 
Canal, originally built by a private corporation, with the United 
States as one of the stockholders, and opened in 1830, with a 
width of 50 ft., a length of 200 ft., and three locks, each with 
a lift of about 8f ft. In 1860-1872 the width was increased 
to 90 ft. and the three old locks were replaced by two new ones. 
The United States gradually increased its holdings of stock 
until in 1855 it became owner of all but five shares; it assumed 
the management of the canal in 1874, abolished tolls in 1880, 
and thereafter improved it in many respects. Sixty-eight locks 
and dams have been constructed on the principal tributaries, 
and the Allegheny, Monongahela, Cumberland, Tennessee, 



Muskingum, Kanawha, Little Kanawha, Big Sandy, Wabash, 
and Green now afford a total of about 960 m. of slack-water 

See the Board of Engineers' Report of Examination of Ohio River 
with a view to obtaining Channel Depths of 6 and 9 ft. respectively 
(Washington, 1908) ; A. B. Hulbert, Waterways of Westward Ex- 
pansion (Cleveland, 1903) and The Ohio River, a Course of Empire 
(New York, 1906) ; also R. G. Thwaites, Afloat on the Ohio (New 
York, 1900). 

OHLAU, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, 
16 m. by rail S.E. of Breslau, on the left bank of the Oder. Pop. 
(1905) 9233. It has two Roman Catholic and two Evangelical 
churches, and a castle. Ohlau is the centre of a tobacco-growing 
district and has manufactures of tobacco and cigars, machinery, 
beer, shoes and bricks. It became a town in 1291 and passed 
to Prussia in 1742. In the 17th and 18th centuries it was often 
the residence of the dukes of Brieg and of the Sobieski family. 

See Schulz, A us Ohlaus Vergangenheit (Ohlau, 1902). 

poet, was born in Vesterbro, a suburb of Copenhagen, on the 
14th of November 1779. His father, a Schleswiger by birth, 
was at that time organist, and later became keeper, of the royal 
palace of Frederiksberg; he was a very brisk and cheerful man. 
The poet's mother, on the other hand, who was partly German 
by extraction, suffered from depressed spirits, which afterwaids 
deepened into melancholy madness. Adam and his sister Sofia 
were allowed their own way throughout their childhood, and were 
taught nothing, except to read and write, until their twelfth 
year. At the age of nine Adam began to make fluent verses. 
Three years later, while walking in Frederiksberg Gardens, he 
attracted the notice of the poet Edvard Storm, and the result 
of the conversation was that he received a nomination to the 
college called " Posterity's High School," an important institution 
of which Storm was the principal. Stcrm himself taught the class 
of Scandinavian mythology, and thus Ohlenschlager received 
his earliest bias towards the poetical religion of his ancestors. 
He was confirmed in 1795, and was to have been apprenticed 
to a tradesman in Copenhagen. To his great delight there was 
a hitch in the preliminaries, and he returned to his father's 
house. He now, in his eighteenth year, suddenly took up study 
with great zeal, but soon again abandoned his books for the stage, 
where a small position was offered him. In 1797 he actually 
made his appearance on the boards in several successive parts, 
but soon discovered that he possessed no real histrionic talent. 
The brothers Orsted, with whom he had formed an intimacy 
fruitful of profit to him, persuaded him to quit the stage, and in 
1800 he entered the university of Copenhagen as a student. 
He was doomed, however, to disturbance in his studies, first 
from the death of his mother, next from his inveterate tendency 
towards poetry, and finally from the attack of the English upon 
Copenhagen in April 1801, which, however, inspired a dramatic 
sketch (April the Second 1801) which is the first thing of the 
kind by Ohlenschlager that we possess. In the summer of 
1802, when Ohlenschlager had an old Scandinavian romance, 
as well as a volume of lyrics, in the press, the young Norse 
philosopher, Henrik Steffens, came back to Copenhagen after 
a long visit to Schelling in Germany, full of new romantic ideas. 
His lectures at the university, in which Goethe and Schiller 
were for the first time revealed to the Danish public, created 
a great sensation. Steffens and Ohlenschlager met one day at 
Dreier's Club, and after a conversation of sixteen hours the latter 
went home, suppressed his two coming volumes, and wrote 
at a sitting his splendid poem Guldhornene, in a manner totally 
new to Danish literature. The result of his new enthusiasm 
speedily showed itself in a somewhat hasty volume of poems, 
published in 1803, now chiefly remembered as containing the 
lovely piece called Sanci-Hansaften-Spil. The next two years saw 
the production of several exquisite works, in particular the 
epic of Thors Reise til Jotunheim, the charming poem in hexa- 
meters called Langelandsreisen, and the bewitching piece of 
fantasy Aladdin's Lampe (1805). At the age of twenty-six 
Ohlenschlager was universally recognized, even by the opponents 
of the romantic revival, as the leading poet of Denmark. He 
XX » 

now collected his Poetical Writings in two volumes. He found 
no difficulty in obtaining a grant for foreign travel from the 
government, and he left his native country for the first time, 
joining Steffens at Halle in August 1805. Here he wrote the 
first of his great historical tragedies, Hakon Jarl, which be sent 
off to Copenhagen, and then proceeded for the winter monthr. 
to Berlin, where he associated with Humboldt, Fichte, and 
the leading men of the day, and met Goethe for the first time . 
In the spring of 1806 he went on to Weimar, where he spent 
several months in daily intercourse with Goethe. The 
autumn of the same year he spent with Tieck in Dresden, 
and proceeded in December to Paris. Here he resided eighteen 
months and wrote his three famous masterpieces, Baldur hin 
Gode (1808), Palnatoke (1809), and Axel og Valborg (1810). 
In July 1808 he left Paris and spent the autumn and winter 
in Switzerland as the guest of Madame de Stael-Holstein at 
Coppet, in the midst of her circle of wits. In the spring of 1809 
Ohlenschlager went to Rome to visit Thorwaldsen, and in his 
house wrote his tragedy of Correggio. He hurriedly returned 
to Denmark in the spring of 1810, partly to take the chair of 
aesthetics at the university of Copenhagen, partly to marry 
the sister-in-law of Rahbek, to whom he had been long betrothed. 
His first course of lectures dealt with his Danish predecessor 
Ewald, the second with Schiller. From this time forward 
his literary activity became very great; in 18 n he published 
the Oriental tale of Ali og Gulhyndi, and in 181 2 the last of his 
great tragedies, Staerkodder. From 1814 to 181 9 he, or rather 
his admirers, were engaged in a long and angry controversy with 
Baggesen, who represented the old didactic school. This contest 
seems to have disturbed the peace of Ohlenschlager's mind, and 
to have undermined his genius. His talent may be said to have 
culminated in the glorious cycle of verse-romances called Helge, 
published in 1814. The tragedy of Hagbarth og\Signe, 1815, 
showed a distinct falling-off in style. In 181 7 he went back 
to Paris, and published Hroars Saga and the tragedy of Fost- 
brodrene. In 1818 he was again in Copenhagen, and wrote 
the idyll of Den lille Hyrdedreng and the Eddaic cycle called 
Nordens Guder. His next productions were the tragedies of 
Erik og Abel (1820) and Vaeringerne i Miklagaard (1826), and 
the epic of Hrolj Krake (1829). It was in the last-mentioned 
year that, being in Sweden, Ohlenschlager was publicly crowned 
with laurel in front of the high altar in Lund cathedral by 
Bishop Esaias Tegner, as the " Scandinavian King of Song." 
His last volumes were Tordenskjold (1833), Dronning Margrethe 
(1833), Sokrates (1835), Olaf den Hellige (1836), Knud den Store 
(1838), Dina (1842), Erik dipping (1843), and Kiartan og 
Gudrun (1847). On his seventieth birthday, 14th November 
1849, a public festival was arranged in his honour, and he was 
decorated by the king of Denmark under circumstances of great 
pomp. He died on the 20th of January 1850, and was buried 
in the cemetery of Frederiksberg. Immediately after his death 
his Recollections were published in two volumes. 

With the exception of Holberg, there has been no Danish writer 
who has exercised so wide an influence as Ohlenschlager. His 
great work was to awaken in the breasts of his countrymen an 
enthusiasm for the poetry and religion of their ancestors, and this 
he performed to so complete an extent that his name remains to 
this day synonymous with Scandinavian romance. He supplied 
his countrymen with romantic tragedies at the very moment 
when all eyes were turned to the stage, and when the old-fashioned 
pieces were felt to be inadequate. His plays, partly, no doubt, 
in consequence of his own early familiarity with acting, fulfilled 
the stage requirements of the day, and were popular beyond 
all expectation. The earliest are the best — Ohlenschlager's 
dramatic masterpiece being, without doubt his first tragedy, 
Hakon Jarl. In his poems and plays alike his style is limpid, 
elevated, profuse; his flight is sustained at a high pitch without 
visible excitement. His fluent tenderness and romantic zest have 
been the secrets of his extreme popularity. Although his 
inspiration came from Germany, he is not much like a German 
poet, except when he is consciously following Goethe; his 
analogy is much rather to be found among the English poets 



his contemporaries. His mission towards antiquity reminds 
us of Scott, but he is, as a poet, a better artist than Scott; 
he has sometimes touches of exquisite diction and of over- 
wrought sensibility which recall Coleridge to us. In his wide 
ambition and profuseness he possessed some characteristics 
of Southey, although his style has far more vitality. With all 
his faults he was a very great writer, and one of the principal 
■ pioneers of the romantic movement in Europe. (E. G.) 

0HLI6S, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine Province, 
17 m. by rail N. of Cologne, on the railway to Elberfeld. Pop. 
(1905) 24,264. Its chief manufactures are cutlery and hardware, 
arid there are iron-foundries and flour-mills. Other industries 
are brewing, dyeing, weaving and brick-making. Before 1891 
it was known as Merscheid. 

OHM, GEORG SIMON (1787-1854), German physicist, -was 
born at Erlangenon the 16th of March 1787, and was educated 
at the university there. He became professor of mathematics 
in the Jesuits' college at Cologne in 181 7 and in the polytechnic 
school of Nuremberg in 1833, and in 1852 professor of experi- 
mental physics in the university of Munich, where he died on 
the 7th of July 1854. His writings were numerous, but, with 
one important exception, not of the first order. The excep- 
tion is his pamphlet published in Berlin in 1827, with the 
title Die galvanische Kette mathematiich bearbeitet. This work, 
the germs of which had appeared during the two preceding 
years in the journals of Schweigger and Poggendorff , has exerted 
most important influence on the whole development of the 
theory and applications of current electricity, and Ohm's name 
has been incorporated in the terminology of electrical science. 
Nowadays " Ohm's Law," as it is called, in which all that is 
most valuable in the pamphlet is summarized, is as universally 
known as anything in physics. The equation for the propaga- 
tion, of electricity formed on Ohm's principles is identical with 
that of J. B. J. Fourier for the propagation of heat; and if, in 
Fourier's solution of any problem of heat-conduction, we change 
the word " temperature " to " potential " and write " electric 
current" instead of "flux of heat," we have the solution of 
a corresponding problem of electric conduction. The basis 
of Fourier's work was his clear conception and definition of 
conductivity. But this involves an assumption, undoubtedly 
true for small temperature-gradients, but still an assumption, 
viz. that, all else being the same, the flux of heat is strictly 
proportional to the gradient of temperature. An exactly similar 
assumption is made in the statement of Ohm's law, i.e. that, 
other things being alike, the strength of the current is at each 
point proportional to the gradient of potential. It happens, how- 
ever, that with our modern methods it is much more easy to test 
the accuracy of the assumption in the case of electricity than 
in that of heat; and it has accordingly been shown by J. Clerk 
Maxwell and George Chrystal that Ohm's law is true, within the 
limits of experimental error, even when the currents are so 
powerful as almost to fuse the conducting wire. 

OHMMETER,. an electrical instrument employed for measuring 
insulation-resistance or other high electrical resistances. For 
the purpose of measuring resistances up to a few thousand ohms, 
the most convenient appliance is a Wheatstone's Bridge (q.v), 
but when the resistance of the conductor to be measured is 
several hundred thousand ohms, or if it is the resistance of a 
so-called insulator, such as the insulating covering of the copper 
wires employed for distributing electric current in houses and 
buildings for electric lighting, then the ohmmeter is more con- 
venient. An ohmmeter in one form consists of two pairs of coils, 
one pair called the series coil and the other called the shunt coil. 
These coils are placed with their axes at right angles to one 
another, and at the point where the axes intersect a small pivoted 
needle of soft iron is placed, carrying a longer index needle 
moving over a scale. 

Suppose it is desired to measure the insulation-resistance of a 
system of electric house wiring ; the ohmmeter circuits are then joined 
up as shown in fig. I, where W represents a portion of the wiring 
of the building and I a portion of the insulating materials surrounding 
it. The object of the test is to discover the resistance of the insulator 
I, that is, to determine how much current flows through this insulator 



Fig. 1. 


by leakage under a certain electromotive force or voltage which must 
not be less than that which will be employed in practice when the 
electric lights supplied through these wires are in operation. For 
this purpose the ohmmeter is provided with a small dynamo D, 
contained in a box, which produces a continuous electromotive 
force of from 200 to 500 _. w 

volts when the handle 
of the instrument is 
steadily turned. In 
making the test, the 
whole of the copper 
wires belonging to any 
section of the wiring and 
the test must be con- ( D ) Sh* 

nected together at some 
point and then con- 
nected through the series 
coil of the ohmmeter 
with one terminal of the 
dynamo. The shunt coil 
Sh and the series coil Se 
are connected together 
at one point, and the 
remaining terminals of 

the dynamo and shunt coil must be connected to a " good 
earth," which is generally the gas or water pipes w of the 
building. On setting the dynamo in operation, a current passes 
through the shunt coil of the ohmmeter proportional to the voltage 
of the dynamo, and, if there is any sensible leakage through the 
insulator to earth, at the same time another current passes through 
the series coil proportional to the conductivity of the insulation of 
the wiring under the electromotive force used. The two coils, the 
shunt and the series coil, then produce two magnetic fields, with 
their lines of force at right angles to one another. The small pivoted 
iron needle ns placed in their common field therefore takes up a 
certain position, dependent on the relative value of these fields. 
The tangent of the angle of deflection 6 of this needle measured from 
its position, when the shunt coil is disconnected, is equal to the ratio 
of the voltage of the dynamo to the current through the insulator. If 
we call this last resistance R, the voltage of the working dynamo V, 
and the current through the insulator C, then tan = C/V = R. 
Hence the deflection of the needle is proportional to the insulation 
resistance, and the scale can be graduated to show directly this 
resistance in megohms. 

The Evershed and Vignoles form of the instrument is much used 
in testing the insulation resistance ol electric wiring in houses. 
In this case the dynamo and ohmmeter are combined in one instru- 
ment. The field magnet of the dynamo has two gaps in it. In one 
the exciting armature is rotated, producing the working voltage of 
250, 500 or 1000 volts. In the other gap are pivoted two coils 
wound on an iron core and connected at nearly a right angle to 
each other. One of these coils is in series with the armature circuit 
and With the insulation or high resistance to be measured. The other 
is a shunt across the terminals of the armature. When the armature 
is rotated, these two coils endeavour to place themselves in certain 
directions in the field so as to be perforated by the greatest magnetic 
flux. The exact position of the core, and, therefore, of an index 
needle connected with it, is dependent on the ratio of the voltage 
applied to the terminals of the high resistance or insulator and the 
current passing through it, This, however, is a measure of the 
insulation-resistance. Hence the instrument can be graduated to 
show this directly. 

In the Nalder ohmmeter the electrostatic principle is employed. 
The instrument consists of a high-voltage continuous -current 
dynamo which creates a potential difference between the needle 
and the two quadrants of a quadrant electrometer (see Electro- 
meter). These two quadrants are interconnected by the high resist- 
ance to be measured, and, therefore, themselves differ in potential. 
The exact position taken up by the needle is therefore determined 
by the potential difference (P.D.) of the quadrants and the P.D. 
of the needle and each quadrant, and, therefore, by the ratios of the 
P.D. of the ends of the insulator and the current flowing through it, 
that is, by its insulation resistance. 

The ohmmeter recommends itself by its portability, but in 
default of the possession of an ohmmeter the insulation-resistanpe 
can be measured by means of an ordinary mirror galvanometer 
(see Galvanometer) and insulated battery of suitable voltage. 
In this case one terminal of the battery is connected to the earth, 
and the other terminal is* connected through the galvanometer 
with the copper wire, the insulation of which it is desired to test. 
If any sensible current flows through this insulator the galvano- 
meter will show a deflection. 

The meaning of this deflection can be interpreted as follows: 
If a galvanometer has a resistance R and is shunted by a shunt_ of 
resistance S, and the shunted galvanometer is placed in series with 
a large -resistance R' of the order of a megohm, and if the same 



battery is applied to the shunted galvanometer, then the current C 
passing through the galvanometer will be given by the expression 

C = 



where V is the electromotive force of the battery. It is possible so 
to arrange the value of the shunt and of the high resistance R' 
that the same or nearly the same deflection of the galvanometer is 
obtained as when it is used in series with the battery and the insula- 
tion-resistance. In these circumstances the current passing through 
the galvanometer is known, provided that the voltage of the battery 
is determined by means of a potentiometer (q.v.). Hence the 
resistance of the insulator can be ascertained, since it is expressed 
in ohms by the ratio of the voltage of the battery in volts to the 

current through the 
C C galvanometer in 

amperes. In apply- 
ing this method to 
test the insulation of 
indiarubber - covered 
or of insulated 
copper wire, before 
employing it for 
electrical purposes, 
it is usual to place 
the coil of wire W 
(fig. 2) in an insulated 
tank of water T, 
which is connected 
to one terminal of 
the insulated battery B, the other terminal being connected to the 
metallic conductor CC of the wire under test, through a galvano- 
meter G. To prevent leakage over the surface of the insulating 
covering of the wire which projects above the surface of the water, 
it is necessary to employ a " guard wire " P, which consists of a 
piece of fine copper wire, twisted round the extremity of the insu- 
lated wire and connected to the battery. This guard wire pre- 
vents any current which leaks over the surface of the insulator 
from passing through the galvanometer G, and the galvanometer 
indication is therefore only determined by the amount of current 
which passes through the insulator, or by its insulation-resistance. 

For -further information on the measurement of high resistance, 
see J. A. Fleming, A Handbook for the Electrical Laboratory and 
Testing Room (2 vols., London, 1904); H. R. Kempe, A Handbook 
of Electrical Testing (London, 1900); H. L. Webb, A Practical Guide 
to the Testing, of Insulated Wires and Cables (New York, 1902). 

(J-A.F.) ; 

OHNET, GEORGES (1848- ), French novelist and man of 
letters, was born in Paris on the 3rd of April 1848. After the war 
of 1870 he became editor of the Pays and the Conslitutionnel in 
succession. In collaboration with the engineer and dramatist 
Louis Denayrouze (b. 1848) he produced the play Regina Sarpi, 
and in 1877 Marthe. He was an admirer of Georges Sand and 
bitterly opposed to the realistic modern novel. He began a 
series of novels, Les Batailles de la vie, of a simple and idealistic 
character, which, although attacked by the critics as unreal and 
commonplace, were very popular. The series included Serge 
Panine (1881) which was crowned by the Academy; Le Maitre 
de forges (1882), La Grande Marniere (1885), Yolontt (1888), 
Dernier amour (1891). Many of his novels have been dramatized 
with great success, Le Maitre de forges, produced at the Gymnase 
in 1 883, holding the stage for a whole year. His later publications 
include Le CrSpuscule (1902), Le Marchand de poisons (1903), 
La ConquSrante (1905), La Dixieme Muse (1906). 

OHRDRUF, a town of Germany in the duchy of Saxe-Coburg- 
Gotha, 11 m. by rail S.E. of Gotha. Pop. (1905) 61 14. It 
has a castle, two Evangelical churches, a technical and other 
schools, and manufactures of porcelain, paper, copper 
goods, shoes and small wares. Close by is the summer resort 
of Luisenthal. As early as 725 there was a monastery at 
Ohrdruf, which received municipal rights in 1399. With six 
neighbouring villages it forms the county of Obergleichen. 

OIHENART, ARNAULD DE (1592-1668), Basque historian 
and poet, was born at Mauleon, and studied law at Bordeaux, 
where he took his degree in 161 2. He practised first in his native 
town, and after his marriage with Jeanne d'Erdoy, the heiress 
of a noble family of Saint-Palais, at the bar of the parlement 
of Navarre. He spent his leisure and his fortune in the search 
for documents bearing on the old Basque and Bearnese provinces; 
and the fruits of his studies in the archives of Bftyonne, Toulouse, 

Pau, Perigord and other cities were embodied in forty-five MS. 
volumes, which were sent by his son Gabriel to Colbert. Twenty- 
three of these are in the Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris (Coll. 

. Oihenart published in 1625 a Declaration historique de Vinjuste 
usurpation et retention de la Navarre par les Espagnols and a fragment 
of a Latin work on the same subject is included in Galland's Mbmoires 
pour I'histoire de Navarre (1648). His most important work is 
Notitia utriusque Vasconiae, turn Ibericae, turn Aquitanicae, qua 
praeter situm regionis et alia scitu digna, Navarrae regum coeter- 
arumque: in Us insignwm vetustaie et dignitate familiarum . . . 
(Paris, 1638 and 1656), a description of Gascony and Navarre. 
His collection of over five hundred Basque proverbs, Atsotizac edo 
Refravac, included in a volume of his poems O ien Gastaroa Nevrthize- 
tan, printed in Paris in 1657, was supplemented by a second collection, 
Atsotizen Vrrhenquina. The' proverbs were edited by Francisque 
Michel (Paris, 1847), and the supplement by P. Hariston (Bayonne, 
1892) and by V. Stempf (Bordeaux, 1894). See Julien Vinson, Essai 

.d'une bibliographie de la langue basque (Paris, 1891); J; B. E. de 
Jaurgain, Arnaud d'Oihenart et safamille (Paris, 1885). 

OIL CITY, a city of Venango county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 
on the Allegheny river, at the mouth of Oil Creek, about 55 m. 
S.S.E. of Erie and about 13 5 m. N. of Pittsburg. Pop. (1890) 
10,932; (1900)' 13,264, of whom 2001 were foreign-born and 
184 were negroes; (1910 census) 15,657. It 'is served by the 
Pennsylvania (two lines), the Erie, and the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern railways. The city lies about 1000 ft. above 
the sea, and is divided by the river and the creek into three 
sections connected by bridges. The business part of the city 
is on the low ground north of the river; the residential districts 
are the South Side, a portion of the flats, the West Side, and 
Cottage Hill and Palace Hill on the North Side. Oil City is 
the centre and the principal market of the Pennsylvania oil 
region; It has extensive oil refineries and foundries and machine 
shops, and manufactures oil-well supplies and a few othier 
commodities. The city's factory products were valued at 
$5,164,059 in 1900 and at $3,217,208 in 1905, and in the latter 
year foundry and machine-shop products were valued at 
$2,317,505, or 72% of the total. Natural gas is used for power, 
heat and light. Oil City was founded in i860, incorporated as 
a borough in 1863 and chartered as a city in 1874. The city 
was partially destroyed by flood in 1865, and by flood and fire 
in 1866 and again in 1892; on this last occasion Oil Creek was 
swollen by a cloud-burst on the 5th of June, and several tanks 
farther up the valley, which seem to have been struck by 
lightning, gave way and a. mass of burning oil was carried by 
the creek to Oil City, where some sixty lives were lost and 
property valued at more^than $1,000,000 was destroyed. 
; OIL ENGINE. Oil engines, like gas engines (q.v.), are internal 
combustion motors in which motive power is produced by the 
explosion or expansion of a mixture of inflammable material 
and air. The inflammable fluid used, however, consists of 
vapour produced from oil instead of permanent gas. The 
thermodynamic operations are the same as in gas engines, and 
the structural and mechanical differences are due to the devices 
required to vaporize the oil and supply the measured proportion 
of vapour which is to mix with the air in the cylinders. 

Light and heavy oils are used; light oils may be defined as 
those which are readily volatile at ordinary atmospheric tempera- 
tures, while heavy oils are those which require special heating 
or spraying processes in order to produce an inflammable vapour 
capable of forming explosive mixture to be supplied to the 
cylinders. Of the light oils -the most important is known as 
petroL It is not a definite chemical compound. It is a mixture 
of various hydrocarbons of the paraffin and define series produced 
from the distillation of petroleum and paraffin oils. It consists, 
in fact, of the lighter fractions which distil over first in the 
process of purifying petroleums or paraffins. 

The specific gravity of the standard petrols of commerce 
generally ranges between 0-700 to about 0-740; and the heat 
value on complete combustion per yV gallon burned varies 
from 14,240 to 14,850 British thermal units. The thermal 
value per gallon thus increases with the density, but the volatility 
diminishes. Thus, samples of petrol examined by Mr Blount 



of from -700 to -730 specific gravity showed that 98% of the 
lighter sample distilled over below 120 C. while only 88% of 
the heavier came over within the same temperature range. 
The heavier petrol is not so easily converted into vapour. The 
great modern development of the motor car gives the light oil 
engine a most important place as one of the leading sources of 
motive power in the world. The total petrol power now applied 
to cars on land and to vessels on sea amounts to at least two 
million H.P. The petrol engine has also enabled aeroplanes to 
be used in practice. 

The earliest proposal to use oil as a means to produce motive 
power was made by an English inventor — Street — in 1794, but 
the first practical petroleum engine was that of Julius Hock 
of Vienna, produced in 1870. This engine, like Lenoir's gas 
engine, operated without compression. The piston took in a 
charge of air and light petroleum spray which was ignited by 
a flame jet and produced a. low-pressure explosion. Like al! 
non-compression engines, Hock's machine was very cumbrous 
and gave little power. In 1873, Brayton, an English engineer, 
who had settled in America, produced a light oil engine working 
on the constant pressure system without explosion. This 
appears to have been the earliest compression engine to use 
oil fuel instead of gas. 

Shortly after the introduction of the " Otto " gas engine 
in 1876, a motor of this type was operated by an inflammable 
vapour produced by passing air on its way to the cylinder 
through the light oil then known as gasolene. A further air 
supply was drawn into the cylinder to form the required explosive 
mixture, which was subsequently compressed and ignited in the 
usual way. The Spiel petroleum engine was the first Otto 
cycle motor introduced into practice which dispensed with an 
independent vaporizing apparatus. Light hydrocarbon of a 
specific gravity of not greater than 0.725 was injected directly 
into the cylinder on the suction stroke by means of a pump. 
In entering it formed spray mixed with the air, was vaporized, 
and on compression an explosion was obtained just as in the 
gas engine. 

Until the year 1883 the different gas and oil engines constructed 
were of a heavy type rotating at about 150 to 250 revolutions 
per minute. In that year Daimler conceived the idea of con- 
structing very small engines with light moving parts, in order 
to enable them to be rotated at such high speeds as 800 and 1000 
revolutions per minute. At that time engineers did not consider 
it practicable to run engines at such speeds; it was supposed 
that low speed was necessary to durability and smooth running. 
Daimler showed this idea to be wrong by producing his first 
small engine in 1883. In 1886 he made his first experiment 
with a motor bicycle, and on the 4th of March 1887 he ran for 
the first time a motor car propelled by a petrol engine. Daimler 
deserves great credit for realizing the possibility of producing 
durable and effective engines rotating at such unusually high 
speeds; and, further, for proving that his ideas were right in 
actual practice. His little engines contained nothing new in 
their cycles of operation, but they provided the first step in the 
startlingly rapid development of petrol motive power which 
we have seen in the last twenty years. The high speed of 
rotation enabled motors to be constructed giving a very large 
power for a very small weight. 

Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic section of an early Daimler motor. A 
is the cylinder, B the piston, C the connecting rod, and D the 
crank, which is entirely enclosed in a casing. A small fly-wheel is 
carried by the crank-shaft, and it serves the double purpose of a fly- 
wheel and a clutch, a is the combustion space, E the single port, 
which serves both for inlet of the charge and tor discharge of exhaust. 
W is the «xhaust valve, F the charge inlet valve, which is automatic 
in its action, and is held closed by a spring /, G the carburettor, 
H the igniter tube, I the igniter tube lamp, K the charge inlet passage, 
L the air filter chamber, and M an adjustable air inlet cap for regu- 
lating the air inlet area. The light oil — or petrol, as it is commonly 
called — is supplied to the float chamber N of the vaporizer by means 
of the valve O. So long as the level of the petrol is high, the float n, 
acting by levers about it, holds the valve O closed against oil forced 
by air pressure along the pipe P When the level falls, however, 
the valve opens and more petrol is admitted. When the piston B 
makes its suction stroke, air passes from the atmosphere by the 

passage K through the valve F, which it opens automatically. 
The pressure falls within the passage K, and a spurt of petrol passes 
by the jet G l , separate air at the same time passing by the passage 
K 1 round the jet. The petrol breaks up into spray by impact 
against the walls of the passage K, and then it vaporizes and passes 
into the cylinder A as an inflammable mixture. When the piston B 
returns it compresses the charge into a, and upon compression the 
incandescent igniter tube H fires the charge. H is a short platinum 
tube, which is always open to the compression space- It is rendered 
incandescent by the burner I, fed with petrol from the pipe supplying 
the vaporizer. The open incandescent tube is found to act well 
for small engines, and it does not ignite the charge until the com- 
pression takes place, because the inflammable mixture cannot come 
into contact with the hot part till it is forced up the tube by the 

Fig. 1. 

compression. The engine is started by giving the crank-shaft a 
smart turn round by means of a detachable handle. The exhaust is 
alone actuated from the valve shaft. The shaft Q is operated by 
pinion and a spur-wheel Q 2 at halt the rate of the crank-shaft. The 
governing is accomplished by cutting out explosions as with the gas 
engine, but the governor operates by preventing the exhaust valve 
from opening, so that no charge is discharged from the cylinder, 
and therefore no charge is drawn in. The cam R operates the exhaust 
valve, the levers shown are so controlled by the governor (not shown) 
that the knife edge S is pressed out when speed is too high, and 
cannot engage the recess T until it falls. The engine has a water 
jacket V, through which water is circulated. Cooling devices are 
used to economize water. 

Benz of Mannheim followed close on the work of Daimler, 
and in France Panhard and Levassor, Peugeot, De Dion, 
Delahaye and Renault all contributed to the development 
of the petrol engine, while Napier, Lanchester, Royce and 
Austin were the most prominent among the many English 

The modern petrol engine differs in many respects from 
the Daimler engine just described both as to general design, 
method of carburetting, igniting and controlling the power 
and speed. The carburettor now used is usually of the float 
and jet type shown in fig. 1, but alterations have been made to 



allow of the production of uniform mixture in the cylinder 
under widely varying conditions of speed and load. The original 
form of carburettor was not well adapted to allow of great 
change of volume per suction stroke. Tube ignition has been 
abandoned, and the electric system is now supreme. The 
favourite type at present is that of the high-tension magneto. 
Valves are now all mechanically operated; the automatic inlet 
valve has practically disappeared. Engines are no longer 
controlled by cutting out impulses; the governing is effected 
by throttling the charge, that is by diminishing the volume 
of charge admitted to the cylinder at one stroke. Broadly, 
throttling by reducing charge weight reduces pressure of com- 
pression and so allows the power of the explosion to be graduated 
within wide limits while maintaining continuity of impulses. 
The object of the throttle control is to keep up continuous 
impulses for each cycle of operation, while graduating the power 
produced by each impulse so as to meet the conditions of the 

Originally three types of carburettor were employed for 
dealing with light oil; first, the surface carburettor; second, the 
wick carburettor; and third, the jet carburettor. The surface 
carburettor has entirely disappeared. In it air was passed over 
a surface of light oil or bubbled through it; the air carried off 
a vapour to form explosive mixture. It was found, however, 
that the oil remaining in the carburettor gradually became 
heavier and heavier, so that ultimately no proper vaporization 
took place. This was due to the fractional evaporation of the 
oil which tended to carry away the light vapours, leaving in the 
vessel the oil, which produced heavy vapours. To avoid this 
fractionation the wick carburettor was introduced and here 
a complete portion of oil was evaporated at each operation so 
that no concentration of heavy oil was possible. The wick 
carburettor is still used in some cars, but the jet carburettor 
is practically universal. It has the advantage of discharging 
separate portions of oil into the air entering the engine, each 
portion being carried away and evaporated with all its fractions 
to produce the charge in the cylinder. 

The modern jet carburettor appears to have originated with 
Butler, an English engineer, but it was first extensively used 
in the modification produced by Maybach as shown in fig. i. 

A diagrammatic section of a carburettor of the Maybach type is 
shown in a larger scale in fig. 2. 

Petrol is admitted to the chamber A by the valve B which is 
controlled by the float C acting through the levers D, so that the valve 

Fig. 2. 

B is closed when the float reaches a determined level and opened when 
it falls below it. The petrol flows into a jet E and stands at an 
approximately constant level within it. When the engine piston 
makes its suction stroke, the air enters from the atmosphere at F and 
passes to the cylinder through G. The pressure around the jet E 
thus falls, and the pressure of the atmosphere in the chamber A 
forces the petrol through E as a jet during the greater part of the 
suction stroke. An inflammable mixture is thus formed, which 
enters the cylinder by way of G. The area for the passage of air 
around the petrol jet E is constricted to a sufficient extent to produce 
the pressure fall necessary to propel the petrol through the jet E, 
and the area of the discharge aperture of the petrol jet E is pro- 

portioned to give the desired volume of petrol to form the proper 
mixture with air. The device in this form works quite well when the 
range of speed required from the engine is not great ; that is, within 
limits, the volume of petrol thrown by the jet is fairly proportional 
to the air passing the jet. When, however, the speed range is great, 
such as in modern motors, which may vary from 300 to 1500 revolu- 
tions per minute under light and heavy loads, then it becomes 
impossible to secure proportionality sufficiently accurate for regular 
ignition. This implies not only a change of engine speed but 
a change of volume entering the cylinder at each stroke as deter- 
mined by the position of the throttle. This introduces further 
complications. Throttle control implies a change of total charge 
volume per stroke, which change may occur either at a low or at a 
high speed. To meet this change the petrol jet should respond in 
such manner as to give a constant proportionality of petrol weight 
to air weight throughout all the variations- —otherwise sometimes 
petrol will be present in excess with no oxygen to burn it, and at 
other times the mixture may be so dilute as to miss firing altogether. 
To meet these varying conditions many carburettors have been pro- 
duced which seek by various devices to maintain uniformity of 
quality of mixture by the automatic change of throttle a'ound the jet. 
Fig. 3 shows in diagrammatic section one of the simplest of 
these contrivances, known as the Krebs carburettor. The petrol 
enters from the float K 

chamber to the jet 
E; and, while the 
engine is running 
slowly, the whole 
supply of air enters 
by way of the 
passage F, mixes 
with the petrol and 
.eaches the cylin- 
ders by way of the 
pipe G. The volume 
of charge entering 
the cylinder per 
stroke is controlled 
by the piston 
throttle valve H, 
operated by the rod 
I ; and so long as 
the charge volume 

required remains p 

small, air from the ' 3' 

atmosphere enters only by F. When speed rises, however, and the 
throttle is sufficiently opened, the pressure within the apparatus falls 
and affects a spring-pressed diaphragm K, which actuates a piston 
valve controlling the air passages L, so that this valve opens to the 
atmosphere more and more with increasing pressure reduction, and 
additional air thus flows into the carburettor and mixes with the 
air and petrol entering through F. By this device the required 

fjroportion of air to petrol is maintained through a comparatively 
arge volume range. This change of air admission is rendered 
necessary because of the difference between the laws of air and 
petrol flow. In order to give a sufficient weight of petrol at low 
speeds when the pressure drop is small, it is necessary to provide 
a somewhat large area of petrol jet. When suction increases 
owing to high speed, this large area discharges too much petrol, and 
so necessitates a device, such as that described, which admits 
more air. 

A still simpler device is adopted in many carburettors — that of an 
additional air inlet valve, kept closed until wanted by a spring. 
Fig. 4 shows a diagrammatic section as used in the Vauxhall car- 
burettor. Here the petrol jet and primary and secondary air passages 
are lettered as before. 

The same effect is produced by devices which alter the area of the 
petrol jet or increase or diminish the number of petrol jets exposed 
as required. Although engine designers have succeeded in pro- 
portioning mixture through a considerable range of speed and charge 
demand, so as to obtain effective power explosions under all these 
conditions, yet much remains to be done to secure constancy of 
mixture atall speeds. Notwithstanding much which has been said 
as to varying mixture, there is only one mixture of air and petrol 
which gives the best results — that in which there is some excess of 
oxygen, more than sufficient to burn all the hydrogen and carbon 
present. It is necessary to secure this mixture under all conditions, 
not only to obtain economy in running but also to maintain purity 
of exhaust gases. Most engines at certain speeds discharge consider- 
able quantities of carbonic oxide into the atmosphere with their 
exhaust gases, and some discharge so much as to give rise to danger 
in a closed garage. Carbonic oxide is an extremely poisonous gas 
which should be reduced to the minimum in the interests of the health 
of our large cities. The enormous increase of motor traffic makes it 
important to render the exhaust gases as pure and innocuous as 
possible. Tests were made by the Royal Automobile Club some 
years ago which clearly showed that carbonic oxide should be kept 
down to 2 % and under when carburettors were properly adjusted. 
Subsequent experiments have been made by Hopkinson, Clerk and 



Watson, which clearly prove, that in some cases as much as 30% 
of the whole heat of the petrol is lost in the exhaust gases by im- 


Fig. 4. 

perfect combustion This opens a wide field for improvement, and 
makes it probable that with better carburettors motor cars would 

not only discharge purer exhaust gases but would work on very 
much less petrol than they do at present. 

Practically all modern petrol engines are controlled by throttling 
the whole charge. In the earlier days several methods of control) 
were attempted: (1) missing impulses as in fig. 1 of the Daimler 
engines; (2) altering the timing of spark; (3) throttling petrol 
supply, and. (4) throttling the mixture of petrol and air. The 
last method has proved to be the best. By maintaining the 
proportion of explosive mixture, but diminishing the total 
volume. admitted to the cylinder per stroke, graduated impulses 
are obtained without any, or but few, missed ignitions. The 
effect of the throttling is to reduce compression by diminish- 
ing total charge weight. To a certain extent the proportion of 
petrol to total charge also varies, because the residual exhaust 
gases remain constant through a wide range. The thermal 
efficiency diminishes as the throttling increases; but, down to 
a third of the brake power, the diminution is not great, because 
although compression is reduced the expansion remains the same. 
At low compressions, however, the engine works practically 
as a non-compression engine, and the point of maximum 
pressure becomes greatly delayed. The efficiency, therefore, falls 
markedly, but this is not of much importance at light loads. 
Experiments by Callendar, Hopkinson, Watson and others 
have proved that the thermal efficiency obtained from these 
small engines with the throttle full open is very high indeed; 
28% of the whole heat in the petrol is often given as indicated 
work 'vyhen the carburettor is properly adjusted. As a large gas 
engine for the same compression cannot do better than. 3 5%,, 
it appears that the loss of heat due to small dimensions is com 7 
pensated by the small time of exposure of the gases of explosion 
due to the high speed of rotation. Throttle control is very 
effective, and it has the great advantage of diminishing maximum 

A,A. — Cylinders. ,„ 
B,B.— Water Jackets. - 
G 1 . — Oil Scoops on Big Ends. 
I.— Water Uptake. 
J. — Crank Chamber. 

-Under Cover to Crank Chbr. 

-Distribution Gear Case. 
L.— Oil Sump. 
M— Oil Pump. 

M l . — Oil Suction Pipe and Filler. 

N.— Oil Channels. 

O.— Cam Shaft. 

Q. — Throttle and Automatic Air 

R. — Main Mixture Pipe. [Valve. 

S. — Carburetter. 

U. — Magneto. 

V. — Inlet Valve. 

W— Inlet Trunk. 



pressures to which the piston and cylinders are exposed while the 
engine is running at the lower loads. This is important both for 
smooth running and good wearing qualities. Theoretically, 
better results could be obtained from the point of view of economy 
by retaining a constant compression pressure, constant charge 
of air, and producing ignition, somewhat in the manner of the 
Diesel engine. Such a method, however, would have the dis- 
advantage of producing practically the same maximum pressure 
for all loads, and this would tend to give an engine which would 
not run smoothly at slow speeds. 

As has been said, tube ignition was speedily abandoned for 
electric ignition by accumulator, induction coil distributor and 
sparking plug. This in its turn was largely displaced by the 
low-tension magneto system, in which the spark was formed 
between contacts which were mechanically separated within the 
cylinders. The separable contacts gave rise to complications, 
and at present the most popular system of ignition is undoubtedly 
that of the high-tension magneto. In this system the ordinary 
high-tension sparking plugs are used, and the high-tension 
current is generated in a secondary winding on the armature 
of the magneto, and reaches the sparking plugs by way of a 
rotary distributor. In many cases the high-tension magneto 
system is used for the ordinary running of the engine, combined 
with an accumulator or battery and induction coil for starting 
the engine from rest. Such systems are called dual ignition 
systems. Sometimes the same ignition plugs are adapted to 
spark from either source, and in other cases separate plugs 
are used. The magneto systems have the great advantage of 
generating current without battery, and by their use noise is 
reduced to a minimum. All electrical systems are now arranged 
to allow of advancing and retarding the spark from the steering 
wheel. In modern magneto methods, however, the spark is 
automatically retarded when the engine slows and advanced 
when the speed rises, so that less change is required from the 
wheel than is necessary with battery and coil. ' 

Sir Oliver Lodge has invented a most interesting system of 
electric ignition, depending upon the production of an extra 
oscillatory current of enormous tension produced by the combined 
use of spark gap and condenser. This extra spark passes freely 
even under water, and it is impossible to stop it by any ordinary 
sooting or fouling of the ignition plug. 

The most popular engines are now of the four and six cylinder 

Fig. 5 shows a modern four-cylinder engine in longitudinal and 
transverse sections as made by the Wolseley Company. A, A are 
the cylinders; B, B, water jackets; G 1 , oil scoops on the large ends 
of the connecting-rods. These scoops take up oil from the cra.ik 
chamber. Forced lubrication is used. The oil pump M is of the 
toothed wheel type, and it is driven by skew gearing. An oil sump 
is arranged at L, and the oil is pumped from this sump by the pump 
described. The overflow from the main bearings supplies the channels 
in the crank case from which the oil scoops take their charge. It will 
be seen that the two inside pistons are attached to cranks of co- 
incident centres, and this is true of the two outside pistons also. 
This is the usual arrangement in four-cylinder engines. By this 
device the primary forces are balanced; but a small secondary 
unbalanced force remains, due to the difference in motion of the 
pistons at the up and down portions of their stroke. A six-cylinder 
engine has the advantage of getting rid of this secondary unbalanced 
force; but it requires a longer and more rigid crank chamber. 
In this engine the inlet and exhaust valves of each cylinder are placed 
in the same pocket and are driven from one cam-shaft. This is a 
very favourite arrangement; but many engines are constructed 
in which the inlet and exhaust valves operate on opposite sides of 
the cylinder in separate ports and are driven from separate cam- 
shafts. Dual ignition is applied to this engine; that is, an ignition 
composed of high-tension magneto and also battery and coil for 
starting. U is the high-tension magneto. Under the figure there is 
shown a list of parts which sufficiently indicate the nature of the 

An interesting and novel form of engine is shown at fig. 6. This 
is a well-known engine designed by Mr Knight, an American inventor, 
and now made by the Daimler and other companies. It will be 
observed in the figure that the ordinary lift valves are entirely 
dispensed with, and slide valves are used of the cylindrical shell 
type. The engine operates on the ordinary Otto cycle, and all the 
valve actions necessary to admit charge and discharge exhaust gases 
are accomplished by means of two sleeves sliding one within the other. 

The outer sleeve slides in the main cylinder and the inner sleeve 
slides within the outer sleeve. The piston fits within the inner sleeve. 
The sleeves receive separate motions from short connecting links 
C and E, driven by eccentrics carried on a shaft W. This shaft is 
driven from the main crank-shaft by a strong chain so as to make 
half the revolutions of the crank-shaft in the usual manner of the 
Otto cycle. The inlet port is formed on one side of the cylinder 
and is marked I. The exhaust port is arranged on the other side 
and marked J. These ports are segmental. A water-jacketed 
cylinder head carries stationary rings L, K, which press outwards. 
These are clearly shown in the drawing. The inner sleeve ports run 
past the lower broad ring L when compression is to be accomplished, 
and the contents of the cylinder are retained within the cylinder and 
compression space by the piston rings and the fixed rings referred to. 

Fig. 6. 
The outer sleeve does not require rings at all. Its function is simply 
to distribute the gases so that the exhaust port is closed by the outer 
sleeve when the inlet port is open. The outer sleeve acts really as a 
distributor; the inner sleeve supplies the pressure tightness required 
to resist compression and explosion. The idea of working exhaust 
and inlet by two sleeves within which the main piston operates is 
very daring and ingenious; and for these small engines the sleeve 
valve system works admirably. There are many advantages; the 
shape of the compression space is a most favourable one for reducing 
loss by cooling. All the valve ports required in ordinary lift valve 
engines are entirely dispensed with ; that is, the surface exposed to 
the explosion causing loss of heat is reduced to a minimum. The 
engines are found in use to be verv flexible and economical. 

The petrol engines hitherto described, although light compared 
to the old stationary gas engines, are heavy when compared 
with recent motors developed for the purpose of aeroplanes. 
Many of these motors have been produced, but two only will 
be noticed here — the Anzani, because Bleriot's great flight 



across the Channel was accomplished by means of an Anzani 
engine, and the Gnome engine, because it was used in the aero- 
plane with which Paulhan flew from London to Manchester. 

Fig. 7 shows transverse and longitudinal sections through the 
Anzani motor. Looking at the longitudinal section it will be observed 
that the cylinders are of the air-cooled type ; the exhaust valves 
alone are positively operated, and the inlet valves are of the auto- 
matic lift kind. The transverse section shows that three radially 
arranged cylinders are used and three pistons act upon one crank-pin. 
The Otto cycle is followed so that three impulses are obtained for 

Fig. 7. 

every two revolutions. The cylinders are spaced apart 6o° and 
project from the upper side of the crank chamber. Although not 
shown in the drawing, the pistons overrun a row of holes at the 
out end of the stroke and the exhaust first discharges through these 
holes. This is a very common device in aeroplane engines, and it 
greatly increases the rapidity of the exhaust discharged and reduces 
the work falling upon the exhaust valve. The pistons and cylinders 
are of cast iron; the rings are of cast iron; the ignition is electric, 
and the petrol is fed by gravity. The engine used by BleViot in his 
Cross-Channel flight was 25 H.P., cylinders 105 mm. boreX 130 mm. 
stroke; revolutions, 1600 per minute; total weight, 145 ft. The 
engine, it will be seen, is excet dingly simple, although air-cooling 
seems somewhat primitive for anything except short flights. The 
larger Anzani motors are water-cooled. 

A diagrammatic transverse section of the Gnome motor is shown 
at fig. 8. In this interesting engine there are seven cylinders disposed 

radially round a fixed crank-shaft. The seven pistons are all con- 
nected to the same crank-shaft, one piston being rigidly connected 
to a big end of peculiar construction by a connecting-rod, while 
the other connecting-rods are linked on to the same big end by pins ; 
that is, a hollow fixed crank-shaft has a single throw to which only 
one connecting-rod is attached; all the other connecting-rods 
work on pins let into the big end of that connecting-rod. The 
cylinders revolve round the fixed crank in the manner of the well- 
known engines first introdued to practice by Mr John Rigg. The 
explosive mixture is led from the carburettor through the hollow 
crank-shaft into the crank-case, and it is admitted into the cylinders 
by means of automatic inlet valves placed in the heads of the pistons. 
The exhaust valves are arranged on the cylinder heads. Dual 
ignition is provided by high tension magneto and storage battery and 
coil. The cylinders are ribbed outside like the Anzani, and are 
very effectively air-cooled by their rotation through the air as 
well as by the passage of the aeroplane through the atmosphere. 
The cylinders in the 35 H.P. motor are no mm. bore X 120 mm. 
stroke. The speed of rotation is usually 1200 revolutiors per minute. 
The total weight of the engine complete is 180 lb, or just over 5 lb 
per brake horse-power. The subject of aeroplane petrol engines is a 
most interesting one, and rapid progress is being made. 

So far, only 4-cycle engines have been described, and they are 
almost universal for use in motor-cars and aeroplanes. Some 
motor cars, however, use 2-cycle engines. Several types follow 
the "Clerk" cycle (see Gas Engine) and others the "Day" 
cycle. In America the Day cycle is very popular for motor 

.Fig. 8. 

launches, as the engine is of a very simple, easily managed kind. 
At present, however, the two-cycle engine has made but little 
way in motor car or aeroplane work. It is capable of great 
development and the attention given to it is increasing. 

So far, petrol has been alluded to as the main liquid fuel for 
these motors. Other hydrocarbons have also been used; benzol, 
for example, obtained from gas tar is used to some extent, and 
alcohol has been applied to a considerable extent both for 
stationary and locomotive engines. Alcohol, however, has not 
been entirely successful. The amount of heat obtained for a 
given monetary expenditure is only about half that obtained 
by means of petrol. On the continent of Europe, however, 
alcohol motors have been considerably used for public vehicles. 

The majority of petrol motors are provided with water jackets 
aro\ind their cylinders and combustion spaces. As only a small 
quantity of water can be carried, it is necessary to cool the water 
as fast as it becomes hot. For this purpose radiators of various 
constructions are applied. Generally a pump is used to produce 
a forced circulation, discharging the hot water from the engine 
jackets through the radiator and returning the cooled water to 
the jackets at another place. The radiators consist in some 
cases of fine tubes covered with projecting fins or gills ; the motion 
of the car forces air over the exterior of those surfaces and is 
assisted by the operation of a powerful fan driven from the 
engine. A favourite form of radiator consists of numerous 
small tubes set into a casing and arranged somewhat like a steam- 
engine condenser. Water is forced by the pump round these 
tubes, and air passes from the atmosphere through them. This 
type of radiator is sometimes known as the " honeycomb " 



radiator. A very large cooling surface is provided, so that the 
same water is used over and over again. In a day's run with a 
modern petrol engine very little water is lost from the system. 
Some engines dispense with a pump and depend on what is 
called the thermo-syphon. This is the old gas-engine system 
of circulation, depending on the different density of water when 
hot and cool. The engine shown at fig. 5 is provided with a 
water-circulation system of this kind. For the smaller engines 
the thermo-syphon works extremely well. 

Heavy oil engines are those which consume oil having a 
flashing-point above 73° F. — the minimum at present allowed 
by act of parliament in Great Britain for oils to be consumed 
in ordinary illuminating lamps. Such oils are American and 
Russian petroleums and Scottish paraffins. They vary in specific 
gravity from -78 to -825, and in flashing-point from 75° to 152° 
F. Engines burning such oils may be divided into three distinct 
classes: (1) Engines in which the oil is subjected to a spraying 
operation before vaporization; (2) Engines in # which the oil 
is injected into the cylinder and vaporized within the cylinder; 
(3) Engines in which the oil is vaporized in a device external to 
the cylinder and introduced into the cylinder in the state of 

The method of ignition might also be used to divide the engines 
into those igniting by the electric spark, by an incandescent tube, 
by compression, or by the heat of the internal surfaces of the 
combustion space. Spiel's engine was ignited by a flame igniting 
device similar to that used in Clerk's gas engine, and it was the 
only one introduced into Great Britain in which this method 
was adopted, though on the continent flame igniters were not 
uncommon. Electrically-operated igniters have come into ex- 
tensive use throughout the world. 

The engines first used in Great Britain which fell under the 
first head were the Priestman and Samuelson, the oil being 

r . % sprayed before being 
jf .,.?;:[: •//;>. vaporized in both. The 
""*'""" principle of the spray pro- 
ducer used is that so well 
and so. widely known in 
connexion with the atom- 
izers or spray producers 
used by perfumers. Fig. 9 
shows such a spray pro- 
ducer in section. An air 
blast passing from the 
small jet A crosses the top 
of the tube B and creates 
within it a partial vacuum. 
The liquid contained in C 
flows up the tube B and issuing at the top of the tube through 
a small orifice is at once blown into very fine spray by the action 
of the air jet. If such a scent distributor be filled with petroleum 
oil, such as Royal Daylight or Russoline, the oil will be blown 
into fine spray, which can be ignited by a flame and will burn, 
if the jets be properly proportioned, with an intense blue non- 
luminous flame. The earlier inventors often expressed the idea 
that an explosive mixture could be prepared without any 
vaporization whatever, by simply producing an atmosphere 
containing inflammable liquid in extremely small particles dis- 
tributed throughout the air in such proportion as to allow of 
complete combustion. The familiar explosive combustion of 
lycopodium, and the disastrous explosions caused in the exhaus- 
tion rooms of flour-mills by the presence of finely divided flour 
in the air, have also suggested to inventors the idea of producing 
explosions for power purposes from combustible solids. Al- 
though, doubtless, explosions could be produced in that way, yet 
in oil engines the production of spray is only a preliminary to 
the vaporization of the oil. If a sample of oil is sprayed in the 
manner just described, and injected in a hot chamber also filled 
with hot air, it at once passes into a state of vapour within 
that chamber, even though the air be at a temperature far 
below the boiling-point of the oil; the spray producer, ki fact, 
furnishes a ready means of saturating any volume of air with 



Fig. 9. — Perfume Spray Producer. 

heavy petroleum oil to the full extent possible from the vapour 
tension of the oil at that particular temperature. The oil 
engines described below are in reality explosion gas engines of 
the ordinary Otto type, with special arrangements to enable 
them to vaporize the oil to be used. Only such parts of them 
as are necessary for the treatment and ignition will therefore 
be described. 

Fig. 10 is a vertical section through the cylinder and vaporizer 
of a Priestman engine, and fig. n is a section on a larger scale, 
showing the vaporizing jet and the air admission and regulation valve 

Fig. 10.— Priestman Oil Engine (vertical section through cylinder 
and vaporizer). 

leading to the vaporizer. Oil is forced by means of air pressure from 
a reservoir through a pipe to the spraying nozzle o, and air passes 
from an air-pump by way of the annular channel b into the sprayer c, 
and there meets the oil jet issuingl from o. The oil is thus broken 
up into spray, and the air charged with spray flows into the vaporizer 
E. which is heated up in the first place on starting the engine by 
means of a lamp. In the vaporizer the oil spray becomes oil vapour, 
saturating the air within the hot walls. On the out-charging stroke 
of the piston the mixture passes by way of the inlet valve H into the 
cylinder, air flowing into the vaporizer to replace it through the 
valve / (fig. 11). The cylinder K is thus charged with a mixture of 
air and hydrocarbon vapour, some of which may exist in the form of 
very fine spray. The piston L then returns and compresses the 
mixture, and when the compression is quite complete an electric 
spark is passed between the points M, and a compression explosion 
is obtained precisely similar to that obtained in the gas engine. 
The piston moves out, and on its return stroke the exhaust valve N 
is opened and the exhaust gases discharged by way of the pipe O, 
round the jacket P, enclosing 
the vaporizing chamber. The 
latter is thus kept hot by 
the exhaust gases when the 
engine is at work, and it 
remains sufficiently hot with- 
out the use of the lamp pro- 
vided for starting. To obtain 
the electric spark a bi- 
chromate battery with an 
induction coil is used. The 
spark is timed by contact 
pieces operated by an 
eccentric rod, used to actuate 
the exhaust valve and the 
air-pump for supplying the 
oil chamber and the spraying 
jet. To start the engine a 
hand pump is worked until 
the pressure is sufficient to 
force the oil through the 
spraying nozzle, and oil spray 
is formed in the starting lamp; the spray and air mixed produce 
a blue flame which heats the vaporizer. The fly-wheel is then rotated 
by hand and the engine moves away. The eccentric shaft is driven 
from the crank-shaft by means of toothed wheels, which reduce the 
speed to one-half the revolutions of the crank-shaft. The charging 
inlet valve is automatic. Governing is effected by throttling the 
oil and air supply. The governor operates on the butterfly valve T 
(fig. 11), and on the plug-cock / connected to it, by means of the 
spindle /'. The air and oil are thus simultaneously reduced, and the 
attempt is made to maintain the charge entering the cylinder at a 
constant proportion by weight of oil and air, while reducing the total 
weight, and therefore volume, of the charge entering. The Priestman 
engine thus gives an explosion on every second revolution in all 
circumstances, whether the engine be running light or loaded. 

xx. 2 a 

Fig. 11. — Priestman Oil Engine 
(section on a larger scale). 



The compression pressure of the mixture before admission is, however, 
steadily reduced as the load is reduced, and at very light loads the 
engine is running practically as a non-compression engine. 

A test by Professor Unwin of a 4 J nominal horse-power Priestman 
engine, cylinder 8-5 in. diameter, 12 in. stroke, normal speed 180 
revolutions per minute, showed the consumption of oil per indicated 
horse-power hour to be 1-066 lb and per brake horse-power hour 
1-243 lb. The oil used was that known as Broxburn Lighthouse, a 
Scottish paraffin oil produced by the destructive distillation of 
shale, having a density of -8i and a flashing-point about 152° F. 
With a 5 H.P. engine of the same dimensions, the volume swept by 
the piston per stroke being -395 cub. ft. and the clearance space in 
the cylinder at the end of the stroke -2 10 cub. ft., the principal results 

were : — 



Indicated horse-power .... 
Brake horse-power . 
Mean speed (revolutions per minute) 
Mean available pressure (revolutions per 

minute) . . _.. 
Oil consumed per indicated horse-power 

Oil consumed per brake horse-power per 
hour . . . . . . . 




•694 lb 
. -842 lb 


. 41-38 

•864 ft 

•946 lb 

With daylight oil the explosion pressure was 151-4 ft per square 
inch above atmosphere, and with Russoline 134-3 lb. The terminal 
pressure at the moment of opening the exhaust valve with daylight 
oil was 35-4 lb and with Russoline 33-7 per square inch. The 
compression pressure with daylight oil was 35 ft, and with Russoline 
27-6 ft pressure above atmosphere. Professor Unwin calculated 
the amount of heat accounted for by the indicator as 18-8% in the 
case of daylight oil and 15-2 in the case of Russoline oil. 

The Hornsby-Ackroyd engine is an example of the class in which 
the oil is injected into the cylinder and there vaporized. Fig. 12 

Fig. 12. — Hornsby-Ackroyd 
Engine (section through 
vaporizer and cylinder). 

Fig. 13. — Hornsby - Ackroyd 
Engine (section through valves, 
vaporizer and cylinder). 

is a section through the vaporizer and cylinder of this engine, and 
fig. .13 shows the inlet and exhaust valves also in section placed in 
front of the vaporizer and cylinder section. Vaporizing is conducted 
in the interior of the combustion chamber, which is so arranged that 
the heat of each explosion maintains it at a temperature sufficiently 
high to enable the oil to be vaporized by mere injection upon the hot 
surfaces. The vaporizer A is heated up by a separate lamp, the oil 
is injected at the oil inlet B, and the 
engine is, rotated by hand. The piston 
then takes in a charge of air by the air- 
inlet valve into the cylinder, the air 
passing by the port directly into the 
cylinder without passing through the 
vaporizer chamber. While the piston is 
moving forward, taking in the charge of 
air, the oil thrown into the vaporizer is 
vaporizing and diffusing itself through 
the vaporizer chamber, mixing, how- 
ever, only with the hot products of com- 
bustion left by the preceding explosion. 
During the charging stroke the air enters 
through the cylinder, and the vapour 
formed from the oil is almost entirely 
confined to the combustion chamber. 
On the return stroke of the piston air is 
forced through the somewhat narrow 
neck o into the'combustion chamber, and 
is there mixed with the vapour contained 
in it. _ At first, however, the mixture is 
too rich in inflammable vapour to be 
capable of ignition. As the compression 

proceeds, however, more and more air is forced into the vaporizer 
chamber, and just as compression is completed the mixture attains 
proper explosive proportions. The sides of the chamber are suffi- 
ciently hot to cause explosion, under the pressure of which the piston 
moves forward. As the vaporizer A is not water- jacketed, and is 
connected to the metal of the back cover only by the small section 
or area of cast-iron forming the metal neck a, the heat given to the 

surface by each explosion is sufficient to keep its temperature at 
about 700-800 C. Oil vapour mixed with air will explode by 
contact with a metal surface at a comparatively low temperature; 
this accounts for the explosion of the compressed mixture in the 
combustion chamber A, which is never really raised to a red heat. 
It has long been known that under certain conditions of internal 
surface a gas engine may be made to run with very great regularity, 
without incandescent tube or any other form of igniter, if some 
portion of the interior surfaces of the cylinder or combustion space 
be so arranged that the temperature can rise moderately; then, 
although the temperature may be too low to ignite the mixture at 
atmospheric temperature, yet when compression is completed the 
mixture will often ignite in a perfectly regular manner. It is a curious 
fact that with heavy oils ignition is more easily accomplished at a 
low temperature than with light oils. The explanation seems to 
be that, while, in the case of light oils the hydrocarbon vapours 
formed are tolerably stable from a chemical point of view, the heavy 
oils very easily decompose by heat, and separate out their carbons, 
liberating the combined hydrogen, and at the moment of liberation 
the hydrogen, being in what chemists know as the nascent state, 
very readily enters into combination with the oxygen beside it. To 
start the engine the vaporizer is heated by a separate heating lamp, 
which is supplied with an air blast by means of a hand-operated fan. 
This operation should take about nine minutes. The engine is then 
moved round by hand, and starts in the usual manner. The oil tank 
is placed in the bed plate of the engine. The air and exhaust valves 
are driven by cams on a valve shaft. The governing is effected by a 
centrifugal governor which operates a by- pass valve, opening it 
when the speed is too high, and causes the oil pump to return the 
oil to the oil tank. At a test of one of these engines, which weighed 
40 cwt. and was given as of 8 brake horse-power, with cylinder 10 in. 
in diameter and 15 in. stroke, aecording to Professor Capper's report, 
the revolutions were very constant, and the power developed did not 
vary one quarter of a brake horse-power from day to day. The oil 
consumed, reckoned on the average of the three days over which, the 
trial extended, was -919 ft per brake horse-power per hour, the mean 
power exerted being 8-35 brake horse. At another full-power trial 
of the same engine a brake horse-power of 8-57 was obtained, the 
mean speed being 239-66 revolutions per minute and the test lasting 
for two hours; the indicated power was 10-3 horse, the explosibns 
per minute 119-83, the mean effective pressure 28-9 per sq. in., 
the oil used per indicated horse-power per hour was -8i lb, and per 
brake horse-power per hour — -977 ft. In a test at half power, the 
brake horse-power developed was 4-57 at 235-9 revolutions per 
minute, and the oil used per brake horse-power was,, 1-48 lb. On a 
four hours' test, without a load, at 240 revolutions per minute, the 
consumption of oil was 4-23 lb per hour. Engines of this class are 
those manufactured by Messrs Crossley Bros., Ltd., and the National 
Gas Engine Co., Ltd. 

Figs. 14 and 15 show a longitudinal section and detail views of the 
operative parts of the Crossley oil engine. On the suction stroke, 
air is drawn into the cylinder by the piston A through the automatic 
inlet valve D, and oil is then pumped into the heated vaporizer C 
through the oil sprayer G, as seen in section at fig. 15. The vaporizer 
C is bolted to the water-jacketed part B ; and, like the Hornsby, 
this vaporizer is first heated by lamp and then the heat of the ex- 
plosions keeps up its temperature to a sufficiently high point to 
vaporize the oil when sprayed against it. On the compression Stroke 

V- 1 ' -v <ry 





^ss >x«s» Ak>A<*, 

Fig. 14. — Crossley Oil Engine. 

of the piston A the charge of air is forced into the combustion 
chamber B and the vaporizer chamber C, where it mixes with the oil 
vapour, and the mixture is ignited at the termination of the •stroke 
by the ignition tube H. This tube is isolated to some extent from the 
vaporizer chamber C, and so it becomes hotter than the chamber C 
and is relied upon to ignite the mixture when formed at times when C 
would be too cold for the purpose. E is the exhaust valve, which 



operates in the usual way The water circulation passes through 
the jacket by way of the pipes J and K. When the engine is running 
at heavy loads with full charges of oil delivered by the oil pump 
through the sprayer G, a second pump is caused to come into action, 
which discharges a very small quantity of water through the water 
sprayer valve F. This water passes into the vaporizer and com- 
bustion chamber, together with a little air, which enters by the 
automatic inlet valve, which serves as sprayer. This contrivance 
is found useful to prevent the vaporizer from overheating at heavy 

Fig. 15. — Crossley Oil Engine. 

loads. The principal difference between this engine and the Hornsby 
engine already described lies in the use of the separate ignition tube 
H and in the water sprayer F, which acts as a snifting valve, taking 
in a little air and water when the engine becomes hot. Messrs 
Crossley inform the writer that the consumption of either crude or 
refined oil is about -63 of a pint per horse-power on full load. They 
also give a test of a small engine developing 7 B.H.P., which consumed 
•601 pint per B.H.P. per hour of Rock Light refined lamp oil and only 
•603 pint per B.H.P. per hour of crude Borneo petroleum oil. 

Engines in which the oil is vaporized in a device external to the 
cylinder have almost disappeared, because of the great success of the 
Hornsby-Ackroyd type, where oil is injected into, and vaporized 
within, the cylinder. It has been found, however, that many petrol 
engines having jet carburettors will operate with the heavier oils 
if the jet carburettor is suitably heated by means qf the exhaust gases. 
In some engines it is customary to start with petrol, and then when 
the parts have become sufficiently heated to substitute paraffin or 
heavy petroleum oil, putting the heavy oil through the same spraying 
process as the petrol and evaporating the spray by hot walls before 
entering the cylinder. 

Mr Diesel has produced a very interesting engine which departs 
considerably from other types. In it air alone is drawn into the 
cylinder on the charging stroke ; the air is compressed on the return 
stroke to a very high pressure generally to over 400 lb per sq. in. 
This compression raises the air to incandescence, and then heavy oil 
is injected into the incandescent air by a small portion of air com- 
pressed to a still higher point. The oil ignites at once as it enters 
the combustion space, and so a power impulse is obtained, but with- 
out explosion. The pressure does not rise above the pressure of 
air and oil injection. The Diesel engine thus embodies two very 
original features; it operates at compression pressures very much 
higher than those used in any other internal combustion engines, 
and it dispenses with the usual igniting devices by rendering the air 
charge incandescent by compression. The engine operates generally 
on the Otto cycle, but it is also built giving an impulse at every 
revolution. Mr Diesel has shown great determination and persever- 
ance, and the engine has now attained a position of considerable 
commercial importance. It is made on the continent, in England 
and in America in sizes up to 1000 H.P., and it has been applied to 
many purposes on land and also to the propulsion of small vessels. 
The engine gives a very high thermal efficiency. The present writer 
has calculated the following values from a test of a 500 B.H.P. Diesel 
oil engine made by Mr Michael Longridge, M.Inst.C.E. The 
engine had three cylinders, each of 22-05 m. diameter and stroke 
29-52 in., each cylinder operating on the " Otto " cycle. The main 
results were as follows: — 

Indicated power 595 horse 

Brake power 459 ,, 

Mechanical efficiency • 77 % 

Indicated thermal efficiency 41% 

Brake thermal efficiency 3 I- 7% 

(D. C.) 

OILLETS (from an 0. Fr. diminutive of mil, eye, in Mod. Fr. 
millet; other English variants are oy lets, eyelets, or eyelet-holes) , 
the architectural term given to the arrow slits in the walls of 
medieval fortifications, but more strictly applied to the round 

hole or circle with which the openings terminate. The same 
term is applied to the small circles inserted in the tracery-head 
of the windows of the Decorated and Perpendicular periods, 
sometimes varied with trefoils and quatrefoils. 

OILS (adopted from the Fr. oile, mod. huile, Lat. oleum, olive 
oil), the generic expression for substances belonging to extensive 
series of bodies of diverse chemical character, all of which have 
the common physical property of being fluid either at the ordinary 
temperature cr at temperatures below the boiling-point of water. 
Formerly, when substances were principally classified by obvious 
characteristics, the word included such a body as " oil of vitriol " 
(sulphuric acid), which has of course nothing in common with 
what is now understood under the term oils. In its most com- 
prehensive ordinary acceptation the word embraces at present 
the fluid fixed oils or fatty oils (e.g. olive oil) , the soft fats which 
may be fluid in their country of origin {e.g. coco-nut oil, palm 
oil), the hard fats {e.g. tallow), the still harder vegetable and 
animal waxes (e.g. carnaiiba wax, beeswax), the odoriferous 
ethereal (essential) oils, and the fluid and solid volatile hydro- 
carbons — -mineral hydrocarbons— found in nature or obtained 
from natural products by destructive distillation. 

The common characteristic of all these substances is that 
they consist principally, in some cases exclusively, of carbon 
and hydrogen. They are all readily inflammable and are practi- 
cally insoluble in water. The mineral hydrocarbons found in 
nature or obtained by destructive distillation do not come 
within, the range of this article (see Naphtha, Paraffin, 
Petroleum), which is restricted to the following two large groups 
of bodies, formed naturally within the vegetable and anima! 
organisms, viz. (1) Fixed oils, fats and waxes, and (2) Essential, 
ethereal or volatile oils. 

i. Fixed Oils, Fats and Waxes. 

The substances to be considered under , this head divide 
themselves naturally into two large classes, viz. fatty (fixed) 
oils and fats on the one hand, and waxes on the other, the dis- 
tinction between the two classes being based on a most important 
Chemical difference. The fixed oils and fats consist essentially 
of glycerides, i.e. esters formed by the union of three molecules 
of fatty acids with one molecule of the trihydric alcohol glycerin 
(q.v), whereas the waxes consist of esters formed by the union of 
one molecule of fatty acid with one molecule of a monohydric 
alcohol, such as cetyl alcohol, cholesterol, &c. Only in the case 
of the wax coccerin two molecules of fatty acids are combined 
with one molecule of a dihydric (bivalent) alcohol. It must 
be pointed out that in common parlance this distinction does not 
find its ready expression. Thus Japan wax is a glyceride and 
should be more correctly termed Japan tallow, whereas sperm oil 
is, chemically speaking, a wax. Although these two classes of 
substances have a number of physical properties in common, 
they must be considered under separate heads. The true 
chemical constitution of oils and fats was first expounded by 
the classical researches of Chevreul, embodied in his work, 
Recherches sur les corps gras d'origine animale (1823, reprinted 

(a) Fatly (fixed) Oils and Fats. — The fatty (fixed) oils and fats 
form a well-defined and homogeneous group of substances, 
passing through all gradations of consistency, from oils which are 
fluid even below the freezing-point of water, up to the hardest 
fats which melt at about 50 C. Therefore, no sharp distinction 
can be made between fatty oils and fats. Nevertheless, it is 
convenient to apply the term " oil " to those glycerides which are 
fluid below about 20 C, and the term " fat " to those which are 
solid above this temperature. 

Chemical Composition. — No oil or fat is found in nature con- 
sisting of a single chemical individual, i.e. a fat consisting of the 
glyceride. of one fatty acid only, such as stearin or tristearin, 
C 3 Hj(0-Ci8H350)3, the glycerin ester of stearic acid, Ci7H 35 -C0 2 H. 
The natural oils and fats are mixtures of at least two or three 
different triglycerides, the most important of which are tristearin, 
tripalmitin, CsIUO-CeH^iO^ and triolein, C 3 H 6 (0-C 18 H 3 sO)3. 
These three glycerides have been usually considered the chief 



constituents of most oils and fats, but latterly there have been 
recognized as widely distributed trilinolin, the glyceride of 
linolic acid, and trilinolenin, the glyceride of linolenic acid. 
The two last-named glycerides are characteristic of the semi- 
drying and drying oils respectively. In addition to the fatty 
acids mentioned already there occur also, although in much 
smaller quantities, other fatty acids combined with glycerin, as 
natural glycerides, such as the glyceride of butyric acid in butter- 
fat, of caproic, caprylic and capric acids in butter-fat and in 
coco-nut oil, lauric acid in coco-nut and palm-nut oils, and 
myristic acid in mace butter. These glycerides are, therefore, 
characteristic of the oils and fats named. 

In the classified list below the most important fatty acids 
occurring in oils and fats are enumerated (cf . Waxes, below) . 

Oils and fats must, therefore, not be looked upon as definite 
chemical individuals, but as representatives of natural species 
which vary, although within certain narrow limits, according 
to the climate and soil in which the plants which produce them 
are grown, or, in the case of animal fats, according to the climate, 
the race, the age of the animal, and especially the food, and also 
the idiosyncrasy of the individual animal. The oils and fats 
are distributed throughout the animal and vegetable kingdom 
from the lowest organism up to the most highly organized 
forms of animal and vegetable life, and are found in almost 
all tissues and organs. The vegetable oils and fats occur chiefly 
in the seeds, where they are stored to nourish the embryo, 
whereas in animals the oils and fats are enclosed mainly in the 
cellular tissues of the intestines and of the back. 





Characteristic of 

I. Acids of the Acetic series C n H2n02 — 

Acetic acid 

Butyric acid 

Isovaleric acid 

Caproic acid 

Caprylic acid 

Capric acid 

Lauric acid 

Myristic acid 

Isocetic acid (?) 

Palmitic acid 

Stearic acid 

Arachidic acid 

Behenic acid 

Lignoceric acid . . . . , . 

II. Acids of the Acrylic or Oleic series C„H2n- 2 02 — 

Tiglic acid 

Hypogaeic acid 

Physetoleic acid . . . . 

Oleic acid 

Rapic acid 

Erucic acid 

III. Acids of the Linolic series C n H 2 „_402 — 

Linolic acid 

Tariricacid . . . . 

Telfairic acid 

Elaeomargaric acid 

IV. Acids of the cyclic Chaulmoogric series 

C n H2n_402 — 

Hydnocarpic acid 

Chaulmoogric acid 

V. Acids of the Linolenic series Ct^n-eOs — 

Linolenic acid 

Isolinolenic acid . . . . 

VI. Acids of the series C»H 2 n-802 — 

Clupanodonic acid 

VII. Acids of the Ricinoleic series CHUn-sOj — 

Ricinoleic acid 

Quince oil acid 

VIII. Dihydroxylated acids of the series CJ^nO* — 
Dihydroxystearic acid 

IX. Acids of the series C»H2n_ 2 04 — 

Japanic acid 





CsHi 6 02 







C 6 H 8 2 














































Spindle-tree oil, Macassar oil 
Butter fat, Macassar oil 
Porpoise and dolphin oils 

/ Butter fat, coco-nut oil, 
I palm nut oil 

Laurel oil, coco-nut oil- 
Mace butter, nutmeg butter 
Purging nut 
Palm oil, Japan wax, myrtle 

wax, lard, tallow, &c. 
Tallow, cacao butter, &c. 
Arachis oil 
Ben oil 
Arachis oil 

Croton oil 
Arachis oil 
Caspian seal oil 
Most oils and fats 
Rape oils 
Rape oils, fish oils 

Maize oil, cotton-seed oil 
Oil of Picramnia Camboita 
Koeme oil 
Tung oil 

SHydnocarpus, Lukrabo and 
Chaulmoogra oils 

f Linseed oil 

Fish, liver and blubber oils 

Castor oil 
Quince oil 

Castor oil 

Japan wax 

Up to recently the oils and fats were looked upon as consisting 
in the main of a mixture of triglycerides, in which the three 
combined fatty acids are identical, as is the case in the above- 
named glycerides. Such glycerides are termed " simple 
glycerides." Recently, however, glycerides have been found 
in which the glycerin is combined with two and even three 
different acid radicals; examples of such glycerides are dis- 
tearo-olein, C3H 5 (0-Ci8H 35 0) 2 , (0-Ci 8 H 33 0), and stearo-pal- 
mito-olein, C 3 H 5 (0-Ci 8 H 35 0) (0-C, 6 H 31 0) (O-dgH^O). Such 
glycerides are termed " mixed glycerides." The glycerides 
occurring in natural oils and fats differ, therefore, in the first 
instance by the different fatty acids contained in them, and 
secondly, even if they do contain the same fatty acids, by 
different proportions of the several simple and mixed glycerides. 

Since the methods of preparing the vegetable and animal 
fats are comparatively crude ones, they usually contain certain 
impurities of one kind or another, such as colouring and mucilagi- 
nous matter, remnants of vegetable and animal tissues, &c. For 
the most part these foreign substances can be removed by pro- 
cesses of refining, but even after this purification they still retain 
small quantities of foreign substances, such as traces of colouring 
matters, albuminoid and (or) resinous substances, and other 
foreign substances, which remain dissolved in the oils and fats, 
and can only be isolated after saponification of the fat. These 
foreign substances are comprised in the term " unsaponifiable 
matter." The most important constituents of the " unsaponifiable 
matter " are phytosterol C 26 H 44 or C 2 7H 44 0(?), and the isomeric 
cholesterol. The former occurs in all oils and fats of vegetable 



origin; the latter is characteristic of all oils and fats of animal 
origin. This important difference furnishes a method of dis- 
tinguishing by chemical means vegetable oils and fats from 
animal oils and fats. This distinction will be made use of in 
the classification of the oils and fats. A second guiding principle 
is afforded by the different amounts of iodine (see Oil Testing 
below) the various oils and fats are capable of absorbing. Since 
this capacity runs parallel with one of the best-known properties 
of oils and fats, viz. the power of absorbing larger or smaller 
quantities of oxygen on exposure to the air, we arrive at the 
following classification : — 

I. Fatty Oils or Liquid Fats 
A. Vegetable oils. B. Animal oils. 

1. Drying oils. I. Marine animal oils. 

2. Semi-drying oils. (a) Fish oils. 

3. Non-drying oils. (b) Liver oils 

(c) Blubber oils. 
2. Terrestrial animal oils. 

A. Vegetable fats. 

II. Solid Fats 

B. Animal fats. 

1. Drying fats. 

2. Semi-drying fats. 

3. Non-drying fats. 

Physical Properties. — The specific gravities of oils and fats vary 
between the limits of 0-910 and 0-975. The lowest specific gravity 
is owned by the oils belonging to the rape oil group- -from 0-913 to 
0-916. The specific gravities of most non-drying oils lie between 
0-916 and 0-920, and of most semi-drying oils between 0-920 and 
0-925. whereas the drying oils have specific gravities of about 0-930. 
The animal and vegetable fats possess somewhat higher specific 
gravities, up to 0-930. The high specific gravity, 0-970, is owned by 
castor oil and cacao butter, and the highest specific gravity observed 
hitherto, 0-975, by Japan wax and myrtle wax. 

In thei' liquid state oils and fats easily penetrate into the pores of 
dry substances; on paper L hey leave a translucent spot- -" grease 
spot " — which cannot be removed by washing with water and subse- 
quent drying. A curious fact, which may be used for the detection 
of the minutest quantity of oils and fats, is that camphor crushed 
between layers of paper without having been touched with the 
fingers rotates when thrown on clean water, the rotation ceasing 
immediately when a trace of oil or fat is added such as introduced 
by touching the water with a needle which has been passed previously 
through the hair. 

The oils and fats are practically insoluble in water. With the 
exception of castor oil they are insoluble in cold alcohol; in boiling 
alcohol somewhat larger quantities dissolve. They are completely 
soluble in ether, carbon bisulphide, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 
petroleum ether, and benzene. Oils and fats have no distinct melting 
or solidifying point. This is not only due to the fact that they are 
mixtures of several glycerides, but also that even pure glycerides, 
such as tristearin, exhibit two melting-points, a so-called " double 
melting-point," the triglycerides melting at a certain temperature, 
then solidifying at a higher temperature to melt again on further 
heating. This curious behaviour was looked upon by Duffy as being 
due to the existence of two isomeric modifications, the actual 
occurrence of which has been proved (1907) in the case of several 
mixed glycerides. 

The freezing-points of those oils which are fluid at the ordinary 
temperature range from a few degrees above zero down to -28° C. 
(linseed oil). At low temperatures solid portions — usually termed 
" stearine " — separate out from many oils; in the case of cotton-seed 
oil the separation takes place at 12° C. These solid portions can be 
filtered off, and thus are obtained the commercial " demargarinated 
oils " or " winter oils." 

Oils and fats can be heated to a temperature of 200° to 250 C. 
without undergoing any material change, provided prolonged 
contact with air is avoided. On being heated above 250 up to 300 
some oils, like linseed oil, safflower oil, tung oil (Chinese or Japanese 
wood oil) and even castor oil, undergo a change which is most likely 
due to polymerization. In the case of castor oil solid products are 
formed. Above 300 C. all oils and fats are decomposed; this is 
evidenced by the evolution of acrolein, which possesses the well- 
known pungent odour of burning fat. At the same time hydro- 
carbons are formed (see Petroleum). 

On exposure to the atmosphere, oils and fats gradually undergo 
certain changes. The drying oils absorb oxygen somewhat 
rapidly and dry to a film or skin, especially if exposed in a thin 
layer. Extensive use of this property is made in the paint and 
varnish trades. The semi-drying oils absorb oxygen more 
slowly than the drying oils, and are, therefore, useless as paint 
oils. Still, in course of time, they absorb oxygen distinctly 
enough to become thickened. The property of the semi-drying 

oils to absorb oxygen is accelerated by spreading such oils over 
a large surface, notably over woollen or cotton fibres, when 
absorption proceeds so rapidly that frequently spontaneous 
combustion will ensue. Many fires in cotton and woollen mills 
have been caused thereby. The non-drying oils, the type of 
which is olive oil, do not become oxidized readily on exposure 
to the air, although gradually a change takes place, the oils 
thickening slightly and acquiring that peculiar disagreeable 
smell and acrid taste, which are defined by the term " rancid." 
The changes conditioning rancidity, although not yet fully 
understood in all details, must be ascribed in the first instance 
to slow hydrolysis (" saponification ") of the oils and fats by the 
moisture of the air, especially if favoured by insolation, when 
water is taken up by the oils and fats, and free fatty acids are 
formed. The fatty acids so set free are then more readily 
attacked by the oxygen of the air, and oxygenated products 
are formed, which impart to the oils and fats the rancid smell 
and taste. The products of oxidation are not yet fully known; 
most likely they consist of lower fatty acids, such as formic 
and acetic acids, and perhaps also of aldehydes and ketones. 
If the fats and oils are well protected from air and light, they 
can be kept indefinitely. In fact C. Friedel has found unchanged 
triglycerides in the fat which had been buried several thousand 
years ago in the tombs of Abydos. If the action of air and 
moisture is allowed free play, the hydrolysis of the oils and 
fats may become so complete that only the insoluble fatty 
acids remain behind, the glycerin being washed away. This 
is exemplified by adipocere, and also by Irish bog butter, which 
consist chiefly of free fatty acids. 

The property of oils and fats of being readily hydrolysed is a most 
important one, and very extensive use of it is made in the arts (soap- 
making, candle-making and recovery of their by-products). If oils 
and fats are treated with water alone under high pressure (corre- 
sponding to a temperature of about 220 C), or in the presence of 
water with caustic alkalis or alkaline earths or basic metallic oxides 
(which bodies act as " catalysers ") at lower pressures, they are 
converted in the first instance into free fatty acids and glycerin. 
If an amount of the bases sufficient to combine subsequently with 
the fatty acids be present, then the corresponding salts of these fatty 
acids are formed, such as sodium salts of fatty acids (hard soap) or 
potassium salts of the fatty acids (soft soap), soaps of the alkaline 
earth (lime soap), or soaps of the metallic oxides (zinc soap, &c). 
The conversion of the glycerides (triglycerides) into fatty acids 
and glycerin must be looked upon as a reaction which takes place in 
stages, one molecule of a triglyceride being converted first into 
diglyceride and one molecule of fatty acid, the diglyceride then being 
changed into monoglyceride, and a second molecule of fatty acid, 
and finally the monoglyceride being converted into one molecule of 
fatty acid and glycerin. All these reactions take place concurrently, 
so that one molecule of a diglyceride may still retain its ephemeral 
existence, whilst another molecule is already broken up completely 
into free fatty acids and glycerin. 

The oils and fats used in the industries are not drawn from 
any very great number of sources. The tables on the following 
pages contain chiefly the most important oils and fats together 
with their sources, yields and principal uses, arranged according 
to the above classification, and according to the magnitude of 
the iodine value. It should be added that many other oils and 
fats are only waiting improved conditions of transport to enter 
into successful competition with some of those that are already 
on the market. 

Extraction. — Since the oils and fats have always served the 
human race as one of the most important articles of food, the 
oil and fat industry may well be considered to be as old as the 
human race itself. The methods of preparing oils and fats 
range themselves under three heads: (1) Extraction of oil by 
" rendering," i.e. boiling out with water; (2) Extraction of oil 
by expression; (3) Extraction of oil by means of solvents. 

Rendering. — The crudest method of rendering oils from seeds, still 
practised in Central Africa, in Indo-China and on some of the South 
Sea Islands, consists in heaping up oleaginous fruits and allowing 
them to melt by the heat of the sun, when the exuding oil runs off 
and is collected. _ In a somewhat improved form this process of 
rendering is practised in the preparation of palm oil, and the rendering 
the best (Cochin) coco-nut oil by boiling the fresh kernels with water. 
Since hardly any machinery, or only the simplest machinery, h 
required for these processes, this method has some fascination for 



inventors, and even at thepresent day processes are being patented, 
having for their object the boiling out of fruits with water or salt 
solutions, so as to facilitate the separation of the oil from the pulp by 
gravitation. Naturally these processes can only be applied to those 
seeds which contain large quantities of fatty matter, such as coco- 
nuts and olivss. The rendering process is, however, applied on a 
very large scale to the production of animal oils and fats* Formerly 
the animal oils and fats were obtained by heating the tissues con- 
taining the oils or fats over a free fire, when the cell membranes 
burst and the liquid fat flowed out. The cave-dweller who first 
collected the fat dripping off the deer on the roasting spit may well 
be looked upon as the first manufacturer of tallow. This crude 
process is now classed amongst the noxious trades, owing to the 
offensive stench given off, and must be considered as almost extinct 
in this country. Even on whaling vessels, where up to recently 

whale oil, seal oil and sperm oil (see Waxes, below) were obtained 
exclusively by " trying,' i.e. by melting the blubber over a free fire, 
the process of rendering is fast becoming obsolete, the modern prac- 
tice being to deliver the blubber in as fresh a state as possible to the 
" whaling establishments," where the oil is rendered by methods 
closely resembling those worked in the enormous rendering establish- 
ments (for tallow, lard, bone fat) in the United States and in South 
America. The method consists essentially in cutting up the fatty 
matter into small fragments, which are transferred into vessels 
containing water, wherein the comminuted mass is heated by 
steam, either under ordinary pressure in open vessels or under 
higher pressure in digestors. The fat gradually exudes and collects 
on the top of the water, whilst the membranous matter, " greaves," 
falls to the bottom. The fat is then drawn off the aqueous (gluey) 
layer, and strained through sieves or filters. The greaves are placed 

Vegetable Oils 

Name of Oil. 


per cent. 


Principal Use. 


Tung (Chinese or Japanese wood) 
Candle nut . •' . . . . 
Hemp seed . . 
Walnut; Nut . ... 
Safflower . . 

Poppy seed 

Sunflower . . . . 


Cameline (German Sesame) '. 
Soja bean . . . . 

Maize; Corn 

Beech nut . . 


Cotton-seed . . . 


Curcas, purging nut 

Brazil nut . . . . . 


Ravison . ... 

Rape (Colza) 


Apricot kernel 

Peach kernel . . 
Almond . . . 
Arachis (ground nut) . 

Hazel nut 


Olive kernel 


Grape seed . . . . . 
Castor . . . . 

Linum usitatissimum 
Aleurites cordata 
Aleurites moluccana 
Cannabis sativa 
Juglans regia . . 
Carthamus tinctorius 
Papaver somniferum 
Helianthus annuus . 
Madia sativa . 

Drying Oils. 

Semi-drying Oils 

Camelina sativa 

Soja hispida 

Zea Mays . . 

Fagus syhatica 

Bombax pentandrum (Eriodendron 

Gossypium herbaceum 
Sesamum orientate, S. indicum 
Jatropha curcas 
Bertholletia excelsa . 
Croton Tiglium 
Wild Brassica campestris 
Brassica campestris 
Brassica campestris var.? 

Non-drying Oils, 

Prunus armeniaca 
Prunus persica 
Prunus amygdalus 
Arachis hypogaea 
Corylus avellana 
Olea europaea . 
Olea europaea . 
Moringa oleifera 
Vitis vinifera . 
Ricinus communis 















1 19-135 



1 13-125 




















Paint, varnish, linoleum, soap 
Paint and varnish 
Burning oil, soap, paint 
Paints and varnishes, soft soap 
Oil painting 

Burning, varnish (" roghan ") 
Salad oil, painting, soft soap 
Edible oil, soap 
Soap, burning 

Burning, soap 
Edible, burning 
Edible, soap 
Food, burning 

Food, soap 
Food, soap 
Food, soap 
Medicine, soap 
Edible, soap 

Lubricant, burning 
Lubricant, burning 
Burning, lubricant 

Perfumery, medicine 
Perfumery, medicine 
Perfumery, medicine 
Edible, soap 

Edible, perfumery, lubricating 
Edible, lubricating, burning, soap 
Edible, lubricating, burning, soap 
Edible, perfumery, lubricating 
Food, burning 

Medicine, soap, lubricating, Turkey 
red oil 

Animal Oils 

Name of Oil. 

Fish oils — 

Menhaden ..... 

Sardine oil 



Liver oils — 

Cod liver 

Shark liver (Arctic) . 
Blubber oils — 


Whale ...... 

Dolphin, black fish, body oil . ) 

Jaw oil ) 

Porpoise Body oil . • • ( 
Porpoise Jaw oil . . . ) 

Sheep's foot 

Horses' foot ..... 

Neat's foot . . 

Egg . . . . 


per cent. 

Alosa menhaden 
Chipea sardinus 
Salmo salar 
Clupea harengus 

Gadus morrhua 
Scymnus borealis 

Phoca vitulina . 
Balaena mysticetus, &c. 

Delphinus globiceps 
Delphinus phocaena 

Marine Animal Otis 

Terrestrial Animal Oils. 

Ovis aries . 
Equus caballus 
Bos taurus 
Gattus domesticus 











Principal Use. 

Currying leather 
Currying leather 
Currying leather 
Currying leather 

Medicine, currying leather 
Currying leather 

Burning, currying leather 
Burning, soap-making, fibre dress- 
ing, currying leather 

f Lubricating oil for delicate 



Lubricating, leather dressing 

Leather dressing 



Vegetable Fats 

■ • 

Name of Fat. 


per cent. 


Principal Use. 

Mahua butter, Illipe butter . 
Mowrah butter .... 
Shea butter (Galam butter) . 

Ghee butter (Phulwara butter) . 

Chinese vegetable tallow 
Kokum butter (Goa butter) . 

Mocaya oil 

Maripa fat .... 
Palm kernel oil/ . 
Palm nut oil ) 

Dika oil(oba oil, wild mango oil) . 

Bassia latifolia .... 
Bassia longijolia .... 

Elaeis guineensis, E. melanococca 
Myristica officinalis 
Bassia butyracea .... 
Theobroma cacao 

Stillingia sebifera {Croton sebiferum) 
Garcinia indtca .... 
Shorea stenoptera, Hopea aspera . 
Cocos sclerocarpa .... 
Palma (?) Maripa .... 
, Elaeis guineensis, ) . 

E. melanococca ) 
Cocos nucifera, C. butyracea . 
Rhus succedanea, R. vernicifera 
Irvingia gabonensis .... 
Myrica cerifera, M. carolinensis . 




















Food, soap, candles 

Food, soap, candles 

Food, soap, candles 

Candles, soap 

Medicine, perfumery 



Soap, candles 


Food, candles 

Food, soap 

Food, soap 

Food, soap 

Food, soap, candles 



Soap, candles (?) 

Animal Fats 

Name of Fat. 


per cent. 


Principal Use. 

Ice bear 

Ursus maritimus 
Crotalus durissus 

Horses' fat I Equus caballus 

Drying Fats. 

Semi-drying Fats. 
. . . . I 
Non-drying Fats. 



I 75-85 I Food, soap 

Goose fat . 


Beef marrow . 

Bone . 

Tallow, beef 

Tallow, mutton 


Anser cinereus 
Sus scrofa 
Bos taurus 
Bos, Ovis . 
Bos taurus 
Ovis aries 
Bos taurus 



Food, pomades 

Food, soap, candles 


Soap, candles 

Food, soap, candles, lubricants 

Food, soap, candles, lubricants 


in hair or woollen bags and submitted to hydraulic pressure, by 
which a further portion of oil or fat is obtained (cf. Pressing, below). 
In the case of those animal fats which are intended for edible pur- 
poses, such as lard, suet for margarine, the greatest cleanliness must, 
of course, be observed, and the temperature must be kept as low as 
possible in order to obtain a perfectly sweet and pure material. 

Pressing. — The boiling out process cannot be applied to small 
seeds, such as linseed and rape seed. Whilst the original method of 
obtaining seed oils may perhaps have been the same which is still 
used in India, viz. trituration of (rape) seeds in a mortar so that the 
oil can exude, it may be safely assumed that the process of expressing 
has been applied in the first instance to the preparation of olive oil. 
The first woman who expressed olives packed in a sack by heaping 
stones on them may be considered as the forerunner of the inventors 
of all the presses that subsequently came into use. Pliny describes 
in detail the apparatus and processes for obtaining olive oil in vogue 
among his Roman contemporaries, who used already a simple screw 
press, a knowledge of which they had derived from the Greeks. 
In the East, where vegetable oils form an important article of food 
and serve also for other domestic purposes, various ingenious 
applications of lever presses and wedge presses, and even of com- 
bined lever and wedge presses, have been used from the remotest 
time. At an early stage of history the Chinese employed the same 
series of operations which are followed in the most advanced oil mills 
of modern time, viz. bruising and reducing the seeds to meal under an 
edge-stone, heating the meal in an open pan, and pressing out the 
oil in a wedge press in which the wedges were driven home by 
hammers. This primitive process is still being carried out in Man- 
churia, in the production of soja bean cake and soja bean oil, one of 
the staple industries of that country. The olive press, which was 
also used in the vineyards for expressing the grape juice, found its 
way from the south of France to the north, and was employed there 
for expressing poppy seed and rape seed. The apparatus was then 
gradually improved, and thus were evolved the modern forms of 
the screw press, next the Dutch or stamper press, and finally the 
hydraulic press. With the screw press, even in its most improved 
form, the amount of pressure practically obtainable is limited from 
the failure of its parts under the severe inelastic strain. Hence this 
kind of press finds only limited application, as in the industry of 
olive oil for expressing the best and finest virgin oil, and in the 
production of animal fats for edible purposes, such as lard and 
oleomargarine. The Dutch or stamper press, invented in Holland 
in the 17th century, was up to the early years of the 19th century 

almost exclusively employed in Europe for pressing oil-seeds. It 
consists of two principal parts, an oblong rectangular box with an 
arrangement of plates, blocks and wedges, and over it a framework 
with heavy stampers which produce the pressure by their fall. 
The press box first consisted of strongly bound oaken planks, but 
later on cast-iron boxes were introduced. At each extremity of the 
box a bag of oil-meal was placed between two perforated Iron plates, 
next to which were inserted filling-up pieces of wood, two of which 
were oblique, so that the wedges which exercised the pressure could 
be readily driven home. This press has had to yield place to the 
hydraulic press, although in some old-fashioned establishments in 
Holland the stamper press could still be seen at work in the 'eighties 
of the 19th century. The invention of the hydraulic press in 1795 
by Joseph Bramah (Eng. pat., 30th April 1795) effected the greatest 
revolution in the oil industry, bringing a new, easily controlled and 
almost unlimited source of power into play; the limit of the power 
being solely reached by the limit of the strength of the material 
which the engineer is able to produce. Since then the hydraulic 
press has practically completely superseded all other appliances- 
used for expression, and in consequence of this epoch-making in- 
vention, assisted as it was later on by the accumulator — invented by 
William George (later Lord) Armstrong in 1843 — tne seed-crushing 
industry reached a perfection of mechanical detail which soon 
secured its supremacy for England. 

The sequence of operations in treating oil seeds, oil nuts, &c, 
for the separation of their contained oils is at the present time as 
follows : As a preliminary operation the oil seeds and nuts are freed 
from dust, sand and other impurities by sifting in an inclined re- 
volving cylinder or sieving machine, covered with woven wire,, 
having meshes varying according to the size and nature of the seed 
operated upon. This preliminary purification is of the greatest 
importance, especially for the preparation of edible oils and fats. 
In the case of those seeds amongst which are found pieces of iron 
(hammer heads amongst palm kernels, &c), the seeds are passed 
over magnetic separators, which retain the pieces of iron. The seeds ■ 
and nuts are then decorticated (where required), the shells removed,, 
and the kernels (" meats ") converted into a pulpy mass or meal 
(in older establishments by crushing and grinding between stones in 
edge-runners) on passing through a hopper over rollers consisting 
of five chilled iron or steel cylinders mounted vertically like the bowls 
of a calendar. These rollers are finely grooved so that the seed is 
cut up whilst passing in succession between the first and second 
rollers in the series, then between the second and the third, and so 



on to the last, when the grains are sufficiently bruised, crushed and 
ground. The distance between the rollers can be easily regulated 
so that the seed leaving the bottom roller has the desired fineness. 
The comminuted mass, forming a more or less coarse meal, is either 
expressed in this state or subjected to a preliminary heating, accord- 
ing to the quality of the product to be manufactured. For the 
preparation of edible oils and fats the meal is expressed in the cold, 
after having been packed into bags and placed in hydraulic presses 
under a pressure of three hundred atmospheres or even more. The 
cakes are allowed to remain under pressure for about seven minutes. 
The oil exuding in the cold dissolves the smallest amount of colouring 
matter, &c, and hence has suffered least in its quality. Oils so 
obtained are known in commerce as "cold drawn oils," " cold pressed 
oils," " salad oils," " virgin oils." 

By pressing in the cold, obviously only part of the oil or fat is 
recovered. A further quantity is obtained by expressing the seed 
meal at a somewhat elevated temperature, reached by warming the 
comminuted seeds or fruits either immediately after they leave the 
five-roller mill, or after the " cold drawn oil " has been taken off. 
Of course the cold pressed cakes must be first disintegrated, which 
may be done under an edge-runner. The same operation may be 
repeated once more. Thus oils of the " second expression " and of 
the " third expression " are obtained. 

In the case of oleaginous seeds of low value (cotton-seed, linseed) 
it is of importance to express in one operation the largest possible 
quantity of oil. Hence the bruised seed is, after leaving the five- 
roller mill, generally warmed at once in a steam-jacketed kettle 
fitted with a mixing gear, by passing steam into the jacket, and send- 
ing at the same time some steam through a rose, fixed inside the 
kettle, into the mass while it is being agitated. This practice is a 
survival of the older method of moistening the seed with a little 
water, while the seeds were bruised under edge-runners, so as to 
lower the temperature and facilitate the bursting of the cells. The 
warm meal is then delivered through measuring boxes into closed 
pressbags (" scourtins " of the " Marseilles " press), or through 
measuring boxes, combined with an automatic moulding machine, 
into cloths open at two sides (Anglo-American press), so that the 
preliminarily pressed cakes can be put at once into the hydraulic 
press. In the latest constructions of cage presses, the use of bags is 
entirely dispensed with, a measured-out quantity of seed falling 
direct into the circular press cage and being separated from the 
material forming the next cake by a circular plate of sheet iron. 
The essentials of proper oil pressing are a slowly accumulating 
pressure, so that the liberated oil may have time to flow out and 
escape, a pressure that increases in proportion as the resistance of 
the material increases, and that maintains itself as the volume of 
material decreases through the escape of oil. 

Numerous forms of hydraulic presses have been devised. Hori- 
zontal presses have practically ceased to be used in this branch of 
industry. At present vertical presses are almost exclusively in 
vogue; the three chief types of these have been already mentioned. 
Continuously working presses (compression by a conical screw) have 
been patented, but hitherto they have not been found practicable. 
Of the vertical presses the Anglo-American type of press is most in 
use. It represents an open press fitted with a number (usually 
sixteen) of iron press plates, between which the cakes are inserted 
by hand. A hydraulic ram then forces the table carrying the cakes 
against a press-head, and the exuding oil flows down the sides into 
a tank below. The " Marseilles press" is largely used in the south 
of France. There the meal is packed by hand in " scourtins," bags 
made of plaited coco-nut leaves — replacing the woollen cloths used 
in England. The packing of the press requires more manual labour 
than in the case of the Anglo-American press; moreover, the Mar- 
seilles press offers inconvenience in keeping the bags straight, and 
the pressure cannot be raised to the same height as in the more 
modern hydraulic presses. Oil obtained from heated meal is usually 
more highly coloured and harsher to the taste than cold drawn oil, 
more of the extractive substances being dissolved and intermixed 
with the oil. Such oils are hardly suitable for edible purposes, and 
they are chiefly used for manufacturing processes. According to 
the care exercised by the manufacturer in the range of temperature 
to which the seed is heated, various grades of oils are obtained. 

In the case of those seeds which contain more than 40% of oil, 
such as arachis nuts and sesame seed, the first expression in pressbags 
leads to difficulty, as the meal causes " spueing," i.e. the meal exudes 
and escapes from the press. Hence, in modern installations, the 
first expression of those seeds is carried out in so-called cage (clodding) 
presses, consisting of hydraulic presses provided with circular boxes 
or cages, into which the meal is filled. These cages or boxes are either 
constructed of metal staves held together by a number of steel rings, 
or consist of one cylinder having a large number of perforations. 
The presses having perforated cylinders, although presenting 
mechanically a more perfect arrangement, are not preferable to the 

Cress cages formed by staves, as the holes become easily clogged up 
y the meal, when the cylinder must be carefully cleaned out. 
Modern improvements, with a view to cheapening of cost, effect the 
transport of the cages from one press battery to another on rails. 
In order to dispense even with the charging of the presses by hand, 
in some systems the cages are first charged in a preliminary press, 

from which they are transferred mechanically by a swinging arrange- 
ment into the final press. 

Whilst the meal is under pressure the oil works its way to the edge 
of the cake, whence it exudes. For this reason an oblong form is the 
most favourable one for the easy separation of the oil. The edges 
of the cakes invariably retain a considerable portion of oil ; hence 
the soft edges are pared off, in the case of the oblong cake in a cake- 
paring machine, and the parings are returned to edge-runners, to 
be ground up and again pressed with fresh meal. Through the 
introduction of the cage (clodding) presses circular cakes have become 
fashionable, and as the material of these presses can be made much 
stronger and therefore higher pressure can be employed, more oil is 
expressed from the meal than in open presses. The oil flowing from 
the presses is caught in reservoirs placed under the level of the floor, 
from. which it is pumped into storage tanks for settling and clarifying. 
Extraction by Solvents. — The cakes obtained in the foregoing 
process still retain considerable proportions of oil, not less than 
4 to 5 % — usually, however, about 10 %. If it be desired to obtain 
larger quantities than are yielded by the above-described methods, 
processes having for their object the extraction of the seeds by 
volatile solvents must be resorted to. Extraction by means o r carbon 
bisulphide was first introduced in 1843 by Jesse Fisher of Birming- 
ham. Thirteen years later E. Deiss of Brunswick again patented 
the extraction by means of carbon bisulphide (Eng. Po,t. No. 390, 
1856), and added " chloroform, ether, essences, or benzine or benzole" 
to the list of solvents. For several years afterwards the process 
made little advance, for the colour of the oils produced was higher 
and the taste much sharper. The oil retained traces of sulphur, 
which showed themselves disagreeably in the smell of soaps made 
from it, and in the blackening of substances with which it was used. 
Of course, the meal left by the process was so tainted with carbon 
bisulphide that it was absolutely out of the question to use the 
extracted meal as cattle food. With the improvement in the manu- 
facture of carbon bisulphide, these drawbacks have been surmounted 
to a large extent, and the process of extracting with carbon bisulphide 
has specially gained much extension in the extraction of expressed 
olive marc in the south of France, in Italy and in Spain. Yet even 
now traces of carbon bisulphide are retained by the extracted meal, 
so that it is impossible to feed cattle with it. Carbon bisulphide is 
comparatively cheap, and it is heavier than water, hence there are 
certain advantages in storing so volatile and inflammable a liquid. 
But owing to the physiological effect carbon bisulphide has on the 
workmen, coupled' with the chemical action of impure carbon 
bisulphide on iron which has frequently led to conflagrations, the 
employment of carbon bisulphide must remain restricted. In 1863 
Richardson, Lundy and Irvine secured a patent (Eng. Pat. No. 
2 3I5) for obtaining oil from crushed seeds, or from refuse cake, 
by the solvent action of volatile hydrocarbons from " petroleum, 
earth oils, asphaltum oil, coal oil or shale oil, such hydrocarbons 
being required to be volatile under 212° F." Since that time the 
development of the petroleum industry in all parts of the world 
and the large quantities of low boiling-point hydrocarbons — naphtha 
^—obtained from the petroleum fields, and also the improvements 
in the apparatus employed, have raised this system of extraction 
to the rank of a competing practical method of oil production. 
Of the other proposed volatile solvents ordinary ether has found no 
practical application, as it is far too volatile and hence for too 
dangerous. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, acetone and benzene 
are far too expensive. Carbon tetrachloride would be an ideal 
solvent, as it is non-inflammable and shares with carbon bisulphide 
the advantage of being heavier than water. Efforts have been made 
during the last few years to introduce this solvent on a large scale, 
but its high price and its physiological effect on the workmen have 
hitherto militated against it. At the present time the choice lies 
practically only between the two solvents, carbon bisulphide and 
naphtha (petroleum ether). Naphtha is preferable for oil seeds, as 
it extracts neither resins nor gummy matters from the oil seeds, 
and takes up less colouring matter than carbon bisulphide. Yet even 
with naphtha traces of the solvents remain, so that the. meal obtained 
cannot be used for cattle feeding, notwithstanding the many state- 
ments by interested parties to the contrary. It is true that on the 
continent extracted meal, especially rape meal from good Indian 
seed and palm kernel meal, are somewhat largely used as food for 
cattle in admixture with press cakes, but in England no extracted 
meal is used for feeding cattle, but finds its proper use in manuring 
the land. 

The apparatus employed on a large scale depends on the tempera- 
ture at which the extraction is carried out. In the main two types 
of extracting apparatus are differentiated, viz. for extraction in the 
cold and for extraction in the hot. The seed is prepared in a similar 
manner as for pressing, except that it is not reduced to a tine meal, 
so as not to impede the percolation of the solvent through the mass. 
In the case of cold extraction the seed is placed in a series of closed 
vessels, through which the solvent percolates by displacement, on 
the " counter-current " system. A battery of vessels is so arranged 
that one vessel can always be made the last of the series to discharge 
finished meal and to be recharged with fresh meal, so that the 
process is practically a continuous one. The solution of the extracted 
oil or fat is then transferred to a steam-heated still, where the solvent 



is driven off and recovered by condensing the vapours in a cooling 
coil, to be used again. The last remnant of volatile solvent in the oil 
is driven off by a current of open steam blown through the oil in the 
warm state. The extracting process in the hot is carried out in 
apparatus, the principle of which is exemplified by the well-known 
Soxhlet extractor. The comminuted seed is placed inside a vessel 
connected with an upright refrigerator on trays or baskets, and is 
surrounded there by the volatile solvent. On heating the solvent 
with steam through a coil or jacket, the vapours rise through and 
around the meal. They pass into the refrigerator, where they are 
condensed and fall back as a condensed liquid through the meal, 
percolating it as they pass downwards, and reaching to the bottom 
of the vessel as a more or less saturated solution of oil in the solvent. 
The solvent is again evaporated, leaving the oil at the bottom of the 
vessel until the extraction is deemed finished. The solution of fat is 
then run oft into a still, as described already, and the last traces of 
solvent are driven out. The solvent is recovered and used again. 

With regard to the merits and demerits of the last two mentioned 
processes — expression and extraction — the adoption of _ either will 
largely depend on local conditions and the objects for which the pro- 
ducts are intended. Wherever the cake is the main product, ex- 
pression will commend itself as the most advantageous process. 
Where, however, the fatty material forms the main product, as in the 
case of palm kernel oil, or sesame and coco-nut oils from damaged 
seeds (which would no longer yield proper cattle food), the process of 
extraction will be preferred, especially when the price of oils is high. 
In some cases the combination of the two processes commends 
itself, as in the case of the production of olive oil. The fruits are 
expressed, and after the edible qualities and best class of oils for 
technical purposes have been taken off by expression, the remaining 
pulp is extracted by means of solv.ents. This process is known under 
the name of mixed process (huilerie mixte). 

Refining and Bleaching. — The oils and fats prepared by any 
of the methods detailed above are in their fresh state, and, if 
got from perfectly fresh (" sweet ") material, practically neutral. 
If care be exercised in the process of rendering animal oils 
and fats or expressing oils in the cold, the products are, as a 
rule, sufficiently pure to be delivered to the consumer, after a 
preliminary settling has allowed any mucilaginous matter, such 
as animal or vegetable fibres or other impurities, and also traces 
of moisture, to separate out. This spontaneous clarification 
was at one time the only method in vogue. This process is 
now shortened by filtering oils through filter presses, or otherwise 
brightening them, e.g. by blowing with air. In many cases 
these methods still suffice for the production of commercial 
oils and fats. 

In special cases, such as the preparation of edible oils and fats, a 
further improvement in colour and greater purity is obtained by 
filtering the oils over charcoal, or over natural absorbent earths, 
such as fuller's earth. Where this process does not suffice, as in the 
case of coco-nut oil or palm kernel oil, a preliminary purification 
in a current of steam must be resorted to before the final purifica- 
tion, described above, is carried out. Oils intended for use on the 
table which deposit " stearine " in winter must be freed from such 
solid fats. This is done by allowing the oil to cool down to a low 
temperature and pressing it through cloths in a press, when a 
limpid oil exudes, which remains proof against cold — " winter oil." 
Most olive oils are naturally non-congealing oils, whereas the 
Tunisian and Algerian olive oils deposit so much " stearine " 
that they must be " demargarinated." Similar methods are em- 
ployed in the production of lard oil, edible cotton-seed oil, &c. 
For refining oils and fats intended for edible purposes only the 
foregoing methods, which may be summarized by the name of 
physical methods, can be used; the only chemicals permissible 
are alkalis or alkaline earths to remove free fatty acids present. 
Treatment with other chemicals renders the oils and fats unfit 
for consumption. Therefore all bleaching and refining pro- 
cesses involving other means than those enumerated can only 
be used for technical oils and fats, such. as lubricating oils, 
burning oils, paint oils, soap-making oils, &c. 

Bleaching by the aid of chemicals requires great circumspec- 
tion. There is no universal method of oil-refining applicable 
to any and every oil or fat. Not only must each kind of oil or 
fat be considered as a special problem, but frequently even 
varieties of one and the same oil or fat are apt to cause the 
same difficulties as would a new individual. In many cases the 
purification by means of sulphuric acid, invented and patented 

by Charles Gower in 1792 (frequently ascribed to Thenard), is 
still usefully applied. It consists in treating the oil with 
a small percentage of a more or less concentrated sulphuric 
acid, according to the nature of the oil or fat. The acid not 
only takes up water, but it acts on the suspended impurities, 
carbonizing them to some extent, and thus causing them to 
coagulate and fall down in the form of a flocculent mass, which 
carries with it mechanically other impurities which have not 
been acted upon. This method is chiefly used in the refining 
of linseed and rape oils. Purification by means of strong 
caustic soda was first recommended as a general process by 
Louis C. Arthur Barreswil, his suggestion being to heat the oil 
and add 2 % to 3 % of caustic soda. In most cases the purifica- 
tion consisted in removing the free fatty acids from rancid oils 
and fats, the caustic soda forming a soap with the fatty acids, 
which would either rise as a scum and lift up with it impurities, 
or fall to the bottom and carry down impurities. This process 
is a useful one in the case of cotton-seed oil. As a rule, 
however, it is a very precarious one, since emulsions are formed 
which prevent in many cases the separation of oil altogether. 
After the treatment with sulphuric acid or caustic soda, the oils 
must be washed to remove the last traces of chemicals. The 
water is then allowed to settle out, and the oils are finally 
filtered. The number of chemicals which have been proposed 
from time to time for the purification of oils and fats is almost 
legion, and so long as the nature of oils and fats was little 
understood, a secret trade in oil-purifying chemicals flourished. 
With our present knowledge most of these chemicals may 
be removed into the limbo of useless things. The general 
methods of bleaching besides those mentioned already as 
physical methods, viz. filtration over charcoal or bleaching 
earth, are chiefly methods based on bleaching by means of 
oxygen or by chlorine. The methods of bleaching by oxygen 
include all those which aim at the bleaching by exposure to 
the air and to sunlight (as in the case of artists' linseed-oil), 
or where oxygen or ozone is introduced in the form of gas or 
is evolved by chemicals, as manganese dioxide, potassium 
bichromate or potassium permanganate and sulphuric acid. 
In the process of bleaching by means of chlorine either bleach- 
ing powder or bichromates and hydrochloric acid are used. It 
must again be emphasized that no general rule can be laid 
down as to which process should be employed in each given 
case. There is still a wide field open for the application of 
proper processes for the removal of impurities and colouring 
matters without running the risk of attacking the oil or fat 

Oil Testing.— Reliable scientific methods for testing oils and 
fats date back only to the end of the 'seventies of the 19th 
century. Before that time it was believed that not only could 
individual oils and fats be distinguished from each other by 
colour reactions, but it was also maintained that falsification 
could be detected thereby. With one or two exceptions (detec- 
tion of sesame oil and perhaps also of cotton-seed oil) all colour 
reactions are entirely useless. The modern methods of oil 
testing rest chiefly on so-called " quantitative " reactions, a 
number of characteristic " values " being determined which, 
being based on the special nature of the fatty acids contained in 
each individual oil or fat, assist in identifying them and also 
in revealing adulteration. These " values," together with other 
useful methods, are enumerated in the order of their utility for 
the purposes of testing. 

The saponification value (saponification number) denotes the 
number of milligrams which one gramme of an oil or fat requires for 
saponification, or, in other words, for the neutralization of the total 
fatty acids contained in an oil or fat. We thus measure the alkali 
absorption value of all fatty acids contained in an oil or fat. The 
saponification values of most oils and fats lie in the neighbourhood 
of 195. But the oils belonging to the rape oil group are characterized 
by considerably lower saponification values, viz. about 175 on 
account of their containing notable quantities of erucic acid, C22H42O2. 
In the case of those oils which do not belong to the rape oils and yet 
show abnormally low saponification values, the suspicion is raised at 
once that a certain amount of mineral oils (which do not absorb 



alkali and are therefore termed " unsaponifiable ") has been admixed 
fraudulently. Their amount can be determined in a direct manner 
by exhausting the saponified mass, after dilution with water, with 
ether, evaporating the latter and weighing the amount of mineral 
oil left behind. A few of the blubber oils, like dolphin jaw and 
porpoise jaw oils (used for lubricating typewriting machines), have 
exceedingly high saponification values owing to their containing 
volatile fatty acids with a small number of carbon atoms. Notable 
also are coco-nut and palm-nut oils, the saponification numbers of 
which vary from 240 to 260, and especially butter-fat, which has a 
saponification value of about 227. These high saponification values 
are due to the presence of (glycerides of) volatile fatty acids, and are 
of extreme usefulness to the analyst, especially in testing butter-fat 
for added margarine and other fats. These volatile acids are specially 
measured by the Reichert value (Reichert-Wollny value). To ascertain 
this value the volatile acids contained in 5 grammes of an oil or fat 
are distilled in a minutely prescribed manner, and the distilled-off 
acids are measured by titration with decinormal alkali. Whereas 
most of the oils and fats, viz. all those the saponification value of 
which lies at or below 195, contain practically no volatile acids,?'.«. 
have extremely low Reichert-Wollny values, all those oils and fats 
haying saponification values above 195 contain notable amounts of 
volatile fatty acids. Thus, the Reichert- Meis si value of butter-fat 
is 2 5 _ 3°> that of coco-nut oil 6-7, and of palm kernel oil about 
5-6. This value is indispensable for judging the purity of a butter. 

One of the most important values in oil testing is the iodine value. 
This indicates the percentage of iodine absorbed by an oil or fat when 
the latter is dissolved in chloroform or carbon tetrachloride, and 
treated with an accurately measured amount of free iodine supplied 
in the form of iodine chloride. By this means a measure is obtained 
of the unsaturated fatty acids contained in an oil or fat. On this 
value a scientific classification of all oils and fats can be based, as is 
shown by the above-given list of oils and fats. The unsaturated 
fatty acids which occur chiefly in oils and fats are oleic acid, iodine 
value 90-07; erucic acid, iodine value 75-15; linolic acid, iodine 
value 181-42; linolenic acid, iodine value 274-1; and clupanodonic 
acid, iodine value 367-7. Oleic acid occurs in all non-drying oils 
and fats, and to some extent in the semi-drying oils and fats. Linolic 
acid is a characteristic constituent of all semi-drying, and to some 
extent of all drying oils. Linolenic acid characterizes all vegetable 
drying oils; similarly clupanodonic acid characterizes all marine 
animal oils. 

If one individual oil or fat is given, the iodine value alone 
furnishes the readiest means of finding its place in the above system, 
and in many cases of identifying it. Even if a mixture of several 
oils and fats be present, the iodine value assists greatly in the 
identification of the components of the mixture, and furnishes the 
most important key for the attacking and resolving of this not very 
simple problem. Thus it points the way to the application of a 
further method to resolve the isolated fatty acids of an oil or fat 
into saturated fatty acids, which do not absorb iodine, and into un- 
saturated fatty acids, which absorb iodine in various proportions as 
shown above. This separation is effected by converting the alkali 
soaps of the fatty acids into lead soaps and treating the latter with 
ether, in which the lead salts of the saturated acids are insoluble, 
whereas the salts of the above-named unsaturated acids are soluble. 
The saturated fatty acids can then be further examined, and valuable 
information is gained by the determination of the melting-points 
and by treatment with solvents. Thus some individual fatty acids, 
such as stearic acid and arachidic acid (which is characteristic of 
ground nut oil) can be identified. In the mixture of unsaturated 
fatty acids, by means of some more refined methods, clupanodonic 
acid, linolenic acid, linolic acid and oleic acid can be recognized. 
By combining the various methods which have been outlined here, 
and by the help of some further additional special methods, and 
by reasoning in a strictly logical manner, it is possible tc resolve a 
mixture of two oils and fats, and even of three and four, into their 
components and determine approximately their quantities. The 
methods sketched here do not yet exhaust the armoury of the 
analytical chemist, but it can only be pointed out in passing that the 
detection of hydroxylated acids enables the analyst to ascertain the 
presence of castor oil, just as the isolation and determination of 
oxidized fatty acids enables him to differentiate blown oils from 
other oils. 

Tests such as the Maumene test, the elaidin test and others, 
which formerly were the only resource of the chemist, have been 
practically superseded by the foregoing methods. The viscosity 
test, although of considerable importance in the examination of 
lubricating oils, has been shown to have very little discriminative 
value as a general test. 

Commerce. — It may be safely said of the United Kingdom 
that it takes the foremost position in the world as regards the 
extent of the oil and fat industries. An estimate made by the 
writer (Cantor Lectures, " Oils and Fats, their Uses and Applica- 
tions," Society of Arts, 1904, p. 795), and based on the most 
reliable information obtainable, led to the conclusion that the 
sums involved in the oil and fat trade exceeded £1,000,000 per 

week; in 1967 they approximated £1,250,000 per week. The 
great centres of the seed-oil trade (linseed, cotton-seed, rape- 
seed, castor-seed) are Hull, London, Liverpool, Bristol, Leith and 
Glasgow. Linseed is imported principally from the East Indies, 
Argentina, Canada, Russia and the United States; cotton-seed 
is chiefly supplied by Egypt and East India; rape-seed and 
castor-seed chiefly by East India. The importation of copra 
and palm kernels for the production of coco-nut oil and palm- 
nut oil is also considerable, but in these two cases Great Britain 
does not take the first place. Fish and blubber oils are principally 
produced in Dundee, London and Greenock. The manufacture 
of cod-liver oil for pharmaceutical purposes is naturally some- 
what limited, as Norway, Newfoundland, and latterly also 
Japan, are more favourably situated as regards the supply of 
fresh cod, but the technical liver oils (cod oil, shark-liver oil) 
are produced in very large quantities in Grimsby, Hull, Aberdeen, 
and latterly also on the west coasts of the United Kingdom. 
The production of edible fats (margarine, lard compounds, 
and vegetable butters) has taken root in this country, and bids 
fair to extend largely. With regard to edible oils, edible cotton- 
seed oil is the only table oil produced in Great Britain. The 
United Kingdom is also one of the largest importers of fatty 

Practically the whole trade in palrn oil, which comes 
exclusively from West Africa, 1 is confined to Liverpool, and 
the bulk of the tallow imported into Europe from Australasia, 
South America and the United States, is sold in the marts of 
London and Liverpool. Lard reaches Great Britain chiefly from 
the United States. Amongst the edible oils and fats which are 
largely imported, butter takes the first rank (to an amount of 
almost £25,000,000 per annum). This food-stuff reaches Great 
Britain not only from all butter-exporting countries of the 
continent of Europe, but in increasing quantities also from 
Australia, Canada, Argentine, Siberia and the United States of 
America. Next in importance is margarine, the British produc- 
tion of which does not suffice for the consumption, so that large 
quantities must be imported from Holland, edible olive oil 
from Italy, the south of France, Spain and the Mediterranean 
ports generally. Coco-nut oil and copra, both for edible and 
technical purposes, are largely shipped to Great Britain from 
the East Indies and Ceylon, Java and the West Indies. Of 
lesser importance are greases, which form the by-product of 
the large slaughter-houses in the United States and Argentina, 
and American (Canadian) and Japanese fish oils. 

On the continent of Europe the largest oil-trading centres are 
on the Mediterranean (Marseilles and Triest), which are geo- 
graphically more favourably placed than England for the produc- 
tion of such edible oils (in addition to the home-grown olive oil) 
as arachis oil, sesame oil and coco-nut oil. Moreover, the native 
population itself constitutes a large consumer of these oils. In 
the north of Europe, Hamburg, Rotterdam, Antwerp and 
Copenhagen are the largest centres of the oil and fat trade. 
Hamburg and its neighbourhood produces, curiously enough, at 
present the largest amount of palm-nut oil. The United States 
takes the foremost place in the world for the production of cotton- 
seed and maize oils, lard, bone fat and fish oils. Canada is 
likely to outstrip the United States in the trade of fish and 
blubber oils, and in the near future Japan bids fair to become 
a very serious competitor in the supply of these oils. Vast 
stores of hard vegetable fats are still practically wasted in 
tropical countries, such as India, Indo-China and the Sunda 
Islands, tropical South America, Africa and China. With the 
improvement in transport these will no doubt reach European 
manufacturing centres in larger quantities than has been the 
case hitherto. 


The waxes consist chiefly of the fatty acid esters of the higher 
monohydric alcohols, with which are frequently associated free 
alcohols as also free fatty acids. In the following two tables 
the " acids " and " alcohols " hitherto identified in waxes are 
enumerated in a classified order: — 






Melting Point. 

Characteristic of 


Pressure. 1 


I. Acids of the Acetic series C n H 2n 
Ficocerylic acid 
Myristic acid . 
Palmitic acid . . . 
Carnaiibic acid 
Pisangcerylic acid . 
Cerotic acid 
Melissic acid . 
Psyllostearylic acid 







62 62 






Gondang wax 

Wool wax 

Beeswax, spermaceti 

Carnaiiba wax, wool wax 

Pisang wax 

Beeswax, wool wax, insect wax 


Psylla wax 

II. Acids of the Acrylic or Oleic series 

CnH2n_2 2 — 

Physetoleic acid 

Doeglic acid (?) 



f Sperm oil 

III. Hydroxylated acids of the series C n H 2n 3 — 
Lanopalmic acid . . 



Wool wax 
Cochineal wax 

IV. Dihydroxylated acids of the series C„H 2 n04— 

Lanoceric acid 



Wool wax 




Melting Point. 

Characteristic of 



I. Alcohols of the Ethane series C„l 
Pisangceryl alcohol 
Cetyl alcohol (Ethal) . 
Octodecyl alcohol . 
Carnaiibyl alcohol . 
Ceryl alcohol . 
Myricyl (Melissyl) alcohol 
Psyllostearyl alcohol 









78 . 


Pisang wax 

I Spermaceti 

Wool wax 

Chinese wax, opium wax, 
Beeswax, Carnaiiba wax 
Psylla wax 

wool fat 

II. Alcohols of the Allylic series C„H 2 „0 — 

Lanolin alcohol 




Wool wax 

III. Alcohols of the series C„H 2n _sO — 

Ficoceryl alcohol 

C„H 28 


Gondang wax 

IV. Alcohols of the Glycolic series CnH 2 n+202 — 

Cocceryl alcohol 



Cochineal wax 

V. Alcohols of the Cholesterol series — 

Cholesterol .- 




f Wool wax 

Spermaceti consists practically of cetyl palmitate, Chinese wax of 
ceryl palmitate. The other waxes are of more complex composition, 
especially so wool wax. 

The waxes can be classified similarly to the oils and fats as 

follows: — 1 t • -j 

I. Liquid waxes. 

II. Solid waxes. 

A. Vegetable waxes. 

B. Animal waxes. 

The table enumerates the most important waxes:— 


Name of W T ax. 



Principal Use. 

Sperm oil . . 
Arctic sperm oil (Bottlenose oil) 

Vegetable Waxes — 
Carnaiiba wax 

Animal Waxes — 
Wool wax 

Beeswax .... 
Spermaceti (Cetin) 
Insect wax, Chinese wax . 

Liquid Waxes. 
Physeter macrocephalus 
Hyperoodon rostratus 

Solid Waxes. 
Corypha cerifera . 

Ovis aries 

A pis mellifica .... 
Physeter macrocephalus . 
Coccus ceriferus 





Polishes. Phonograph mass 

Candles, polishes 
Candles, surgery 
Candles, polishes, sizes 

There are only two liquid waxes known, sperm oil and arctic 
sperm oil (bottlenose- whale oil), formerly always classed together 
with the animal oils. In their physical properties the natural 
waxes simulate the fatty oils and fats. They behave similarly 

to solvents; and in their liquid condition leave a grease spot 
on paper. An important property of waxes is that of easily 
forming emulsions with water, so that large quantities of water 
can be incorporated with them (lanolin). 

The liquid waxes occur in the blubber of the sperm whale, 
and in the head cavities of those whales which yield spermaceti ; 
this latter is obtained by cooling the crude oil obtained from 
the head cavities. Vegetable waxes appear to be very widely 
distributed throughout the vegetable kingdom, and occur mostly 

as a very thin film covering 
leaves and also fruits. A few 
only are found in sufficiently 
large quantities to be of com- 
mercial importance. So far 
carnaiiba wax is practically 
the only vegetable wax which 
is of importance in the world's 
markets. t The animal waxes 
are wid«ly distributed 
amongst the insects, the most 
important being beeswax, 
which is collected in almost 
all parts of the world. An ex- 
ceptional position is occupied 
by wool wax, the main constituent of the natural wool fat which 
covers the hair of sheep, and is obtained as a by-product in scour- 
ing the raw wool. Wool fat is now being purified on a large scale 
and brought into commerce, under the name of lanolin, as an 



ointment the beneficent properties of which were known to 
Dioscorides in the beginning of the present era. Its chemical 
composition is exceedingly complex, and specially remarkable 
on account of the considerable proportions of cholesterol and 
isocholesterol it contains. 

Commerce. — The sperm oils are generally sold in the same 
markets as the fish and blubber oils (see above). For beeswax 
London is one of the chief marts of the world. In Yorkshire, 
the centre of the woollen industry, the largest amounts of wool- 
fat are produced, all attempts to recover the hitherto wasted 
material in Argentine and Australia having so far not been 
attended with any marked success. Spermaceti is a compara- 
tively unimportant article of commerce; and of Chinese wax 
. small quantities only are imported, as the home consumption 
takes up the bulk of the wax for the manufacture of candles, 
polishes and sizes. 

2. Essential or Ethereal Oils. 
The essential, ethereal, or " volatile " oils constitute a very 
extensive class of bodies, which possess, in a concentrated form, 
the odour characteristic of the plants or vegetable substances 
from which they are obtained. The oils are usually contained 
in special cells, glands, cavities, or canals within the plants 
either as such or intermixed with resinous substances; in the 
latter case the mixtures form oleo-resins, balsams or resins 
according as the product is viscid, or solid and hard. A few 
do not exist ready formed in the plants, but result from chemical 
change of inodorous substances; as for instance, bitter almonds 
and essential oil of mustard. 

The essential oils are for the most part insoluble or only very 
sparingly soluble in water, but in alcohol, ether, fatty oils and mineral 
oils they dissolve freely. They ignite with great ease, emitting a 
smoke freely, owing to the large proportion of carbon they contain. 
Their chief physical distinction from the fatty oils is that they are 
as a rule not oleaginous to the touch and leave no permanent grease 
spot. They have an aromatic smell and a hot burning taste, and 
can be distilled unchanged. The crude oils are at the ordinary 
temperature mostly liquid, some are solid substances, others, again, 
deposit on standing a crystalline portion (" stearoptene " in 
contradistinction to the liquid portion (" elaeoptene "). The essential 
oils possess a high refractive power, and most of them rotate the 
plane of the polarized light. Even so nearly related oils as the oils 
of turpentine, if obtained from different sources, rotate the plane of 
the polarized light in opposite directions. In specific gravity the 
essential oils range from 0-850 to 1-142; the majority are, however, 
specifically lighter than water. In their chemical constitution the 
essential oils present no relationship to the fats and oils. They 
represent a large number of classes of substances of which the most 
important are: (1) Hydrocarbons, such as pinene in oil of turpentine, 
camphene in citronella oil, limonene in lemon and orange-peel oils, 
caryophyllene in clove oil and cumene in oil of thyme; (2) ketones, 
such as camphor from the camphor tree, and irone which occurs in 
orris root; (3) phenols, such as eugenol in clove oil, thymol in thyme 
oil, saffrol in sassafras oil, anethol in anise oil; (4) aldehydes, such 
as citral and citronellal, the most important constituents of lemon 
oil and lemon-grass oil, benzaldehyde in the oil of bitter almonds, 
cinnamic aldehyde in cassia oil, vanillin in gum benzoin and helio- 
tropin in the spiraea oil, &c. ; (5) alcohols and their esters, such as 
geraniol (rhodinol) in rose oil and geranium oil, linalool, occurring 
in bergamot and lavender oils, and as the acetic ester in rose oil, 
terpineol in cardamom oil, menthol in peppermint oil, eucalyptol in 
eucalyptus oil and borneol in rosemary oil and Borneo camphor; 
(6) acids and, their anhydrides, such as cinnamic acid in Peru balsam 
and coumarin in woodruff; and (7) nitrogenous compounds, such as 
mustard oil, indol in jasmine oil and anthranilic methyl-ester in 
neroli and jasmine oils. 

Preparation from Plants. — Before essential oils could be 
prepared synthetically they were obtained from plants by one 
of the following , methods : (1) distillation, (2) expression, 
(3) extraction, (4) enfleurage, (5) maceration. 

The most important of these processes is the first, as it is applicable 
to a large number of substances of the widest range, such as oil of 
peppermint.and camphor. The process is based on the principle that 
whilst the odoriferous substances are insoluble in water, their 
vapour tension is reduced on being treated with steam so that they 
are carried over by a current of steam. The distillation is generally 
performed in a still with an inlet for steam and an outlet to carry 
the vapours laden with essential oils into a condenser, where the 
water and oil vapours are condensed. On standing, the distillate 
separates into two layers, an aqueous and an oily layer, the oil 
floating on or sinking through the water according to its specific 

gravity. The process of expression is applicable to the obtaining of 
essential oils which are contained in the rind or skin of the fruits 
belonging to the citron family, such as orange and lemon oils. The 
oranges, lemons, &c, are peeled, and the peel is pressed against a 
large number of fine needles, the exuding oil being absorbed by 
sponges. It is intended to introduce machinery to replace manual 
labour. The process of extraction with volatile solvents is similar 
to that used in the extraction of oils and fats, but as only the most 
highly purified solvents can be used, this process has not yet gained 
commercial importance. The process of enfleurage is used in those 
cases where the odoriferous substance is present to a very small 
extent, and is so tender and liable to deterioration that it cannot be 
separated by way of distillation. Thus in the case of neroli oil the 
petals of orange blossom are loosely spread on trays covered with 
purified lard or with fine olive oil. The fatty materials then take up 
and fix the essential oil. This process is principally employed for 
preparing pomades and perfumed oils. Less tender plants can be 
treated by the analogous method of maceration, which consists in 
extracting the odoriferous substances by macerating the flowers 
in hot oil or molten fat. The essential oil is then dissolved by the 
fatty substances. The essentia! oil itself can be recovered from the 
perfumed oils, prepared either by enfleurage or maceration, by 
agitating the perfumed fat in a shaking machine with pure concen- 
trated alcohol. The essential oil passes into the alcoholic solution, 
which is used as such in perfumery. 

Synthetic Preparation. — Since the chemistry of the essential 
oils has been investigated in a systematic fashion a large number 
of the chemical individuals mentioned above have been isolated 
from the oils and identified. 

This first step has led to the synthetical production of the most 
characteristic substances of essential oils in the laboratory, and the 
synthetical manufacture of essential oils bade fair to rival in im- 
portance the production of tar colours from the hydrocarbons 
obtained on distilling coal. One of the earliest triumphs of synthetical 
chemistry in this direction was the production of terpineol, the 
artificial lilac scent, from oil of turpentine. At present it is almost 
a by-product in the manufacture of artificial camphor. This was 
followed by the production of heliotropin, coumarin and vanillin, 
and later on by the artificial preparation of ionone, the most char- 
acteristic constituent of the violet scent. At present the manufacture 
of artificial camphor may be considered a solved problem, although 
it is doubtful whether such camphor will be able to compete in price 
with the natural product in the future. The aim of the chemist to 
produce essential oils on a manufacturing scale is naturally confined 
at present to the more expensive oils. For so long as the great bulk 
of oils is so cheaply produced in nature's laboratory, the natural 
products will hold their field for a long time to come. 

Applications. — Essential oils have an extensive range of uses, 
of which the principal are their various applications in perfumery 
(<?.».). Next to that they play an important part in connexion 
with food. The value of flavouring herbs, condiments and 
spices is due in a large measure to the essential oils contained 
in them. The commercial value of tea, coffee, wine and other 
beverages may be said to depend largely on the delicate aroma 
which they owe to the presence of minute quantities of ethereal 
oils. Hence, essential oils are extensively used for the flavour- 
ing of liqueurs, aerated beverages and other drinks. Nor is their 
employment less considerable in the manufacture of confectionery 
and in the preparation of many dietetic articles. Most fruit 
essences now employed in confectionery are artificially prepared 
oils, especially is this the case with cheap confectionery (jams, 
marmalades, &c.) in which the artificial fruit esters to a large 
extent replace the natural fruity flavour. Thus amyl acetate 
is used as an imitation of the jargonelle-pear flavour; amyl 
valerate replaces apple flavour, and a mixture of ethyl and propyl 
butyrates yields the so-called pine-apple flavour. Formic ether 
gives a peach-like odour, and is used for flavouring fictitious 
rum. Many of the essential oils find extensive use in medicine. 
In the arts, oil of turpentine is used on the largest scale in the 
manufacture of varnishes, and in smaller quantities for the 
production of terpineol and of "artificial camphor. Oil of cloves 
is used in the silvering of mirror glasses. Oils of lavender and 
of spike are used as vehicles for painting, more especially for 
the painting of pottery and glass. 

The examination of essential oils is by no means an easy task. 
Each oil requires almost a special method, but with the progress of 
chemistry the extensive adulteration that used to be practised with 
fatty oils has almost disappeared, as the presence of fatty oils is 
readily detected. Adulteration of expensive oil with cheaper oils is 
now more extensively practised, and such tests as the determination 



of the saponification value (see above) and of the optical rotation, 
and in special cases the isolation and quantitative determination of 
characteristic substances, leads in very many cases to reliable 
results. The colour, the boiling-point, the specific gravity and 
solubility in alcohol serve as most valuable adj uncts in the examina- 
tion with a view to form an estimate of the genuineness and value 
of a sample. Quite apart from the genuineness of a sample, its special 
aroma constitutes the value of an oil, and in this respect the judging 
of the value of a given oil may, apart from the purity, be more 
readily solved by an experienced perfumer than by the chemist. 
Thus roses of different origin or even of different years will yield rose 
oils of widely different value. The cultivation of plants for essential 
oils has become a large industry, and is especially practised as an 
industry in the south of France (Grasse, Nice, Cannes). The rose 
oil industry, which had been for centuries located in the valleys of 
Bulgaria, has now been taken up in Germany (near Leipzig), where 
roses are specially cultivated for the production of rose oil. India 
and China are also very large producers of essential oils. Owing to 
the climate other countries are less favoured, although lavender and 
peppermint are largely cultivated at Mitcham in Surrey, in Hertford- 
shire and Bedfordshire. Lavender and peppermint oils of English 
origin rank as the best qualities. As an illustration of the extent 
to which this part of the industry surfers from the climate, it may be 
stated that oil from lavender plants grown in England never produces 
more than 7 to 10% Hnalool acetate, which gives the characteristic 
scent to lavender oil, whilst oil from lavender grown in the south of 
France frequently yields as much as 35 % of the ester. The proof 
that this is due mainly to climatic influences is furnished by the fact 
that Mitcham lavender transplanted to France produces an oil 
which year by year approximates more closely in respect of its 
contents of linalool acetate to the product of the French plant. 

Bibliography. — For the fixed oils, fats and waxes, see C. R. A. 
Wright, Fixed Oils, Fats, Butters and Waxes (London, 2nd ed, by 
C. A. Mitchell, 1903) ; W. Brannt, Animal and Vegetable Fats and 
Oils (London, 1896) ; J. Lewkowitsch, Chemical Technology and 
Analysis of Oils, Fats and Waxes (London, 4th ed., 3 vols., 1909; 
also German ed., Brunswick, 1905; French ed., Paris, vol. i. 1906, 
vol. ii. 1908, vol. iii. 1909) ; Laboratory Companion to Fats and Oil 
Industries (London, 1902) ; Cantor Lectures of the Society of Arts, 
Oils and Fats, their Uses and Applications; Groves and Thorp, 
Chemical Technology, vol. ii. ; A. H. Gill, Oil Analyses (1909); 
G. Hefter, Technologie der Fetle und Ole (Berlin, vol. i. 1906; vol. ii. 
1908) ; L. Ubbelohde, Handbuch der Chemie und Technologie der 
Ole und Fette (Leipzig, vol. i., 1908); R. Benedikt and F. Ulzer, 
Analyse der Fette und Wachsarten (Berlin, 1908); J. Fritsch, Les 
Huiles et graisses d'origine animate (Paris, 1907). 

For the essential oils, see F. B. Power, Descriptive Catalogue of 
Essential Oils; J. C. Sawer, Odorographia (London, 1892 and 1894); 
E. Gildemeister and F. Hoffmann, Die aethcrischen Ole (Berlin, 
1899), trans. (1900) by E. Kremers under the title Volatile Oils (Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin) ; F. W. Semmler, Die aetherischen Ole nach 
ihren chemischen Beslandleilen unter Berucksichtigung der geschichi- 
lichen Entwickelung (Leipzig); M. Otto, V Industrie des parfums 
(Paris, 1909) ; O. Aschan, Chemie der alicykhschen Verbindungen 
(Brunswick, 1905); F. R. Heussler (translated by Pond), The 
Chemistry of the Terpenes (London, 1904). (J. Lh.) 

OIRON, a village of western France, in the department of 
Deux-Sevres, 7! m. E. by S. of Thouars by road. Oiron is 
celebrated for its chateau, standing in a park and originally 
built in the first half of the 16th century by the Gouffier family, 
rebuilt in the latter half of the 17th century by Francis of 
Aubusson, duke of La Feuillade, and purchased by Madame 
de Montespan, who there passed the latter part of her life. 
Marshal Villeroy afterwards lived there. The chateau consists 
of a main building with two long projecting wings, one of which 
is a graceful structure of the Renaissance period built over a 
cloister. The adjoining church, begun in 151 8, combines the 
Gothic and Renaissance styles and contains the tombs of four 
members of the Gouffier family. These together with other parts 
of the chateau and church were mutilated by the Protestants 
in 1 568. The park contains a group of four dolmens. 

For the Oiron pottery see Ceramics. 

OISE, a river of northern France, tributary to the Seine, 
flowing south-west from the Belgian frontier and traversing the 
departments of Aisne, Oise and Seine-et-Oise. Length, 187 m.; 
area of basin 6437 sq. m. Rising in Belgium, 5 m. S.E. of 
Chimay (province of Namur) at a height of 980 ft., the river 
enters France after a course of little more than 9 m. Flowing 
through the district of Thierache, it divides below Guise into 
several arms and proceeds to the confluence of the Serre, near 
La Fere (Aisne). Thence as far as the confluence of the Ailette 
its course lies through well-wooded country to Compiegne, 

a short distance above which it receives the Aisne. Skirting 
the forests of Compiegne, Halatte and Chantilly, all on its left 
bank, and receiving near Creil the Therain and the Breche, 
the river flows past Pontoise and debouches into the Seine 
39 m. below Paris. Its channel is canalized (depth 6 ft. 6 in.) 
from Janville above Compiegne, to its mouth over a section 
60 m. in length. Above Janville a lateral canal continued by 
the Sambre-Oise canal accompanies the river to Landrecies. It 
communicates with the canal system of Flanders and with the 
Somme canal by way of the St Quentin canal (Crozat branch) 
which unites with it at Chauny. The same town is its point of 
junction with the Aisne-Oise canal, by which it is linked with 
the Eastern canal system. 

OISE, a department of northern France, three-fourths of 
which belonged to Ile-de-France and the rest to Picardy, bounded 
N. by Somme, E. by Aisne, S. by Seine-et-Mame and Seine-et- 
Oise, and W. by Eure and Seine-Inf6rieure. Pop. (1906) 
410,049; area 2272 sq. m. The department is a moderately 
elevated plateau with pleasant valleys and fine forests, such 
as those of Compiegne, Ermenonville, Chantilly and Halatte, 
all in the south-east. It belongs almost entirely to the basin of 
the Seine — the Somme and the Bresle, which flow into the 
English Channel, draining but a small area. The most important 
river is the Oise, which flows through a broad and fertile valley 
from north-east to south-west, past the towns of Noyon, Com- 
piegne, Pont St Maxence and Creil. On its right it receives 
the Breche and the Therain, and on its left the Aisne, which 
brings down a larger volume of water than the Oise itself, the 
Authonne, and the Nonette, which irrigates the valley of Senlis 
and Chantilly. The Ourcq, a tributary of the Marne, in the 
south-east, and the Epte, a tributary of the Seine, in the west, 
also in part belong to the department. These streams are 
separated by ranges of slight elevation or by isolated hills, the 
highest point (770 ft.) being in the ridge of Bray, which stretches 
from Dieppe to Precy-sur-Oise. The lowest point is at the 
mouth of the Oise, only 66 ft. above sea-level. The climate 
is very variable, but the range of temperature is moderate. 

Clay for bricks and earthenware, sand and building-stone are 
among the mineral products of Oise, and peat is also worked. 
Pierrefonds, Gouvieux, Chantilly and Fontaine Bonneleau 
have mineral springs. Wheat, oats and other cereals, potatoes 
and sugar beet are the chief agricultural crops. Cattle are 
reared more especially in the western districts, where dairying is 
actively carried on. Bee-keeping is general. Racing stables 
are numerous in the neighbourhood of Chantilly and Compiegne. 
Among the industries of the department, of manufacture of 
sugar and alcohol from beetroot occupies a foremost place. 
The manufacture of furniture, brushes (Beauvais) and other 
wooden goods and of toys, fancy-ware, buttons, fans and other 
articles in wood, ivory, bone or mother-of-pearl are widespread 
industries. There are also woollen and cotton mills, and the 
making of woollen fabrics, blankets, carpets (Beauvais), hosiery 
and lace (Chantilly and its vicinity) is actively carried on. 
Creil and the neighbouring Montataire form an important 
metallurgical centre. Oise is served by the Northern railway, 
on which Creil is an important junction, and its commerce is 
facilitated by the Oise and its lateral canal and the Aisne, which 
afford about 70 m. of navigable waterway. 

There are four arrondissements — Beauvais, Clermont, Com- 
piegne and Senlis — with 35 cantons and 701 communes. The 
department forms the diocese of Beauvais (province of Reims) 
and part of the region of the II. army corps and of the academie 
(educational division) of Paris. Its court of appeal is at Amiens. 
The principal places are Beauvais, the capital, Chantilly, Cler- 
mont-en-Beauvoisis, Compiegne, Noyon, Pierrefonds, Creil and 
Senlis, which are treated separately. Among the more populous 
places not mentioned is Meru ( S3 17), a centre for fancy-ware 
manufacture. The department abounds in old churches, among 
which, besides those of Beauvais, Noyon and Senlis, may be 
mentioned those at Morienval (nth and 12th centuries), 
Maignelay ( 1 5th and 1 6th centuries) , Crepy-en-Valois (St Thomas, 
12th, 13th and 15th centuries), St Leu d'Esserent (mainly 12th 


century), Tracy-le-Val (mainly 12th century), Viilers St Paul 
(12th and 13th centuries), St Germer-de-Fly (a fine example 
of the transition from Romanesque to Gothic architecture), 
and St Martin-aux-Bois (13th, 14th and 15th centuries). Pont- 
point preserves the buildings of an abbey founded towards 
the end of the 14th century and St Jean-aux-Bois the remains 
of a priory including a church of the 13th century. There 
are Gallo-Roman remains of Champlieu close to the forest of 
Compiegne. At Ermenonville there is a chateau of the 17th 
century where Rousseau died in 1778. 

OJIBWA Y (Ojibwa), or Chippeway (Chippewa), the name 
given by the English to a large tribe of North American Indians 
of Algonquian stock. They must not be confused with the 
Chipewyan tribe of Athabascan stock settled around Lake 
Athabasca, Canada. They formerly occupied a vast tract of 
country around Lakes Huron and Superior, and now are settled 
on reservations in the neighbourhood. The name is from a 
word meaning " to roast till puckered " or " drawn up," in refer- 
ence, it is suggested, to a peculiar seam in their mocassins, though 
other explanations have been proposed. They call themselves 
Anishinabeg (" spontaneous men "), and the French called 
them Saulteurs ("People of the Falls"), from the first group 
of them being met at Sault Ste Marie. Tribal traditions declare 
they migrated from the St Lawrence region together with 
the Ottawa and Potawatomi, • with which tribes they formed 
a confederacy known as " The Three Fires." When first en- 
countered about 1640 the Ojibway were inhabiting the coast 
of Lake Superior, surrounded by the Sioux and Foxes on the 
west and south. During the 18th century they conquered these 
latter and occupied much of their territory. Thrdughout the 
Colonial wars they were loyal to the French, but fought for the 
English in the War of Independence and the War of 181 2, 
and thereafter permanently maintained peace with the Whites. 
The tribe was divided into ten divisions. They lived chiefly 
by hunting and fishing. They had many tribal myths, which 
were collected by Henry R. Schoolcraft in his Algic Researches 
(1839), upon which Longfellow founded his " Hiawatha." 

See Indians, North American, also W.J. Hoffmann, "Midewiwin 
of the Ojibwa," in fth Report of Bureau of American Ethnology (1891) ; 
W. W. Warren, " History of the Ojibways," vol. v., Minnesota 
Historical Society's Collections; G. Copway, History of the Ojibway 
Indims (Boston, 1850); P. Jones, History of the Ojebway Indians 
(1861) ; A. E. Jenks, " Wild Rice Gatherers," igth Report of Bureau of 
American Ethnology (1900). 

OKAPI, the native name of an African ruminant mammal 
{Ocapia johnstoni) , belonging to the Giraffidae, or giraffe-family, 
but distinguished from giraffes by its shorter limbs and neck, 
the absence of horns in the females, and its very remarkable type 
of colouring. Its affinity with the giraffes is, however, clearly 
revealed by the structure of the skull and teeth, more especially 
the bilobed crown to the incisor-like lower canine teeth. At 
the shoulder the okapi stands about 5 ft. In colour the sides of 
the face are puce, and the neck and most of the body purplish, 
but the buttocks and upper part of both fore and hind limbs are 
transversely barred with black and white, while their, lower 
portion is mainly white with black fetlock-rings, and in the front 
pair a vertical black stripe on the anterior surface. Males have 
a pair of dagger-shaped horns on the forehead, the tips of which, 
in some cases at any rate, perforate the hairy skin with which 
the rest of the horns are covered. As in all forest-dwelling 
animals, the ears are large and capacious. The tail is shorter 
than in giraffes, and not tufted at the tip. The okapi, of which 
the first entire skin sent to Europe was received in England 
from Sir H. H. Johnston in the spring of 1901, is a native of the 
Semliki forest, in the district between Lakes Albert and Albert 
Edward. From certain differences in the striping of the legs, as 
well as from variation in skull-characters, the existence of more 
than a single species has been suggested; but further evidence 
is required before such a view can be definitely accepted. 

Specimens in the museum at Tervueren near Brussels show that 
in fully adult males the horns are subtriangular and inclined 
somewhat backwards; each being capped with a small polished 
epiphysis, which projects through the skin investing the rest 
of the hon±. As regards its general characters, the skull of tly 


okapi appears to be intermediate between that of the giraffe 
on the one hand and that of the extinct Palaeotragus (or Satrio~ 
therium) of the Lower Pliocene deposits of southern Europe on the 
other. It has, for instance, a greater development of air-cells in 
the diploe than in the latter, but much less than in the former. 
Again, in Palaeotragus the horns (present only in the male) 
are situated immediately over the eye-sockets, in Ocapia they are 
placed just behind the latter, while in Girajfa they are partly on 
the parietals. In general form, so far as can be judged from 
the disarticulated skeleton, the okapi was more like an antelope 
than a giraffe, the fore and hind cannon-bones, and consequently 
the entire limbs, being of approximately equal length. From 
this it seems probable that Palaeotragus and Ocapia indicate the 
ancestral type of the giraffe-line; while it has been further 
suggested that the apparently hornless Helladotherium of the 

Female Okapi. 

Grecian Pliocene may occupy a somewhat similar position in 
regard to the honied Sivatherium of the Indian Siwaliks. 

For these and other allied extinct genera see Pecora ; for a' full 
description of the okapi itself the reader should refer to an illustrated 
memoir by Sir E. Ray Lankester in the Transactions of the Zoological 
Society of London (xvi. 6, 1902), entitled " On Okapia, a New 
Genus of Giraffidae from Central Africa." 

Little is known with regard to the habits of the okapi. It 
appears, however, from the observations of Dr J. David, who spent 
some time in the Albert Edward district, that the creature dwells 
in the most dense parts of the primeval forest, where there is an 
undergrowth of solid-leaved, swamp-loving plants, such as 
arum, Donax and Phrynium, which, with orchids and climbing 
plants, form a thick and confused mass of vegetation. The 
leaves of these plants are blackish-green, and in the gloom of the 
forest, grow more or less horizontally, and are glistening with 
moisture. The effect of the light falling upon them is to produce 
along the midrib of each a number of short white streaks of 
light, which contrast most strongly with the shadows cast by the 
leaves themselves, and with the general twilight gloom of the 
forest. On the other hand, the thick layer of fallen leaves on 
the ground, and the bulk of the stems of the forest trees are bluish- 
brown and russet, thus closely resembling the decaying leaves in 
an European forest after heavy rain; while the whole effect is 
precisely similar to that produced by the russet head and body 
and the striped thighs and limbs of the okapi. The long and 
mobile muzzle of the okapi appears to be adapted for feeding 



on the low forest underwood and the swamp-vegetation. The 
small size of the horns of the males is probably also an adaptation 
to life in thick underwood. In Dr David's opinion an okapi in 
its native forest could not be seen at a distance of more than 
twenty or twenty-five paces. At distances greater than this it 
is impossible to see anything clearly in these equatorial forests, 
and it is very difficult to do so even at this short distance. This 
suggests that the colouring of the okapi is of purely protective 

By the Arabianized emancipated slaves of the Albert Edward 
district the okapi is known as the kenge, 6-a-pi being the Pigmies' 
name for the creature. Dr David adds that Junker may un- 
doubtedly claim to be the discoverer of the okapi, for, as stated 
on p. 299 of the third volume of the original German edition of 
his Travels, he saw in 1878 or 1879 in the Nepo district a portion 
of the skin with the characteristic black and white stripes. 
Junker, by whom it was mistaken for a large water-chevrotain 
or zebra-antelope, states that to the natives of the Nepo district 
the okapi is known as the makape. (R. L.*) 

OKEHAMPTON, a' market town and municipal borough in the 
Tavistock parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, 
on the east and west Okement rivers, 22 m. W. by N. of Exeter 
by the London & South-Western railway. Pop. (1901) 2569. 
The church of All Saints has a fine Perpendicular tower, left 
uninjured when the nave and chancel were burned down in 1842. 
Glass is made from granulite found in the Meldon Valley, 3 m. 
distant. Both branches of the river abound in small trout. 
Okehampton Castle, one of the most picturesque ruins in Devon, 
probably dates from the 15th century, though its keep may be 
late Norman. It was dismantled under Henry VIII., but 
considerable portions remain of the chapel, banqueting hall and 
herald's tower. Immediately opposite are the traces of a sup- 
posed British camp, and of the Roman road from Exeter to 
Cornwall. The custom of tolling the curfew still prevails in 
Okehampton. The town is, governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen 
and 12 councillors. Area, 503 acres. 

Okehampton (Oakmanton) was bestowed by William the 
Conqueror on Baldwin de Brioniis, and became the caput of 
the barony of Okehampton. At the time of the Domesday 
Survey of 1086 it already ranked as a borough, with a castle, 
a market paying 4 shillings, and four burgesses. In the 18th 
century the manor passed by marriage to the Courtenays, 
afterwards earls of Devon, and Robert de Courtenay in 1220 
gave the king a palfrey to hold an annual fair at his manor of 
Okehampton, on the vigil and feast day of St Thomas the 
Apostle. In the reign of Henry III. the inhabitants received a 
charter (undated) from the earl jf Devon, confirming their 
rights " in woods and in uplands, in ways and in paths, in 
common of pastures, in waters and in mills. They were to be 
free from all toll and to elect yearly a portreeve and a beadle." 
A further grant of privileges was bestowed in 1292 by the earl 
of Devon, but no charter of incorporation was granted until 
that from James I. in 1623, and the confirmation of this by 
Charles II. in 1684 continued to be the governing charter, the 
' corporation consisting of a mayor, seven principal burgesses 
and eight assistant burgesses, until the Municipal Corporations 
Act of 1882. On a petition from the inhabitants the town was 
reincorporated by a new charter in 1885. Okehampton returned 
two members to parliament in 1300, and again in 1312 and 
1313, after which there was an intermission till 1640, from 
which date two members were returned regularly until by the 
Reform Act of 1832 the borough was disfranchised. 

See Victoria County History, Devonshire; W. B. Bridges, History of 
Okehampton (1889). 

OKEN, LORENZ (1779-1851), German naturalist, was born at 
Bohlsbach, Swabia, on the 1st of August 1779. His real name 
was Lorenz Ockenfuss, and under that name he was entered at 
the natural history and medical classes in the university of 
Wiirzburg, whence he proceeded to that of Gottingen, where he 
became a privat-docent, and abridged his name to Oken. As 
Lorenz Oken he published in 1802 his small work entitled Grund- 
riss der Naturphilosophie, der Theorie der Sinne, und dcr darauf 

gegriindeten Classification der Thiere, the first of the 5 series of 
works which placed him at the head of the " natur-philosophie " 
or physio-philosophical school of Germany. In it he extended 
to physical science the philosophical principles which Kant 
had applied to mental and moral science. Oken had, however, 
in this application been preceded by J. G. Fichte, who, acknow- 
ledging that the materials for a universal science had been 
discovered by Kant, declared that nothing more was needed 
than a systematic co-ordination of these materials; and this 
task Fichte undertook in his famous Doctrine of Science (Wissen- 
schaftslehre), the aim of which was to construct a priori all 
knowledge. In this attempt, however, Fichte did little more 
than indicate the path; it was reserved for F. W. J. von Schelling 
fairly to enter upon it, and for Oken, following him, to explore 
its mazes yet further, and to produce a systematic plari of the 
country so surveyed. 

In the Grundriss der Naturphilosophie of 1802 Oken sketched 
the outlines of the scheme he afterwards devoted himself to 
perfect. The position which he advanced in that remarkable 
work, and to which he ever after professed adherence, is that 
" the animal classes are virtually nothing else than a representa- 
tion of the sense-organs, and that they must be arranged in 
accordance with them." Agreeably with this idea, Oken con- 
tended that there are only five animal classes: (1) the Der- 
matozoa, or invertebrates; (2) the Glossozoa, or Fishes, as being 
those animals in which a true tongue makes, for the first time, 
its appearance; (3) the Rhinozoa, or Reptiles, wherein the nose 
Opens for the first time into the mouth and inhales air; (4) the 
Otozoa, or Birds, in which the ear for the first time opens extern- 
ally; and (5) Ophthalmozoa, or Mammals, in which all the 
organs of sense are present and complete, the eyes being movable 
and covered with two lids. 

In 1805 Oken made another characteristic advance in the 
application of the a priori principle, by a book on generation 
{Die Zeugung), wherein he maintained the proposition that 
" all organic beings originate from and consist of vesicles or cells. 
These vesicles, when singly detached and regarded in their 
original process of production, are the infusorial mass or proto- 
plasma (urschleim) whence all larger organisms fashion themselves 
or are evolved. Their production is therefore nothing else 
than a regular agglomeration of Infusoria — not, of course, 
of species already elaborated or perfect, but of mucous vesicles 
or points in general, which first form themselves by their union 
or combination into particular species." 

One year after the production of this remarkable treatise, 
Oken advanced another step in the development of his system, 
and in a volume published in 1806, in which D. G. Kieser (1779- 
1862) assisted him, entitled Beitrctge zur vergleichenden Zoologie, 
Anatomie, und Physiologie, he demonstrated that the intestines 
originate from the umbilical vesicle, and that this corresponds 
to the vitellus or yolk-bag. Caspar Friedrich Wolff had previ- 
ously proved this fact in the chick (Theoria Generalionis, 1774), 
but he did not see its application as evidence of a general law. 
Oken showed the importance of the discovery as an illustration 
of his system. In the same work Oken described and recalled 
attention to the corpora Wolffiana, or " primordial kidneys." 

The reputation of the young privat-docent of Gottingen had 
meanwhile reached the ear of Goethe, and in 1807 Oken was 
invited to fill the office of professor extraordinarius of the 
medical sciences in the university of Jena. He accepted the 
call, and selected for the subject of his inaugural discourse his 
ideas on the " Signification of the Bones of the Skull," based 
upon a discovery he had made in the previous year. This 
famous lecture was delivered in the presence of Goethe, as privy- 
councillor and rector of the university, and was published in 
the same year, with the title, Ueber die Bedeutung der Schddel- 

With regard to the origin of the idea, Oken narrates in his 
I sis that, walking one autumn day in 1806 in the Harz forest, 
he stumbled upon the blanched skull of a deer, picked up the 
partially dislocated bones, and contemplated them for a while, 
when the truth flashed across his mind, and he exclaimed, "It 



is a vertebral column!" At a meeting of the German naturalists 
held at Jena some years afterwards Professor Kieser gave an 
account of Oken's discovery in the presence of the grand-duke, 
which account is printed in the tageblatt, or " proceedings," of 
that meeting. The professor stated that Oken communicated 
to him his discovery when journeying in 1806 to the island of 
Wangeroog. On their return to Gottingen Oken explained his 
ideas by reference to the skull of a turtle in Kieser's collection, 
which he disarticulated for that purpose with his own hands. 
" It is with the greatest pleasure," wrote Kieser, " that I am 
able to show here the same skull, after having it thirty years 
in my collection. The single bones of the skull are marked by 
Oken's own handwriting, which may be so easily known." 

The range of Oken's lectures at Jena was a wide one, and they 
were highly esteemed. They embraced the subjects of natural 
philosophy, general natural history, zoology, comparative 
anatomy, the physiology of man, of animals and of plants. 
The spirit with which he grappled with the vast scope of science is 
characteristically illustrated in his essay Ueber das Universum als 
Fortsetzung des Sinnensystems, 1808. In this work he lays it 
down that " organism is none other than a combination of all the 
universe's activities within a single individual body." This 
doctrine led him to the conviction that " world and organism are 
one in kind, and do not stand merely in harmony with each 
other." In the same year he published his Erste Ideen zur 
Theorie des Lichts, &c, in which he advanced the proposition 
that " light could be nothing but a polar tension of the ether, 
evoked by a central body in antagonism with the planets, and 
heat was none other than a motion of this ether " — a sort of 
vague anticipation of the doctrine of the " correlation of physical 
forces." In 1809 Oken extended his system to the mineral world, 
arranging the ores, not according to the metals, but agreeably 
to their combinations with oxygen, acids and sulphur. In 1810 
he summed up his views on organic and inorganic nature into 
one compendious system. In the first edition of the Lehrbuch 
der Naturphilosophie, which appeared in that and the following 
years, he sought to bring his different doctrines into mutual con- 
nexion, and to " show that the mineral, vegetable and animal 
kingdoms are not to be arranged arbitrarily in accordance with 
single and isolated characters, but to be based upon the cardinal 
organs or anatomical systems, from which a firmly established 
number of classes would necessarily be evolved; that each class, 
moreover, takes its starting-point from below, and consequently 
that all of them pass parallel to each other "; and that, " as in 
chemistry, where the combinations follow a definite numerical 
law, so also in anatomy the organs, in physiology the functions, 
and in natural history the classes, families, and even genera of 
minerals, plants, and animals present a similar arithmetical 
ratio." The Lehrbuch procured for Oken the title of Hofrath, or 
court-councillor, and in 181 2 he was appointed ordinary professor 
of the natural sciences. 

In 1 81 6 he commenced the publication of his well-known 
periodical, entitled I sis, eine encyclopadische Zeitschrift, vorziiglich 
fiir Naturgeschichte, vergleichendc Anatomie und Physiologic 
In this journal appeared essays and notices not only on the 
natural sciences but on other subjects of interest; poetry, and 
even comments on the politics of other German states, were 
occasionally admitted. This led to representations and remon- 
strances from the governments criticized or impugned, and the 
court of Weimar called upon Oken either to suppress the I sis or 
resign his professorship. He chose the latter alternative. The 
publication of the I sis at Weimar was prohibited. Oken made 
arrangements for its issue at Rudolstadt, and this continued 
uninterruptedly until the year 1848. 

In 1821 Oken promulgated in his I sis the first idea of the 
annual general meetings of the German naturalists and medical 
practitioners, which happy idea was realized in the following 
year, when the first meeting was held at Leipzig. The British 
Association for the Advancement of Science was at the outset 
avowedly organized after the German or Okenian model. 

In 1828 Oken resumed his original humble duties as privat- 
docent in the newly-established university of Munich, and soon 

afterwards he was appointed ordinary professor in the same 
university. In 1832, on the proposal by the Bavarian govern- 
ment to transfer him to a professorship in a provincial university 
of the state, he resigned his appointments and left the kingdom. 
He was appointed in 1833 to the professorship of natural history 
in the then recently-established university of Zurich. There he 
continued to reside, fulfilling his professional duties and pro- 
moting the progress of his favourite sciences, until his death on 
the nth of August 1851. 

All Oken's writings are eminently deductive illustrations of a 
foregone and assumed principle, which, with other philosophers of 
the transcendental school, he deemed equal to the explanation of 
all the mysteries of nature. According to him, the head was a 
repetition of the trunk— a kind of second trunk, with its limbs 
and other appendages; this sum of his observations and comparisons 
—few of which he ever gave in detail — ought alv/ays to be borne 
in mind in comparing the share taken by Oken in homological 
anatomy with the progress made by other cultivators of that 
philosophical branch of the science. 

The idea of the analogy between the skull, or parts of the skull, 
and the vertebral column had been previously propounded and 
ventilated in their lectures by J. H. F. Autenreith and K. F. Kiel- 
meyer, and in the writings of J. P. Frank. By Oken it was applied 
chiefly in illustration of the mystical system of Schelling — the all- 
in-all " and " all-in-every-part." From the earliest to the latest of 
Oken's writings on the subject, " the head is a repetition of the whole 
trunk with all its systems: the brain is the spinal cord; the cranium 
is the vertebral column; the mouth is intestine and abdomen; 
the nose is the lungs and thorax; the jaws are the limbs; and the 
teeth the claws or nails." J. B. von Spix, in his folio Cephalogenesis 
(1818), richly illustrated comparative craniology, but presented the 
facts under the same transcendental guise; and Cuvier ably availed 
himself of the extravagances of these disciples of Schelling to cast 
ridicule on the whole inquiry into those higher relations of parts to 
the archetype which Sir Richard Owen called " general homologies." 

The vertebral theory of the skull had practically disappeared 
from anatomical science when the labours of Cuvier drew to their 
close. In Owen's Archetype and Homologies of the Vertebrate Skeleton 
the idea was not only revived but worked out for the first time 
inductively, and the theory rightly stated, as follows: " The head 
is not a virtual equivalent of the trunk, but is only a portion, i.e. 
certain modified segments, of the whole body. The jaws are the 
' haemal arches ' of the first two segments; they are not limbs of 
the head " (p. 176). 

Vaguely and strangely, however, as Oken had blended the idea 
with his a priori conception of the nature of the head, the chance 
of appropriating it seems to have overcome the moral sense of 
Goethe — unless indeed the poet deceived himself. Comparative 
osteology had early attracted Goethe's attention. In 1786 he 
published at Jena his essay Ueber den Zwischenkieferknochen des 
Menschen una der Thiere,_ showing that the intermaxillary bone 
existed in man as well as in brutes. But not a word in this essay 
gives the remotest hint of his having then possessed the idea of the 
vertebral analogies of the skull. In 1820, in his Morphologic, he 
first publicly stated that thirty years before the date of that publi- 
cation he had discovered the secret relationship between the verte- 
brae and the bones of the head, and that he had always continued 
to meditate on this subject. The circumstances under which the 
poet, in 1820, narrates having become inspired with the original 
idea are suspiciously analogous to those described by Oken in 1807, 
as producing the same effect on his mind. A bleached skull is 
accidentally discovered in both instances: in Oken's it was that of 
a deer in the Harz forest ; in Goethe's it was that of a sheep picked 
up on the shores of the Lido, at Venice. 

It may be assumed that Oken when a privat-docent at Gottingen 
in 1806 knew nothing of this unpublished idea or discovery of 
Goethe, and that Goethe first became aware that Oken had the idea 
of the vertebral relations of the skull when he listened to the intro- 
ductory discourse in which the young professor, invited by the 
poet to Jena, selected this very idea for its subject. It is incredible 
that Oken, had he adopted the idea from Goethe, or been aware of 
an anticipation by him, should have omitted to acknowledge the 
source — should not rather have eagerly embraced so appropriate 
an opportunity of doing graceful homage to the originality and 
genius of his patron. 

The anatomist having lectured for an hour plainly unconscious 
of any such anticipation, it seems hardly less incredible that the 
poet should not have mentioned to the young lecturer his previous 
conception of the vertebro-cranial theory, and the singular coinci- 
dence of the accidental circumstance which he subsequently alleged 
to have produced that discovery. On the contrary, Goethe permits 
Oken to publish his famous lecture, with the same unconsciousness 
of any anticipation as when he delivered it ; and Oken, in the same 
state of belief, transmits a copy to Goethe (Isis, No. 7) who thereupon 
honours the professor with special marks of attention and an invita- 
tion to his house. No hint of any claim of the host is given to the 
guest; no word of reclamation in any shape appears for some 



years. In Goethe's Tages- und Jahres-Hefte, he refers to two friends, 
Reimer and Voigt, as being cognizant in 1807 of his theory. Why 
did not one or other of these make known to Oken that he had 
been so anticipated? " I told my friends to keep quiet," writes 
Goethe in 1825! Spix, in the meanwhile, in 1815, contributes 
his share to the development of Oken's idea in his Cephalogenesis. 
Ulrich follows in 181 6 with his Schildkrotenschddel ; next appears 
the contribution, in 1818, by L. H. Bojanus, to the vertebral theory 
of the skull, amplified in the Paragon to that anatomist's admirable 
Anatome Testudinis Europaeae (1821). And now for the first time, 
in 1818, Bojanus, visiting some friends at Weimar, there hears the 
rumour that his friend Oken had been anticipated by the great 
poet. He communicates it to Oken, who, like an honest man, at 
once published the statement made by Goethe's friends in the Isis 
of that year, offering no reflection on the poet, but restricting himself 
to a detailed and interesting account of the circumstances under 
which he himself had been led independently to make his discovery 
when wandering in 1806 through the Harz. It was enough for him 
thus to vindicate his own claims; he abstains from any comment 
reflecting on Goethe, and maintained the same blameless silence 
when Goethe ventured for the first time to claim for himself, in 1820, 
the merit of having entertained the same idea, or made the discovery, 
thirty years previously. 

The German naturalists held their annual meeting at Jena in 
1836, and there Kieser publicly bore testimony, from personal 
knowledge, to the circumstances and dates of Oken's discovery. 
However, in the edition of Hegel's works by Michelet (Berlin, 1842), 
there appeared the following paragraph: " The type-bone is the 
dorsal vertebra, provided inwards with a hole and outwards with 
processes, every bone being only a modification of it. This idea 
originated with Goethe, who worked it out in a treatise written in 
1785, and published it in his Morphologie (1820), p. 162. Oken, to 
whom the treatise was communicated, has pretended that the idea was 
his own property, and has reaped the honour of it." This accusation 
again called out Oken, who thoroughly refuted it in an able, circum- 
stantial and temperate statement in part vii. of the Isis (1847). 
Goethe's osteological essay of 1785, the only one he printed in that 
century, is on a different subject. In the Morphologie of 1820-1824 
Goethe distinctly declares that he had never published his ideas on 
the vertebral theory of the skull. He could not, therefore, have sent 
any such essay to Oken before the year 1807. Oken, in reference to 
his previous endurance of Goethe's pretensions, states that, " being 
well aware that his fellow-labourers in natural science thoroughly 
appreciated the true state of the case, he confided in quiet silence 
in their judgment. Meckel, Spix, Ulrich, Bojanus, Carus, Cuvier, 
Geoffroy St Hilaire, Albers, Straus-Durckheim, Owen, Kieser and 
Lichtenstein had recorded their judgment in his favour and against 
Goethe. But upon the appearance of the new assault in Michelet's 
edition of Hegel he could no longer remain silent." 

Oken's bold axiom that heat is but a mode of motion of light, 
and the idea broached in his essay on generation (1805) that " all 
the parts of higher animals are made up of an aggregate of Infusoria 
or animated globular monads," are both of the same order as his 
proposition of the head being a repetition of the trunk, with its 
vertebrae and limbs. Science would have profited no more from 
the one idea without the subsequent experimental discoveries of 
H. C. Oersted and M. Faraday, or from the other without the micro- 
scopical observations of Robert Brown, J. M. Schleiden and T. 
Schwann, than from the third notion without the inductive demon- 
stration of the segmental constitution of the skull by Owen. It is 
questionable, indeed, whether in either case the discoverers of the 
true theories were excited to their labours, or in any way influenced, 
by the a priori guesses of Oken; more probable is it that the requisite 
researches and genuine deductions therefrom were the results of the 
correlated fitness of the stage of the science and the gifts of its true 
cultivators at such particular stage. 

The following is a list of Oken's principal works: Grundriss der 
Naturphilo sophie, der Theorie der Sinne, und der darauf gegrundeten 
Classification der Thiere (1802); Die Zeugung (1805); Abriss der 
Biologic (1805); Beitrdge zur vergleichenden-Zoologie, Anatomie und 
Physiologie (along with Kieser, 1 806-1 807); Ueber die Bedeutung 
der Schddelknochen (1807); Ueber das Universum als Fortsetzungdes 
Sinnensystems (1808) ; Erste Ideen zur Theorie des Lichts, der Finster- 
niss, der Farben und der Wdrme (1808); Grundzeichnung des natur- 
lichen Systems der Erze (1809); Ueber den Werth der Naturgeschichte 
(1809); Lehrbuch der Naturphilosophie (1809-1811; 2nd ed., 1831; 
3rd ed., 1843; Eng. trans., Elements of Physiophilosophy, 1847); 
Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte (1813, 1815, 1825); Handbuch der 
Naturgeschichte zum Gebrauch bei Vorlesungen (1816-1820) ; Natur- 
geschichte fixr Schulen (1821); Esquissed'un Systeme d' Anatomie, de 
Physiologie, et d'Histoire Naturelle (1812); Allgemeine Naturgeschichte 
(1833-1842, 14 vols.). He also contributed a large number of papers 
to the Isis and other journals. (R. O.) 

OKHOTSK, SEA OF, a part of the western Pacific Ocean, lying 
between the peninsula of Kamchatka, the Kurile Islands, the 
Japanese island of Yezo, the island of Sakhalin, and the Amur 
province of East Siberia. The Sakhalin Gulf and Gulf of 
Tartary connect it with the Japanese Sea on the west of 

the island of Sakhalin, and on the south of this island is the La 
Perouse Strait. 

OKI, a group of islands belonging to Japan, lying due north 
of the province of Izumo, at the intersection of 36 N. and 133" E. 
The group consists of one large island called Dogo, and three 
smaller isles — Chiburi-shima, Nishi-no-shima, and Naka-no- 
shima — which are collectively known as Dozen. These four 
islands have a coast-line of 182 m., an area of 130 sq. m., and a 
population of 63,000. The island of Dogo has two high peaks, 
Daimanji-mine (2185 ft.) and Omine-yama (2128 ft.). The chief 
town is Saigo in Dogo, distant about 40 m. from the port of Sakai 
in Izumo. The name Oki-no-shima signifies " islands in the 
offing," and the place is celebrated in Japanese history not only 
because the possession of the islands was much disputed in 
feudal days, but also because an ex-emperor and an emperor were 
banished thither by the Hojo regents in the 13th century. 

OKLAHOMA (a Choctaw Indian word meaning " red people "), 
a south central state of the United States of America lying 
between 3$° 35' and 37 N. lat. and 94° 29' and 103° W. long. 
It is bounded N. by Colorado and Kansas; E. by Missouri and 
Arkansas; S. by Texas, from which it is separated in part by the 
Red river; and W. by Texas and New Mexico. It has a total 
area of 70,057 sq. m., of which 643 sq. m. are water-surface. 
Although the extreme western limit of the state is the 103rd 
meridian, the only portion W. of the 1 ooth meridian is a strip of 
land about 35 m. wide in the present Beaver, Texas and Cimarron 
counties, and formerly designated as " No Man's Land." 

Physiography. — The topographical features of the state exhibit 
considerable diversity, ranging from wide treeless plains in the 
W. to rugged and heavily wooded mountains in the E. In general 
terms, however, the surface may be described as a vast rolling 
plain having a gentle southern and eastern slope. The elevations 
above the sea range from 4700 ft. in the extreme N.W. to about 
350 ft. in the S.E. The southern and eastern slopes are remark- 
ably uniform; between the northern and southern boundaries 
E. of the 100th meridian there is a general difference in elevation 
of from 200 to 300 ft., while from W. to E. there is an average 
decline of about 3 ft. to the mile. The state has a mean elevation 
of 1300 ft. with 34,930 sq. m. below 1000 ft; 25,400 sq. m. 
between 1000 and 2000 ft.; 6500 sq. m. between 2000 and 
3000 ft. ; and 3600 sq. m. between 3000 and 5000 ft. 

The western portion of the Ozark Mountains enters Oklahoma 
near the centre of the eastern boundary, and extends W.S.W. half 
way across the state in a chain of hills gradually decreasing in height. 
In the south central part of the state is an elevated tableland known 
as the Arbuckle Mountains. In its western portion this tableland 
attains an elevation of about 1350 ft. above the sea and lies about 
400 ft. above the bordering plains. At its eastern termination, 
where it merges with the plains, it has an elevation of about 750 ft. 
Sixty miles N.W. of this plateau lie the Wichita Mountains, a 
straggling range of rugged peaks rising abruptly from a level plain. 
This range extends from Fort Sill north-westward beyond Granite, a 
distance of 65 m., with some breaks in the second half of this area. 
The highest peaks are not more than 1500 ft. above the plain, but on 
account of their steep and rugged slopes they are difficult to ascend. 
A third group of hills, the Chautauqua Mountains, lie in the W. in 
Blaine and Canadian counties, their main axis being almost parallel 
with the North Fork of the Canadian river. With the exception of 
these isolated clusters of hills the western portion of the state con- 
sists almost entirely of rolling prairie. The extreme north-western 
part of Oklahoma is a lofty tableland forming part of the Great 
Plains region E. of the Rocky Mountains. 

The prairies N. of the Arkansas and W. of the Neosho rivers are 
deeply carved by small streams, and in the western portion of this 
area, where the formation consists of alternating shales and sand- 
stones, the easily eroded rocks have been carved into canyons, buttes 
and mesas. South of the Arkansas river these ledges of sandstone 
continue as far as Okmulgee, but the evidences of erosion are less 
noticeable. East of the Neosho river the prairies merge into a hilly 
woodland. In the N.W. four large salt plains form a striking 
physical feature. Of these the most noted is the Big Salt Plain of 
the Cimarron river, in Woodward county, which varies in width 
from J m. to 2 m. and extends along the river for 8 m. The plain 
is almost perfectly level, covered with snowy-white saline crystals, 
and contains many salt springs. The other saline areas are the 
Little Salt Plain, which lies on the Cimarron river, near the Kansas 
boundary; the Salt Creek Plain, 3 m. long and 100 yds. wide, in 
Blaine county; and the Salt Fork Plain, 6 m. wide and 8 m. long, 
so called from its position on the Salt Fork of the Arkansas river. 



Following the slope of the land, the important streams flow from 
N.W. to S.E. The Arkansas river enters the state from the N. near 
the 97th meridian, and after following a general south-easterly 
course, leaves it near the centre of the eastern boundary. Its tribu- 
taries from the N. and E. — the Verdigris, Grand or Neosho and 
Illinois — are small and unimportant; but from the S. and W. it 
receives the, waters of much larger streams — the Salt Fork, the 
Cimarron and the Canadian, with its numerous tributaries. The 
extreme southern portion of the state is drained by the Red River, 
which forms the greater part of the southern boundary, and by its 
tributaries, the North Fork, the Washita and the Kiamichi. 

Fauna and Flora. — Of wild animals the most characteristic are 
the black bear, puma, prairie wolf, timber wolf, fox, ■ deer, 
antelope, squirrel, rabbit and prairie dog. Hawks and turkey 
buzzards are common types of the larger birds, and the wild turkey, 
prairie chicken and quail are the principal game birds. The total 
woodland area of the state was estimated in 1900 at 24,400 scj. m., 
or 34-8 % of the land area. The most densely wooded section is the 
extreme E. ; among the prairies of the W. timber is seldom found 
beyond the banks of streams. The most common trees are the 
various species of the oak and cedar. The pine is confined to the 
more mountainous sections of the E., and the black walnut is found 
among the river bottom lands. These four varieties are of commercial 
value. Other varieties, most of which are widely distributed, are 
the ash, pecan, Cottonwood, sycamore, elm, maple, hickory, elder, 
gum, locust and river birch. The prairies are covered with valuable 
bunch, grama and dropseed grasses; in the extreme N.W. the 
cactus, sagebrush and yucca, types characteristic of more arid regions, 
are found. 

Climate. — The climate of the state is of a continental type, with 
great annual variations of temperature and a rainfall which, though 
generally sufficient for the needs, of vegetation, is considerably less 
than that of the Atlantic Coast or the Mississippi Valley. The 
western and central portions of the state are in general cooler and 
dryer than the E., on account of their greater elevation and greater 
distance from the Gulf Coast. Thus at Beaver, in the extreme N.W., 
the mean annual temperature is 57 F. and the mean annual rainfall 
189 in.; while at Lehigh, in the S.E., these figures are respectively 
62 and 35-1 in. At Oklahoma City, in the centre of the state, the 
mean annual temperature is 59 ; the mean for the summer (June, 
July and August) is 78 , with an extreme recorded of 104°; the 
mean for the winter (December, January and February) is 38 °, 
with an extreme recorded of - T 7°- At Mangum, in the S.W., the 
mean annual temperature is 61 ; the mean for the summer is 8i° 
and for the winter 41 °, while the highest and lowest temperatures' 
ever recorded are respectively 114° and -17 . The mean annual 
precipitation for the state is 317 in.; the variation between the E. 
and the W. being about 12 in. 

Soils. — The prevailing type of soil is a deep dark-red loam, some- 
times (especially in the east central part of the state) made up of a 
decomposed sandstone, and again (in the north central part) made 
up of shales and decomposed limestone. Not infrequently there are 
a belt of red sandy loam on uplands N. of a river, a rich' deposit of 
black alluvium on valley bottom lands, a belt of red clay loam on 
uplands S. of a river, and a deposit of wind-blown loess on the water 
parting. Loess, often thin and always containing little humus, 
z also covers large areas on the high, semi-arid plains in the western 
part of the state. 

Agriculture and Stock-raising. — For some time before the first 
opening to settlement by white men in 1899, the territory now em- 
braced in Oklahoma was largely occupied by great herds of cattle 
driven in from Texas, and since then, although the opening was 

giecemeal, the agricultural development has been remarkably rapid. 
y 1900, 22,988,339 acres, or 52-1 %, of the total land surface was 
included in farms, and 8,574,187 acres, or 37-7 %, of the farm land 
was improved. 1 The farm land was divided among 108,000 farms 
containing an average of 212-85 acres; 26,121 of them contained 
less than 50 acres, but the most usual size was 160 acres; and 
48,983, or 45-35 %, contained from 100 to 174 acres. A considerable 
portion of the larger farms (there were 2390 containing 500 acres or 
more) were owned by Indians but leased to white men. Much land 
as late as 1900 was held in common by Indian tribes, but has since 
been allotted to the members of those tribes and most of it is leased to 
whites. In 1900, 59,367 (or a little more than one-half of all) farms 
were worked by owners or part owners, 33,347 were wofked by share 
tenants, and 13,903 were worked by cash tenants. Indian corn, 
wheat, cotton, oats and hay are the principal crops, but the variety 
of farm and garden produce is great, and includes Kafir corn, broom 
corn, barley, rye, buckwheat, flax, tobacco, beans, castor beans, 
peanuts, pecans, sorghum cane, sugar cane, and nearly all the fruits 
and vegetables common to the temperate zone; stock-raising, too, 
is a very important industry. Of the total acreage of all crops in 
1900, 4,431,819 acres, or 68-64 %> were of cereals; and of the cereal 
acreage 56-45 % was of Indian corn, 34-45 % was of wheat and 
7-15 % was of oats. The acreage of Indian corn increased from 

1 The statistics in this article were obtained by adding to those 
for Oklahoma those for Indian Territory, which was combined with 
it in 1907. 

2,501,945 acres in 1900 to 5,950,000 acres in 1909; 2 between 1899 
and 1909 the yield increased from 68,949,300 bushels to 101,150,000 
bushels. The acreage of wheat decreased during this period from 
1,704,909 acres to 1,225,000 acres, and the yield from 20,328,300 
bushels to 15,680,000 bushels. The acreage of oats increased from 
317,076 acres to 550,000 acres, and the yield increased from 
9,511.340 bushels to 15,950,000 bushels. The hay crop of 1899 w as 
grown on 1,095,706 acres and amounted to 1,617,905 tons, but 
nearly one-half. of this was made from wild grasses; since then the 
amounts of fodder obtained from alfalfa, Kafir corn, sorghum cane 
and timothy have much increased, and that obtained from wild 
grasses has decreased; in 1909 the acreage was 900,000 and the 
crop 810,000 tons. Except in the W. section, where there is good 
grazing but generally an insufficient rainfall for growing crops, 
cattle-raising on the range has in considerable measure given way to 
stock-raising on the farm, and nearly everywhere the quality of the 
cattle has been greatly improved. The total number of cattle 
decreased from 3,236,008 in 1900 to 1,992,000 in 1910, but at the same 
time the number of dairy cows increased from 276,539 to 355,000. 
The number of horses increased from 557,153 in 1900 to 804,000 in 
1910; of mules from 117,562 to 191,000 ; of swine from 1,265,189 
to 1,302,000; and of sheep from 88,741 to 108,000. Winter wheat is 
used extensively for pasturage during the winter months with little 
or no damage to the crop. No other branch of agriculture in Okla- 
homa has advanced so rapidly as the production of cotton; the 
culture of this fibre was introduced in 1890, and the acreage increased 
from 682,743 acres in 1899 to 2,037,000 acres in 1909, and the yield 
increased from 227,741 bales to 617,000 bales (in 1907 it was 862,383 
bales). There was only a very small crop of broom corn in 1889, but 
in 1899 the crop was 3,565,510 lb. The state has risen to high rank 
in the production of sorghum cane and castor beans also; in 1899 
16,477 acres of the cane yielded 40,259 tons, and 14,070 acres of 
castor beans yielded 77,409 bushels. Two crops of potatoes may be 
grown on the same ground in one year, and the acreage of potatoes 
increased from 15,360 acres in 1899 to 27,000 acres in 1909, and the 
yield from 1,191,997 bushels to 1,890,000 bushels. Oklahoma is 
already producing large crops of apples, peaches, grapes, water-melons 
and musk-melons, a^id many large apple and peach orchards and 
vineyards have been planted. Pears, plums, apricots, cherries, 
strawberries, blackberries, raspberries, currants, gooseberries, 
cabbages, onions, sweet potatoes, tomatoes and cucumbers are 
grown in considerable quantities. The cereals and most of the 
fruits and vegetables are grown throughout the greater portion of 
the middle and E. parts of the state, although the soil of the N. 
middle section yields the best crops of wheat. Kafir corn and sorghum 
cane are the most common in the W. sections, where the climate is 
too dry for other crops. Some cotton is grown N. of the middle of 
the state, but the S.E. quarter takes in most of the cotton belt.' 
Broom corn grows best in Woods county on the N. border, and 
castor beans in the central and N. central sections. About 3000 
acres (nearly one-half in the narrow extension in the N.W.) were 
already irrigated in 1909, and surveys had been made by the Federal 
Reclamation Service with a view to irrigating about 100,000 acres 
more — 10,000 to 14,000 acres in Beaver and Woodward counties, 
under the Cimarron project, and 80,000 to 100,000 acres in Kiowa 
and Comanche counties, under the Red River project. 

Lumber and Timber Products. — The merchantable timber is mostly 
in that part of the state which formerly constituted Indian Territory, 
and consists largely of black walnut and other valuable hard woods 
in the bottom lands, of black jack and post oak on the uplands 
and of pine on the higher elevations S. of the Arkansas river. The 
manufactured forest products of Indian Territory increased in value 
from $189,373 in IQ0 ° to $588,078 in 1905, or 205-78 %. 

Minerals. — The coal-fields extend from Kansas on the N. to 
Arkansas on the E., and have an area of about 20,000 sq. m. The 
principal mining centres are McAlester, Wilburton, Hartshorn, 
Coalgate and Phillips. In quality the coal varies from a low grade 
to a high grade bituminous, and some of the latter is good for coking. 
The output increased from 446,429 short tons in 1885 to 1,922,298 
short tons in 1900, and to 2,948,116 short tons in 1908, the output 
for the last-named year being much less than for 1906 or 1907, 
when it was over 3,500,000 tons. The range of hills extending 
from the centre of the state N.W. to and beyond the Kansas border 
are composed chiefly of great deposits of rock gypsum. A similar 
but minor range extends parallel with it 40 to 50 m. S.W. There are 
also deposits in Greer county in the S.W. corner, and some gypsite 
in Kay county on the N. middle border. For working these extensive 
deposits there are, however, few mills; these are in Kay, Canadian 
and Blaine counties. Some petroleum was discovered in the N. part 
of Indian Territory near the Oklahoma border as early as 1890, 
but there was little development until 1903, when several wells 
were drilled in the vicinity of Bartlesville. Then wells were drilled 
to the W. on the Osage Reservation, and to the S., until in 1906 
about 1 10 wells were drilled into the famous Glen Pool near Sapulpa. 
One of these wells has a flow of about 1000 barrels a day, and the 
total product from the Oklahoma oil-field (which includes wells in 

2 The agricultural statistics for 1909 are taken from the Year-Book 
of the United States Department of Agriculture. 



what was Indian Territory) increased from 10,000 barrels in 1901 
to 138,911 in 1903, 1,366,748 in 1904 and 45,798,765 in 1908, when 
it was valued at $17,694,843. Natural gas abounds in the same 
region, and several strong wells were developed in 1906, and immedi- 
ately afterwards gas began to be used largely for industrial purposes 
for which in 1908 the price was from ii to 15 cents per 1000 ft. Pipe 
lines have been constructed. The value of the output increased 
from $360 in 1902 to $130,137 in 1905 and to $860,159 in 1908. 
In the central part of the state S. of the Canadian river are extensive 
deposits of asphaltum, but their development has been undertaken 
only on a small scale: in 1908, 2402 short tons were put on the, 
market, the value being $23,820. Lead and zinc are found in the 
Miami district, the Peoria district and the Quapaw district; and in 
1908 the lead (1409 tons) was valued at $118,356 and the zinc (2235 
tons) at $210,090. The total value of the mineral products in 1908 
was $26,586,751. 

Manufactures. — The manufactures in 1905 were still largely such 
as are closely related to agriculture. Measured by the value of the 
products, 61 -8% were represented by flour and grist mill products 
and cottonseed oil and cake. Among the manufacturing centres are 
Oklahoma City and Guthrie, and the combined value of their factory 
products increased from $1,493,998 in 1900 to $4,871,392 in 1905. 

Transportation and Commerce. — The navigable waters in Oklahoma 
are of little importance, and the state is almost wholly dependent 
on railways as a meansof transportation. The first railway was that 
of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, which completed a line across the 
territory to Denison, Texas, in 1872. The railway mileage was slowly 
increased to 1260 m. in 1890, and on the 1st of January 1909 was 
5829 m. The Missouri, Kansas & Texas railway crosses the E. part 
of the state, and somewhat parallel with this to the westward are 
the St Louis & San Francisco, the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, 
two lines of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, and the Kansas 
City, Mexico & Orient railways. The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 
also crosses the middle of the state from E. to W. The Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa F6 and the Chicago, Rock Island & Gulf cross the 
N.W. part. The St Louis & San Fiancisco cresses the S.E. quarter. 
A line of the Frisco system extends along the S. border from the 
Arkansas line to the middle of the state, and with these main lines 
numerous branches form an extensive network. 

Population. — The population of the territory now embraced 
within the state increased from 258,657 in 1890, when the first 
census was taken, to 790,391 in 1900, or 205-6%, to 1,414,177 
in 1907, and to 1,657,155 in 1910. Of the total population 
in 1900, 769,853, or 97-4%, were native-born. The white popula- 
tion increased from 172,554 in 1890 to 1,054,376 in 1907, or 
61 i%, the negro population during the same period from 21,609 
to 112,160, or 419%, and the Indian population from 64,456 
to 75,012, or 16-3 %. In 1890 the Indians and negroes constituted 
33"3%cf the total population, but in 1907 they (with the 
Mongolians, who numbered 75) constituted only 13-2% of the 
total. The only Indians who are natives of this region are a 
few members of the Kiowa, Comanche and Apache tribes. 
The others are the remnants of a number of tribes collected here 
from various parts of the country: Choctaws, Chickasaws, 
Cherokees, Creeks, Seminoles, Osages, Kaws, Poncas, Otoes, 
Cheyennes, Iowas, Kickapoos, Sauk and Foxes, Sioux, Miami's, 
Shawnees, Pawnees, Ottawas and several others. Until 1906 
the Osages lived on a reservation touching Kansas on the N. and 
the Arkansas river on the W. (since then almost all allotted); 
but to the greater portion of the Indians the government has 
made individual allotments. Only about one-fourth of the so- 
called Indians are full bloods. A large portion are one-half or 
more white blood and the Creeks and some others have more or 
less negro blood. In 1906 there were 257,100 communicants 
of various churches in Oklahoma and Indian Territory, the 
Methodist Episcopalians being the most numerous, and next 
to them the Baptists. The population in places having 4000 
inhabitants or more increased from 29,978 in 1900 to 140,579 
in 1907, or 368-9%, while the population outside of such places 
increased from 760,413 to 1,273,598, or only 67-5%. The 
principal cities in 1907 were Oklahoma City, Muskogee, Guthrie 
(the capital), Shawnee, Enid, Ardmore, McAlesterand Chickasha. 

Administration. — The constitution now in operation was 
adopted in September 1907, and is that with which the state 
was admitted into the Union in November of the same year. 
Amendments may be submitted through a majority of the 
members elected to both houses of the legislature or through a 
petition signed by 15% of the electorate, and a proposed 
amendment becomes a part of the constitution if the majority 

of the votes cast at a popular election are in favour of it. The 
legislature may also at any time propose a convention foi 
amending or revising the constitution, but no such convention 
can be called without first obtaining the approval of the elector- 
ate. An elector must be able to read or write (unless he or an 
ancestor was a voter in 1866 or then lived, in some foreign 
nation) and must be 21 years old, and a resident of the state 
for one year, in the county six months, and in the election 
precinct 30 days; and women have the privilege of voting at' 
school meetings. General elections are held on the first Tuesday 
after the first Monday in November in odd-numbered years and 
party candidates for state, district, county and municipal 
offices and for the United States Senate are chosen at primary 
elections held on the first Tuesday in August. The Massa- 
chusetts ballot which had been in use in 1897-1899 was again 
adopted in 1909. Oklahoma has put into its constitution many 
things which in the older states were left to legislative enactment. 

The governor is elected for a term of four years but is in- 
eligible for the next succeeding term. The number of officers 
whom he appoints is. rather limited and for most of his appoint- 
ments the confirmation of the Senate is required. He is not 
permitted to pardon a criminal until he has obtained the advice 
of the board of pardons which is composed of the state super- 
intendent of public instruction, the president of the board of 
agriculture and the state auditor. He is a member of some 
important administrative boards, his veto power extends to 
items in appropriation bills, and to pass a bill over his veto a 
vote of two-thirds of the members elected to each house is re- 
quired. A lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, treasurer, 
auditor, examiner, and inspector, commissioner of labour, com- 
missioner of insurance, chief mine inspector, commissioner of 
charities and corrections, and president of the board of agri- 
culture are elected each for a term of four years, and the 
secretary of state, auditor and treasurer are, like the governor, 
ineligible for the next succeeding term. 

The law-making bodies are a Senate and a House of Repre- 
sentatives. One-half the senators and all the representatives 
are elected every two years, senators by districts and repre- 
sentatives by counties. Sessions are held biennially in even- 
numbered years and begin the first Tuesday after the first Monday 
in January. The constitution reserves to the people the privilege 
of rejecting any act or any item of any act whenever 5 % of the 
legal voters ask that the matter be voted upon at a general 
election; and the people may initiate legislation by a petition 
signed by 8% of the electorate. 

For the administration of justice there have been established 
a supreme court composed of six justices elected for a term of 
six years; a criminal court of appeals composed of three justices 
appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the 
Senate; twenty-one district courts each with one or more 
justices elected for a term of four years; a county court in each 
county with one justice elected for a term of two years; a court 
of a justice of the peace, elected for a term of two years, in each 
of six districts of each county, and police courts in the cities. 
The supreme court has appellate jurisdiction in all civil cases, 
but its original jurisdiction is restricted to a general control of 
the lower courts. The criminal court of appeals has jurisdiction 
in all criminal cases appealed from the district and county courts. 
The district courts have exclusive jurisdiction in civil actions 
for sums exceeding $1000, concurrent jurisdiction with the 
county courts in civil actions for sums greater than $500 and not 
exceeding $iooo, and original or appellate in criminal cases. 
The county courts have, besides the concurrent jurisdiction 
above stated, original jurisdiction inall probate matters, original 
jurisdiction in civil actions for sums greater than $200 and 
not exceeding $500, concurrent jurisdiction with the justices 
of the peace in misdemeanour cases, and appellate jurisdiction 
in all cases brought from a justice of the peace or a police court. 

Local Government. — The general' management of county affairs 
is intrusted to three commissioners elected by districts, but these 
commissioners are not permitted to incur extraordinary expenses 
or levy a tax exceeding five mills on a dollar without first obtaining 
the consent of the people at a general or special election. The 



other county officers are a treasurer, clerk, register of deeds, attorney, 
surveyor, sheriff, assessor and superintendent of public instruction. 
The counties have been divided into municipal townships, each of 
which elects a trustee, a clerk and a treasurer, who together con- 
stitute a board of directors for the management of township affairs. 
The trustee is also the assessor. Cities or towns having a population 
of 2000 or more may become cities of the first class when- 
ever a favourable majority vote is obtained at a general or special 
election held in that city or town, and this question must be sub- 
mitted at such an election whenever 35% of the legal voters 
petition for it. 

Miscellaneous Laws.— The property rights of husband and wife are 
practically equal, and either may buy, sell or mortgage real estate, 
other than the homestead, without the consent of the other. Among 
the grounds for a divorce are adultery, extreme cruelty, habitual 
drunkenness, gross neglect of duty and imprisonment for felony. 
Article XII. of the constitution exempts from forced sale the home- 
stead of any family in the state to the extent of 160 acres of land in 
the country, or I acre in a City, town or village, provided the value 
of the same does not exceed $5000 and that the claims against it are 
not for purchase money, improvements or taxes. A corporation 
commission of three members, elected for a term of six years, is 
intrusted with the necessary powers for a rigid control of public 
service corporations. A state board of arbitration, composed of 
two farmers, two employers and two employes is authorized to 
investigate the causes of any strike affecting the public interests, 
and publish what it finds to be the facts in the case, together with 
recommendations for settlement. Labour laws, passed by the first 
legislature (1908), were amended and made more radical by the 
legislature of 1909: a child labour law forbids the employment of 
children under 14 in factories, workshops, theatres, bowling-alleys, 
pool-halls, steam-laundries or other dangerous places (to be defined 
by the commissioner of labour), and no child under 16 is to be 
employed in such places unless able to read and write simple English 
sentences or without having attended school during the previous 
yeai ; no child under 16 is to be employed in any of several 
(enumerated) dangerous occupations; no child under 16 is to be 
employed more than 8 hours in any one day, or more than 48 hours 
in any one week in any gainful occupation other than agriculture 
or domestic service; age and schooling certificates are required of 
children between 14 and 16 in certain occupations. A state dis- 
pensary system for the sale of intoxicating liquors was authorized 
by the constitution, but the popular vote in 1908 was unfavourable 
to the continuance of the system, the sentiment seeming to be 
for rigid prohibition of the sale of intoxicating liquors. A law 
passed in May 1908 against nepotism (closely following the Texas 
law of 1907) forbids public officers to appoint (or vote for) any 
person related to them by affinity or consanguinity within the 
third degree to any position in the government of which they are a 
part; makes persons thus related to public officers ineligible to 
positions in the branch in which their relative is an official ; and 
renders any official making such an appointment liable to fine and 
removal from office. 

Education. — The common school system is administered by a 
state superintendent of public instruction, a state board of education, 
county superintendents and district boards. The state board is 
composed of the state superintendent, who is president of the board ; 
the secretary of state, who is secretary of the board; the attorney- 
general and the governor. Each district board is composed of three 
members elected for a term of three years, one each year. Each 
district school must be open at least three months each year, and 
children between the ages of eight and sixteen are required to 
attend either a public or a private school, unless excused: because 
of physical or mental infirmity. There are separate schools for whites 
and negroes. In addition to instruction in the ordinary branches, 
the teaching in the district schools of the elementary principles of 
agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, stock-feeding, forestry, 
building country roads and domestic science is required. A law of 
1908 requires that an agricultural school of secondary grade be 
established in each of the five supreme court judicial districts, and 
that an experimental farm be operated in connexion with each ; 
and in 1909 the number of these districts was increased to six. 
There is a state industrial school for girls, teaching domestic science 
and the fine arts. The higher institutions of learning established 
by the state are the Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, 
a land grant college with an agricultural experiment station at 
Stillwater; the Oklahoma School of Mines at Wilburton; the 
Colored Agricultural and Normal University at Langston; the 
Central Normal School at Edmond; the North-western Normal 
School at Alva; the South-western Normal School at Weatherford, 
Custer county ; the South-eastern Normal School at Durant, Bryan 
county; the East Central Normal School at Ada; the North- 
eastern Normal School at Tahlequah, Cherokee county; and the 
University of Oklahoma at Norman. The State University (estab- 
lished in 1892, opened in 1893) embraces a college of arts and sciences, 
and schools of fine arts, applied science, medicine, mines and phar- 
macy. In 1907-1908 it had 40 instructors and 790 students. There 
is a University Preparatory School (1901) at Tonka wa in Kay 
county and there are state schools of agriculture at Tishomingo and 

at Warner. The common schools are in large part maintained out 
of the proceeds of the school lands (about 1,200,000 acres), which 
are sections 16 and 36 in each township of that portion of the state 
which formerly constituted Oklahoma Territory, and a Congres- 
sional appropriation of $5,000,000 in lieu of these sections in 
what was formerly Indian Territory. The university, agricultural 
and mechanical college and normal schools also are maintained 
to a considerable extent out of the proceeds of section 13 in 
several townships. The university owns land valued at $3,670,000. 
Among the institutions of learning, neither maintained nor controlled 
by the state, are Epworth University (Methodist Episcopal, 1901) 
at Oklahoma City, and Kingfisher College at Kingfisher. 

Charities and Correctional Institutions. — The state has a hospital 
for the insane at Fort Supply, the Whitaker Orphans' Home at 
Pryor Creek, the Oklahoma School for the Blind at Fort Gibson 
and the Oklahoma School for the Deaf at Sulphur; and the legisla- 
ture of 1908 appropriated money for the East Oklahoma Hospital 
for the Insane at Vinita, a School for the Feebie-Minded at Enid, a 
State Training School for Boys at Wynnewood and a State Reforma- 
tory (at Granite, Greer county) for first-time convicts between the 
ages of sixteen and twenty-five. Under the constitution the super- 
vision and inspection of charities and institutions of correction is 
in the hands of a State Commissioner of Charities and Corrections, 
elected by the people. The commissioner must inspect once each 
year all penal, correctional and eleemosynary institutions, including 
public hospitals, jails, poorhouses and corporations and organizations 
doing charitable work; and the commissioner appears as next friend 
in cases affecting the property of orphan minors, and has power to 
investigate complaints against public and private institutions whose 
charters may be revoked for cause by the commissioner. By act of 
legislature a State Board of Public Affairs was created ; it is made of 
five members appointed by the governor, with charge of the fiscal 
affairs of all state institutions. Convicts were sent to the state 
penitentiary of Kansas until January 1909, when it was charged 
that they were treated cruelly there; in 1909 work was begun on a 
penitentiary at McAlester. 

Banking and Finance.— The unique feature of the banking system 
(with amendments adopted by the second legislature becoming 
effective on the nth of June 1909) is a fund for the guaranty of 
deposits. The state banking board, which is composed of the 
governor, lieutenant-governor, president of the board of agriculture, 
state treasurer and state auditor, levies against the capital stock of 
each state bank and trust company, organized or existing, under 
the laws of the state to create a fund equal to 5 % of average daily 
deposits other than the deposits of state funds properly secured. 
One-fifth of this fund is payable the first year and one-twentieth 
each year thereafter; r % of the increase in average deposits is 
collected each year. Emergency assessments, not to exceed 2 %, 
may be made whenever necessary to pay in full the depositors in an 
insolvent bank; if the guaranty fund is impaired to such a degree 
that it is not made up by the 2 % emergency assessment, the state 
banking board issues certificates of indebtedness which draw 6% 
interest and which are paid out of the assessment. Any national bank 
may secure its depositors in this manner if it so desires. The bank 
guarantee law was held to be valid by the United States Supreme 
Court in 1908 after the attorney-general of the United States had 
decided that it was illegal. 

The revenue for state and local purposes is derived chiefly from 
taxes. The constitutional limit on the state tax levy is 3! mills on 
a dollar, and legislation has fixed the limit of the county levy at 5 
mills, of the levy in cities at 7, in incorporated towns at 5, in town- 
ships at 3, and in school districts at 5. There is a tax on the gross 
receipts of corporations, a graduated land tax on all holdings exceed- 
ing 640 acres, a tax on income exceeding $3500, and a tax on gifts 
and inheritances. The aggregate amount of indebtedness which 
the state may have at any time is limited by the constitution to 
$400,000, save when borrowing is necessary to repel an invasion, 
suppress an insurrection or defend the state in war. 

History. — With the exception of the narrow strip N. of the 
most N. section of Texas the territory comprising the present 
state of Oklahoma was set apart by Congress in 1834, under the 
name of Indian Territory, for the possession of the five southern 
tribes (Cherokees, Creeks, Seminoles, Choctaws and Chickasaws) 
and the Quapaw Agency. Early in 1809 some Cherokees in 
the south-eastern states made known to President Jefferson 
their desire to remove to hunting grounds W. of the Mississippi, 
and at first they were allowed to occupy lands in what is now 
Arkansas, but by a new arrangement first entered into in 1828 
they received instead, in 1838, a patent for a wide strip extending 
along the entire N. border of Indian Territory with the exception 
of the small section in the N.E. corner which was reserved to 
the Quapaw Agency. By treaties negotiated in 1820, 1825, 
1830 and 1842 the Choctaws received for themselves and the 
Chickasaws a patent for all that portion of the territory which 



lies S. of the Canadian and Arkansas rivers, and by treaties 
negotiated in 1824, 1833 and 185 1 the Creeks received for them- 
selves and the Seminoles a patent, for the remaining or middle 
portion. Many of the Indians of these tribes brought slaves with 
them from the Southern states and during the Civil War they 
supported the Confederacy, but when that war was over the 
Federal government demanded not only the liberation of the 
slaves but new treaties, partly on the ground that the tribal lands 
must be divided with the freedmen. By these treaties, negotiated 
in 1866, the Cherokees gave the United States permission to 
settle other Indians on what was approximately the western 
half of their domain; the Seminoles, to whom the Creeks in 
1855 had granted as their portion the strip between the Canadian 
river and its North Fork, ceded all of theirs, and the Creeks, 
Choctaws and Chickasaws ceded the western half of theirs back 
to the United States for occupancy by freedmen or other Indians. 
In the E. portion of the lands thus placed at its disposal by the 
Cherokees and the Creeks the Federal government within the 
next seventeen years made a number of small grants as follows: 
to the Seminoles in 1866, to the Sauk and Foxes in 1867, to the 
Osages, Kansas, Pottawatomies, Absentee Shawnees and 
Wichitas in 1871-1872, to the Pawnees in 1876, to the Poncas 
and Nez Perces in 1878, to the Otoes and Missouris in 1881, 
and to the Iowas and Kickapoos in 1883; in the S.W. quarter 
of the Territory, also, the Kiowas, Comanches and Apaches 
were located in 1867 and the Cheyennes and Arapahoes in 1869. 
There still remained unassigned the greater part of the Cherokee 
Strip besides a tract embracing 1,887,800 acres of choice land 
in the centre of the Territory, and the agitation for the opening 
of this to settlement by white people increased until in 1889 a 
complete title to the central tract was purchased from the 
Creeks and Seminoles. Soon after the purchase President 
Benjamin Harrison issued a proclamation announcing that this 
land would be opened to homestead settlement at twelve o'clock 
noon, on the 22nd of April 1889. At that hour no less than 20,000 
people were on the border, and when the signal was given there 
ensued a remarkably spectacular race for homes. In the next 
year that portion of Indian Territory which lay S. of the Cherokee 
Strip and W. of the lands occupied by the five tribes, together 
with the narrow strip N. of Texas which had been denied to that 
state in 1850, was organized as the Territory of Oklahoma. In 
the meantime negotiations were begun for acquiring a clear 
title to the unoccupied portion of the Cherokee Strip, for in- 
dividual allotments to the members of the several small tribes 
who had received tribal allotments since 1866, and for the 
purchase of what remained after such individual allotments 
had been made. As these negotiations were successful most of 
the land between the tract first opened and that of the Creeks 
was opened to settlement in 1891, a large tract to the W. of the 
centre was opened in 1892, a tract S. of the Canadian river and 
W. of the Chickasaws was opened in 1902, and by 1904 the entire 
Territory had been opened to settlement with the exception of 
a tract in the N.E. which was occupied by the Osages, Kaws, 
Poncas and Otoes. By the treaties with the five southern tribes 
they were to be permitted to make their own laws so long as 
they preserved their tribal relations, but since the Civil War 
many whites had mingled with these Indians, gained control 
for their own selfish ends of such government as there was, 
and made the country a refuge for fugitives from justice. Con- 
sequently, in 1893, Congress appointed the Dawes Commission 
to induce the tribes to consent to individual allotments as well 
as to a government administered from Washington, and in 1898 
the Curtis Act was passed for making such allotments and for the 
establishment of a territorial government. When the allot- 
ments were nearly all made Congress in 1 906 authorized Oklahoma 
and Indian Territories to qualify for admission to the Union as 
one state. As both Territories approved, a constitutional 
convention (composed of 100 Democrats and 12 Republicans) 
met at Guthrie on the 20th of November 1906. The constitution 
framed by this body was approved by the electorate on the 
17 th of September 1907, and the state was admitted to the 
Union on the 16th of November. 

Governors of Oklahoma — Territorial. 

George W. Steele 1890-1891 

Robert Martin (acting) 1891-1892 

Abraham J. Seay 1 892-1 893 

William Cary Renfrew . . . . . . 1893-1897 

Cassius McDonald Barnes 1897-1901 

William M. Jenkins . . ' . . . 1901 

Thompson B. Ferguson 1901-1906 

Frank Frantz 1906-1907 


Charles Nathaniel Haskell, Democrat. . . 1907-1911 

Lee Cruce, Democrat 191 1- 

Bibliography. — See the Biennial Reports (Guthrie, 1904 sqq.) 
of the Oklahoma Department of Geology and Natural History ; 
the Oklahoma Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 1: Preliminary 
Report on the Mineral Resources of Oklahoma (Norman, 1908); 
C. N. Gould, Geology and Water Resources of Oklahoma (Washington, 
I 9°5). being Water Supply and Irrigation Paper, No. 148 of the 
United States Geological Survey; A. J. Henry, Climatology of the 
United States, pp. 442-453 (Washington, 1906), being Bulletin Q of 
the Weather Bureau of the United States Department of Agriculture; 
Mineral Resources of the United States, annual reports published by 
the United States Geological Survey (Washington, 1883 sqq.); 
Charles Evans and C. O. Bunn, Oklahoma Civil Government (Ardmore, 
1908) ; C. A. Beard, " Constitution of Oklahoma," in the Political 
Science Quarterly, vol. 24 (Boston, 1909); R. L. Owen, "Com- 
ments on the Constitution of Oklahoma, in the Proceedings of the 
American Political Science Association, vol. 5 (Baltimore, 1909); 
S. J. Buck, The Settlement of Oklahoma (Madison, 1907), reprinted 
from the Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and 
Letters; and D. C. Gideon, Indian Territory, Descriptive, Biographical 
and Genealogical . . . with a General History of the Territory (New 
York, 1901). 

OKLAHOMA CITY, a city and the county-seat of Oklahoma 
County, Oklahoma, U.S.A., on the North Fork of the Canadian 
river, near the geographical centre of the state. Pop. (1890) 
4151; (1900) 10,037; (1907) 32,452; (1910) 64,205. It 
is served by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa fe, the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific, the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, and the 
St Louis & San Francisco railways, and by inter-urban electric 
lines. It lies partly in a valley, partly on an upland, in a rich 
agricultural region. The city is the seat of Epworth University 
(founded in 1901 by the joint action of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South). Oklahoma 
City's prosperity is due chiefly to its jobbing trade, with an 
extensive farming and stock-raising region, but it has also cotton 
compresses and cotton gins, and various manufactures. The 
total value of the factory products in 1905 was $3,670,730. 
Natural gas is largely used as a fuel. A large settlement was 
established here on the 22nd of April 1889, the day on which 
the country was by proclamation declared open for settlement. 
The city was chartered in 1890. 

OKUBO TOSHIMITSU (1830-1878), Japanese statesman, a 
samurai of Satsuma, was one of the five great nobles who led 
the revolution in 1868 against the shogunate. He became one 
of the mikado's principal ministers, and in the Satsuma troubles 
which followed he was the chief opponent of Saigo Takamori. 
But the suppression of the Satsuma rebellion brought upon him 
the personal revenge of Saigo's sympathizers, and in the spring 
of 1878 he was assassinated by six clansmen. Okubo was one 
of the leading men of his day, and in 1872 was one of the Japanese 
mission which was sent round the world to get ideas for organizing 
the new regime. 

OKUMA (SHIGENOBU), Count (1838- ), Japanese states- 
man, was born in the province of Hizen in 1838. His father was 
an officer in the artilleiy, and during his early years his education 
consisted mainly of the study of Chinese literature. Happily 
for him, however, he was able to acquire in his youth a knowledge 
of English and Dutch, and by the help of some missionaries he 
succeeded in obtaining books in those languages on both scientific 
and political subjects. These works effected a complete revolu- 
tion in his mind. He had been designed by his parents for the 
military profession, but the new light which now broke in upon 
him determined him to devote his entire energies to the abolition 
of the existing feudal system and to the establishment of a 
constitutional government. With impetuous zeal he urged his 
views on his countrymen, and though he took no active part 



in the revolution of 1868, the effect of his opinions exercised no 
slight weight in the struggle. Already he was a marked man, 
and no sooner was the government reorganized, with the mikado 
as the sole wielder of power, than he was appointed chief assistant 
in the department of foreign affairs. In 1869 he succeeded to the 
post of secretary of the joint departments of the interior and of 
finance, and for the next fourteen years he devoted himself 
wholly to politics. In 1870 he was made a councillor of state, 
and a few months later he accepted the office of president of 
the commission which represented the Japanese government 
at the Vienna Exhibition. In 1872 he was again appointed 
minister of finance, and when the expedition under General 
Saigo was sent to Formosa (1874) to chastise the natives of that 
island for the murder of some shipwrecked fishermen, he was 
nominated president of the commission appointed to supervise 
the campaign. By one of those waves of popular feeling to which 
the Japanese people are peculiarly liable, the nation which had 
supported him up to a certain point suddenly veered round 
and opposed him with heated violence. So strong was the feeling 
against him that on one occasion a would-be assassin threw at 
him a dynamite shell, which blew off one of his legs. During 
the whole of his public life he recognized the necessity of promot- 
ing education. When he resigned office in the early 'eighties 
he established the Semmon Gako, or school for special studies, 
at the cost of the 30,000 yen which had been voted him when he 
received the title of count, and subsequently he was instrumental 
in founding other schools and colleges. In 1896 he joined the 
Matsukata cabinet, and resigned in the following year in conse- 
quence of intrigues which produced an estrangement between 
him and the prime minister. On the retirement of Marquis 
Ito in 1898 he again took office, combining the duties of premier 
with those of minister of foreign affairs. But dissensions having 
arisen in the cabinet, he resigned a. few months later, and retired 
into private life, cultivating his beautiful garden at Waseda 
near T6kyo. 

OLAF, the name of five kings of Norway. 
Olaf I. Tryggvesson (969-1000) was born in 969, and began 
his meteoric career in exile. It is even said that he was bought as 
a slave in Esthonia. After a boyhood spent in Novgorod under 
the protection of King Valdemar, Olaf fought for the emperor 
Otto III. under the Wendish king Burislav, whose daughter he 
had married. On her death he followed the example of his 
countrymen, and harried in France and the British Isles, till, 
in a good day for the peace of those countries, he was converted 
to Christianity by a hermit in the Stilly Islands, and his maraud- 
ing expeditions ceased since he would not harry those of his new 
faith. In England he married Gyda, sister of Olaf K varan, 
king of Dublin, and it was only after some years spent in admini- 
stering her property in England and Ireland that he set sail 
for Norway, fired by reports of the unpopularity of its ruler 
Earl Haakon. Arriving in Norway in the autumn of 995, he 
was unanimously accepted as king, and at once set about the 
conversion of the country to Christianity, undeterred by the 
obstinate resistance of the people. It has been suggested that 
Olaf's ambition was to rule a united, as well as a Christian, 
Scandinavia, and we know that he made overtures of marriage 
to Sigrid, queen of Sweden, and set about adding new ships to 
his fleet, when negotiations fell through owing to her obstinate 
heathenism. He made an enemy of her, and did not hesitate 
to involve himself in a quarrel with King Sveyn of Denmark 
by marrying his sister Thyre, who had fled from her heathen 
husband Burislav in defiance of her brother's authority. 
Both his Wendish and his Irish wife had brought Olaf wealth and 
good fortune, but Thyre was his undoing, for it was on an 
expedition undertaken in the year roco to wrest her lands from 
Burislav that he was waylaid off the island Svold, near Riigen, 
by the combined Swedish and Danish fleets, together with the 
ships of Earl Haakon's sons. The battle ended in the annihila- 
tion of the Norwegians. Olaf fought to the last on his great 
vessel, the " Long Snake," the mightiest ship in the North, and 
finally leapt overboard and was no more seen. Full of energy 
and daring, skilled in the use of every kind of weapon, genial and 

open-handed to his friends, implacable to his enemies, Olaf's 
personality was the ideal of the heathendom he had trodden 
down with such reckless disregard of his people's prejudices, 
and it was no doubt as much owing to the popularity his char- 
acter won for him as to the strength of his position that he was 
able to force his will on the country with impunity. After his 
death he remained the hero of his people, who whispered that 
he was yet alive and looked for his return. " But however 
that may be," says the story, " Olaf Tryggvesson never came 
back to his kingdom in Norway." 

Olaf (II.) Hara£dsson (995-1030), king from 1016-1029, 
called during his lifetime " the Fat," and afterwards known as 
St Olaf, was born in 995, the year in which Olaf Tryggvesson 
came to Norway. After some years' absence in England, 
fighting the Danes, he returned to Norway in 1015 and declared 
himself king, obtaining the support of the five petty kings of the 
Uplands. In 1016 he defeated Earl Sveyn, hitherto the virtual 
ruler of Norway, at the battle of Nesje, and within a few years 
had won more power than had been enjoyed by any of his pre- 
decessors on the throne. He had annihilated the petty kings 
of the South, had crushed the aristocracy, enforced the acceptance 
of Christianity throughout the kingdom, asserted his suzerainty 
in the Orkney Islands, had humbled the king of Sweden and 
married his daughter in his despite, and had conducted a success- 
ful raid on Denmark. But his success was short-lived, for in 
1029 the Norwegian nobles, seething with discontent, rallied 
round the invading Knut the Great, and Olaf had to flee to 
Russia. On his return a year later he fell at the battle of Stikle- 
stad, where his own subjects were arrayed against him. The 
succeeding years of disunion and misrule under the Danes 
explain the belated affection with which his countrymen came 
to regard him. The cunning and cruelty which marred his 
character were forgotten, and his services to his church and 
country remembered. Miracles were worked at his tomb, and 
in 1 164 he was canonized and was declared the patron saint 
of Norway, whence his fame spread throughout Scandinavia 
and even to England, where churches are dedicated to him. 
The Norwegian order of knighthood of St Olaf was founded in 
1847 by Oscar I., king of Sweden and Norway, in memory of this 

The three remaining Norwegian kings of this name are persons 
of minor importance (see Norway: History). 

OLAF, or Anlaf (d. 981), king of the Danish kingdoms of 
Northumbria and of Dublin, was a son of Sitric, king of Deira, and 
was related to the English king ^Ethelstan. As his name indicates 
he was of Norse descent, and he married a daughter of Constan- 
tine II., king of the Scots. When Sitric died about 927 ^Ethelstan 
annexed Deira, and Olaf took refuge in Scotland and in Ireland 
until 937, when he was one of the leaders of the formidable 
league of princes which was destroyed by ^Ethelstan at the 
famous battle of Brunanburh. Again he sought a home among 
his kinsfolk in Ireland, but just after ^Ethelstan's death in 940 
he or Olaf Godfreyson was recalled to England by the North- 
umbrians. Both crossed over, and in 941 the new English king, 
Edmund, gave up Deira to the former. The peace between the 
English and the Danes did not, however, last long. Wulfstan, 
archbishop of York, sided with Olaf; but in 944 this king was 
driven from Northumbria by Edmund, and crossing to Ireland 
he ruled over the Danish kingdom of Dublin. From 949 to 
952 he was again king of Northumbria, until he was expelled 
once more, and he passed the remainder of his active life in 
warfare in Ireland. But in 980 his dominion was shattered by 
the defeat of the Danes at the battle of Tara. He went to Iona, 
where he died probably in 981, although one account says he 
was in Dublin in 994. This, however, is unlikely. In the 
sagas he is known as Olaf the Red. 

This Olaf must not be confused with his kinsman and ally, 
Olaf (d. 941), also king of Northumbria and of Dublin, who was 
a son of Godfrey, king of Dublin. The latter Olaf became king 
of Dublin in 934; but he was in England in 937, as. he took part 
in the fight at Brunanburh. After this event he returned 
to Ireland, but he appears to have acted for a very short 



time as joint king of Northumbria with Olaf Sitricson. It is 
possible that he was the " Olaf of Ireland " who was called by 
the Northumbrians after ^Ethelstan's death, but both the Olafs 
appear to have accepted the invitation. He was killed in 941 
at Tyningham near Dunbar. 

See W. F. Skene, Celtic Scotland, vol. i. (1876), and J. R. Green, 
The Conquest oj England, vol. i. (1899). 

OLAND, an island in the Baltic Sea, next to Gotland the 
largest belonging to Sweden, stretching for 85 m. along the east 
coast of the southern extremity of that country, from which 
it is separated by Kalmar Sound which is from 5 to 15 m. broad. 
The greatest breadth of the island is 10 m., and its area 519 sq. m. 
Pop. (1900) 30,408. Consisting for the most part of Silurian 
limestone, and thus forming a striking contrast to the mainland 
with its granite and gneiss, Oland is further remarkable on 
account of the peculiarities of its structure. Down the west side 
for a considerable distance runs a limestone ridge, rising usually 
in terraces, but at times in steep cliffs, to an extreme height of 
200 ft.; and along the east side there is a parallel ridge of sand, 
resting on limestone, never exceeding 90 ft. These ridges, known 
as the Western and Eastern Landborgar, are connected towards 
the north and the south by belts of sand and heath; and the 
hollow between them is occupied by a desolate and almost barren 
tract: the southern portion, or Alfvar (forming fully half of the 
southern part of the island), presents a surface of bare red lime- 
stone scored by superficial cracks and unfathomed fissures, and 
calcined by the heat refracted from the surrounding heights. 
The northern portion is covered at best with a copse of hazel 
bushes. Outside the ridges, however, Oland has quite a different 
aspect, the hillsides being not infrequently clothed with clumps 
of trees, while the narrow strip of alluvial coast-land, with its 
cornfields, windmills, villages and church towers, appears 
fruitful and prosperous. There are a few small streams in the 
island; and one lake, Hornsjo, about 3 m. long, deserves mention. 
Of the fir woods which once clothed a considerable area in the 
north the Boda crown-park is the only remnant. Grain, especi- 
ally barley, and sandstone, are exported from the island, and 
there are cement works. A number of monuments of unknown 
age exist, including stones (stensattningar) arranged in groups 
to represent ships. The only town is Borgholm, a watering-place 
on the west coast, with one of the finest castle ruins in Sweden. 
The town was founded in 181 7, but the castle, dating at least 
from the 13th century, was one of the strongest fortresses, and 
afterwards, as erected by the architect Nicodemus Tessin the 
elder (1615-1681), one of the most stately palaces in the country. 
The island was joined in 1824 to the administrative district {Ian) 
of Kalmar. Its inhabitants were formerly styled Oningar, and 
show considerable diversity of origin in the matter of speech, 
local customs and physical appearance. 

From the raid of Ragnar Lodbrok's sons in 775 Oland is 
frequently mentioned in Scandinavian history, and especially as a 
battleground in the wars between Denmark and the northern 
kingdoms. In the middle ages it formed a separate legislative 
and administrative unity. 

OLAUS MAGNUS, or Magni (Magnus, i.e. Stora, great, being 
the family name, and not a personal epithet), Swedish ecclesi- 
astic and author, was born at Linkoping in 1490 and died at 
Rome in 1558. Like his elder brother, Johannes Magnus, he 
obtained several ecclesiastical preferments (a canonry at Upsala 
and at Linkoping, and the archdeaconry of Strengnes) , and was 
employed on various diplomatic services (such as a mission to 
Rome, from Gustavus I., to procure the appointment of Johannes 
Magnus as archbishop of Upsala) ; but on the success of the 
reformation in Sweden his attachment to the old church led 
him to accompany his brother into exile. Settling at Rome, 
from 1527, he acted as his brother's secretary, and ultimately 
became his successor in the (now titular) archbishopric of 
Upsala. Pope Paul III., in 1546, sent him to the council of 
Trent; later, he became canon of St Lambert in Liege; King 
Sigismund I. of Poland also offered him a canonry at Posen; 
but most of his life, after his brother's death, seems to have 
been spent in the monaster)' of St Brigitta in Rome, where he 

subsisted on a pension assigned him by the pope. He is best 
remembered as the author of the famous Historia de Gentibus 
Septentrionalibus (Rome, 1555), a work which long remained for 
the rest of Europe the chief authority on Swedish matters and 
is still a valuable repertory of much curious information in 
regard to Scandinavian customs and folk-lore. 

The Historia was translated into Italian (Venice, 1565), German 
(Strassburg, 1567), English (London, 1658) and Dutch (Amsterdam, 
1665); abridgments of the work appeared also at Antwerp (1558 
and 1562), Paris (a French abridged version, 1561), Amsterdam 
(1586), Frankfort (1618) and Leiden (1652). Olaus also wrote a 
Tabula terrarum septentrionalium . . . (Venice, 1539). 

German astronomer, was born on the nth of October 1758 
at Arbergen, a village near Bremen, where his father was minister. 
He studied medicine at Gottingen, 1777-1780, attending at the 
same time Kaestner's mathematical course; and in 1779, while 
watching by the sick-bed of a fellow-student, he devised a method 
of calculating cometary orbits which made an epoch in the 
treatment of the subject, and is still extensively used. The 
treatise containing this important invention was made public 
by Baron von Zach under the title Ueber die leichteste und 
bequemste Methode die Bahn eines Cometen zu berechnen (Weimar, 
1797). A table of eighty-seven calculated orbits was appended, 
enlarged by Encke in the second edition (1847) to 178, and by 
Galle in the third (1864) to 242. Olbers settled as a physician 
in Bremen towards the end of 1781, and practised actively for 
above forty years, finally retiring on the 1st of January 1823. 
The greater part of each night (he never slept more than four 
hours) was meantime devoted to astronomy, the upper portion 
of his house being fitted up as an observatory. He paid special 
attention to comets, and that of 181 5 (period seventy-four 
years) bears his name in commemoration of its detection by 
him. He also took a leading part in the discovery of the minor 
planets, re-identified Geres on the 1st of January 1802, and 
detected Pallas on the 28th of March following. His bold 
hypothesis of their origin by the disruption of a primitive 
large planet {Monatliche Correspondenz, vi. 88), although now 
discarded, received countenance from the finding of Juno by 
Harding, and of Vesta by himself, in the precise regions of 
Cetus and Virgo where the nodes of such supposed planetary 
fragments should be situated. Olbers was deputed by his 
fellow-citizens to assist at the baptism of the king of Rome 
on the 9th of June 181 1, and he was a member of the corps 
legislatif in Paris 1812-1813. He died on the 2nd of March 
1840, at the age of eighty-one. He was twice married, and one 
son survived him. 

See Biographische Skizzen verstorbener Bremischer Aerzte, by Dr 
G. Barkhausen (Bremen, 1844) ; Allgemeine geographische Ephemeri- 
den, iv. 283 (1799); Abstracts Phil. Trans, iv. 268 (1843): 
Astronomische Nachrichten, xxii. 265 (Bessel), also appended 
to A. Erman's Briefwechsel zwischen Olbers und Bessel (2 vols., 
Leipzig, 1852) ; Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (S. Giinther) ; 
R, Grant, Hist, of Phys. Astr. p. 239; R. Wolf, Geschichie der 
Astronomic, p. 517. The first two volumes of Dr C. Schilling's 
exhaustive work, Wilhelm Olbers, sein Leben und seine Werke, appeared 
at Berlin in 1894 and 1900, a third and later volume including his 
personal correspondence and biography. A list of Olbers's contri- 
butions to scientific periodicals is given at p. xxxv of the 3rd ed. of 
his Leichteste Methode, and his unique collection of works relating 
to comets now forms part of the Pulkowa library. 

OLBIA, the chief Greek settlement in the north-west of the 
Euxine. It was generally known to the Greeks of Hellas as 
Borysthenes, though its actual site was on the right bank of 
the Hypanis (Bug) 4 m. above its junction with the estuary of 
the Borysthenes river (Dnieper). Eusebius says that it was 
founded from Miletus c. 650 B.C., a statement which is borne 
out by the discovery of Milesian pottery of the 7 th century. 
It first appears as enjoying friendly relations with its neighbours 
the Scythians and standing at the head of trade routes leading 
far to the north-east (Herodotus iv.). Its wares also penetrated 
northward. It exchanged the manufactures of Ionia and, 
from the 5th century, of Attica for the slaves, hides and corn of 
Scythia. Changes of the native population (see Scythia) 
interrupted this commerce, and the city was hard put to it to 



defend itself against the surrounding barbarians. We know 
of these difficulties and of the democratic constitution of the 
city from a decree in honour of Protogenes in the 3rd century 
B.C. (C.I.G. ii. 2058, Inscr. Or. Septent. Pont. Euxin. i. 16). 
In the following century it fell under the suzerainty of Scilurus, 
whose name appears on its coins, and when his power was 
broken by Mithradates VI. the Great, of Pontus, it submitted 
to the latter. About 50 B.C. it was entirely destroyed by the 
Getae and lay waste for many years. Ultimately at the wish 
of, and, to judge by the coins, under the protection of the natives 
themselves, it was restored, but Dio Chrysostom {Or. xxxvi.), 
who visited it about a.d. 83, gives a curious picture of its poor 
state. During the 2nd century A.p. it prospered better with 
Roman support and was quite flourishing from the time of 
Septimius Severus, when it was incorporated in Lower Moesia, 
to 248, when its coins came to an end, probably owing to its 
sack by the Goths. It was once more restored in some sort 
and lingered on to an unknown date. Excavations have shown 
the position of the old Greek walls and of those which enclosed 
the narrower site of the Roman city, an interesting Hellenistic 
house, and cemeteries of various dates. The principal cult 
was that of Achilles Pontarches, to whom the archons made 
dedications. It has another centre at Leuce (Phidonisi) and 
at various points in the north Euxine. Secondary was that 
of Apollo Prostates, the patron of the strategi; but the worship 
of most of the Hellenic deities is testified to in the inscriptions. 
The coinage begins with large round copper pieces comparable 
only to the Roman aes grave and smaller pieces in the shape of 
dolphins; these both go back into the 6th century B.C. Later 
the city adopted silver and gold coins of the Aeginetic standard. 
See E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks (Cambridge, 1909) ; V. V. 
Latyshev, Olbia (St Petersburg, 1887, in Russian). For inscriptions, 
Boeckh, C.I.G. vol. ii. ; V. V. Latyshev, Inscr. Orae Septent. Ponti 
Euxini, vols. i. and iv. For excavations, Reports of B. V. Pharmak- 
ovsky in Compte rendu de la Comm. imp. archiolog. (St Petersburg, 
1901 sqq.), and Bulletin of the same, Nos. 8, 13, &c., summarized in 
Archdologischer Anzeiger (1903 sqq.). (E. H. M.) 

OLSIA (Gr. 6X/3ta, i.e. happy; mod. Terranova Pausania, 
q.v.), an ancient seaport city of Sardinia, on the east coast. The 
name indicates that it was of Greek origin, and tradition attri- 
butes its foundation to the Boeotians and Thespians under 
Iolaus (see Sardinia). Pais considers that it was founded by 
the Phocaeans of Massilia before the 4th century B.C. (in Tam- 
poni, op. cil. p. 83). It is situated on low ground, at the extremity 
of a deep recess, now called the Golfo di Terranova. It was 
besieged unsuccessfully by L. Cornelius Scipio in 259 B.C. Its 
territory was ravaged in 210 B.C. by a Carthaginian fleet. In 
Roman times it was the regular landing-place for travellers 
from Italy. Cicero notes the receipt of a letter from his brother 
from Olbia in 56 B.C., and obviously shared the prevailing 
belief as to the unhealthiness of Sardinia. Traces of the pre- 
Roman city have not been found. The line of the Roman city 
walls has been determined on the N. and E., the N.E. angle 
being at the ancient harbour, which lay to the N. of the modern 
{Notizie degli Scavi, 1890, p. 224). Among the inscriptions are 
two tombstones, one of an imperial freedwoman, 1 the other 
of a freedman of Acte, the concubine of Nero; a similar tomb- 
stone was also found at Carales, and tiles bearing her name 
have been found in several parts of the island, but especially 
at Olbia, where in building a modern house in 1881 about one 
thousand were discovered. Pais {op. cit. 89 sqq.) attributes 
to Olbia an inscription now in the Campo Santo at Pisa, an 
epistyle bearing the words " Cereri sacrum Claudia Aug. lib. 
Acte," and made of Sardinian (?) granite. In any case it is 
clear that Acte must have had considerable property in the 
island {Corp. Inscr. Lat. x. 7980). Discoveries of buildings 
and tombs have frequently occurred within the area of the 
town and in its neighbourhood. Some scanty remains of an 
aqueduct exist outside the town, but hardly anything else of 

1 The freedwoman had been a slave of Acte before passing into 
the property of the emperor, and took the cognomen Acteniana — a 
practice which otherwise only occurs in the case of slaves of citizens 
of the highest rank or of foreign kings. 

antiquity is to be seen in situ. A large number of milestones, 
fifty-one in all, with inscriptions, and several more with illegible 
ones, belonging to the first twelve miles of the Roman road 
between Olbia and Carales, have been discovered, and are now 
kept in the church of S. Simplicio {Notizie degli Scavi, 1888, 
P- 535; 1889, p. 258; 1892, pp. 217, 366; Classical Review, 1889, 
p. 228; 1890, p. 65; P. Tamponi, Silloge Epigrafica, Olbiense, 
Sassari, 1895). This large number may be accounted for by the 
fact that a new stone was often erected for a new emperor. They 
range in date from a.d. 245 to 375 (one is possibly of Domitian). 
The itineraries state that the main road from Carales to Olbia 
ran through the centre of the island to the east of Gennargentu 
(see Sardinia) ; but a branch certainly diverged from the main 
road from Carales to Turris Libisonis (which kept farther west, 
more or less along the line followed by the modern railway) and 
came to Olbia. The distance by both lines is much the same; 
and all these milestones belong to the last portion which was 
common to both roads. (T. As.) 

OLD-AGE PENSIONS. The provision of annuities for aged 
poor by the state was proposed in England in the 18th century— 
e.g. by Francis Maseres, cursitor baron of the Exchequer, in 
1772, and by Mr Mark Rolle, M.P., in 1787. Suggestions for 
subsidizing friendly societies have also been frequent — e.g. by T. 
Paine in 1795, tentatively in Sturges Bourne's Report on the 
Poor Laws, 181 7, and by Lord Lansdowne in 1837. The subject 
again became prominent in the latter part of the 19th century. 
Canon Blackley, who started this movement, proposed to com- 
pel every one to insure with a state department against sickness 
and old age, and essentially his scheme was one for the relief 
of the ratepayers and a more equitable readjustment of the poor- 
rate. The terms provisionally put forward by him required 
that every one in youth should pay £10, in return for which the 
state was to grant 8s. a week sick allowance and 4s. pension 
after seventy. These proposals were submitted to the Select 
Committee on National Provident Insurance, 1885-1887. This 
body reported unfavourably, more especially on the sick in- 
surance part of the scheme, but the idea of old-age pension 
survived, and was taken up by the National Provident League, 
of which Mr (afterwards Sir) J. Rankin, M.P., was chairman. 
The subject was discussed in the constituencies and expectation 
was aroused. An unofficial parliamentary committee was 
formed, with Mr J. Chamberlain as chairman. This committee 
published proposals in March 1892, which show a very interesting 
change of attitude on the part of the promoters. Compulsion, 
which at the earlier period had found favour with Canon Blackley, 
Sir J. Rankin and even Mr Chamberlain, was no longer urged. 
The annuitant was no longer required to pay a premium adequate 
to the benefits promised, as in Canon Blackley's proposal. The 
benefit was no longer a pure annuity, but premiums were, in 
certain cases, returnable, and allowances were provided for 
widows, children (if any) and for the next of kin. Canon 
Blackley's professed object was to supersede the friendly societies, 
which, he alleged, were more or less insolvent; a proposal was 
now introduced to double every half-crown of pension derived 
by members from their friendly societies. This suggestion 
was criticized, even by supporters of the principle of state aid, 
on the ground that unless a pension was gratuitous, the class 
from which pauperism is really drawn could not profit by it. 
Mr Charles Booth in particular took this line. He accordingly 
proposed that there should be a general endowment of old 
age, 5s. a week to every one at the age of sixty-five. 
This proposal was calculated to involve an expenditure of 
£18,000,000 for England and Wales and £24,000,000 for the 
United Kingdom, exclusive of the cost of administration. While 
Mr Booth severely criticized the weak points of the contributory 
and voluntary schemes, their most influential advocate, Mr 
Chamberlain, did not spare Mr Booth's proposals. Speaking 
at Highbury, for instance, on the 24th of May 1899, he described 
Mr Booth's universal scheme as " a gigantic system of out-door 
relief for every one, good and bad, thrifty and unthrifty, the 
waster, drunkard and idler, as well as the industrious," and 
very forcibly stated his inability to support it. 



In 1893 Mr Gladstone referred the whole question to a 
royal commission (Lord Aberdare, chairman). A majority- 
report, adverse to the principle of state pensions, was issued 
in 1895. A minority report, signed by Mr Chamberlain and 
Dthers, dissented, mainly on the ground that public expectation 
would be disappointed if nothing was done. In 1896 Lord 
Salisbury appointed a committee " of experts " (Lord Rothschild, 
chairman) to report on schemes submitted, and, if necessary, 
to devise a scheme. The committee were unable to recommend 
any of the schemes submitted, and added that, " we ourselves 
are unable, after repeated attempts, to devise any proposal free 
from grave inherent disadvantages." This second condemnation 
was not considered conclusive, and a select committee of the 
House of Commons (Mr Chaplin, chairman) was appointed to 
consider the condition of " the aged deserving poor." After 
an ineffectual attempt by Mr Chaplin to induce the committee 
to drop the pension idea, and to consider the provision made 
for the aged by the poor law, the committee somewhat hastily 
promulgated a scheme of gratuitous pensions for persons possess- 
ing certain qualificatipns. Of these the following were the most 
important: age of sixty-five; no conviction for crime; no 
poor-law relief, " unless under exceptional circumstances," 
within twenty years; non-possession of income of 10s. a week; 
proved industry, or proved exercise of reasonable providence 
by some definite mode of thrift. The committee refrained 
from explaining the machinery and from estimating the cost, 
and suggested that this last problem should be submitted' to 
yet another committee. 

Accordingly a departmental committee (chairman, Sir E. 
Hamilton) was appointed, which reported in January 1900. 
The estimated cost of the above plan was, by this committee, 
calculated at £10,300,000 in 1901, rising to £15,650,000 in 1921. 
Mr Chaplin had publicly suggested that £2,000,000, the proceeds 
of a is. duty on corn, would go a long way to meet the needs of 
the case— a conjecture which was obviously far too sanguine. 
These unfavourable reports discouraged the more responsible 
advocates of state pensions. Mr Chamberlain appealed to the 
friendly societies to formulate a plan, an invitation which they 
showed no disposition to accept. Efforts continued to be made 
to press forward Mr Booth's universal endowment scheme or 
some modification of it. To this Mr Chamberlain declared his 
hostility. And here the matter rested, till in his Budget speech 
in 1907 Mr Asquith pledged the Liberal government to start 
a scheme in 1908. 

In 1908 accordingly there was passed the Old- Age Pensions 
Act, which carried into effect a scheme for state pensions, 
payable as from the 1st of January 1909 to persons of the age 
of 70 years and over. The act grants a pension according to 
a graduated scale of not exceeding 5s. a week to every person, 
male and female, who fulfils certain statutory conditions, and at 
the same time is not subject to certain disqualifications. The 
statutory conditions, as set out in § 2 of the act, are: (1) The 
person must have attained the age of seventy; (2) must satisfy 
the pension authorities that for at least twenty years up to the 
date of receipt of pension he has been a British subject and has 
had his residence in the United Kingdom; and (3) the person 
must satisfy the pension authorities that his yearly means do 
not exceed £31, 10s. In § 4 of the act there are elaborate pro- 
visions for the calculation of yearly means, but the following 
may be particularly noticed: (1) in calculating the means of 
a person being one of a married couple living together in the 
same house, the means shall not in any case be taken to be a 
less amount than half the total means of the couple, and (2) if 
any person directly or indirectly deprives himself of any income 
or property in order to qualify for an old-age pension, it shall 
nevertheless be taken to be part of his means. The disqualifica- 
tions are (1) receipt of poor-law relief (this qualification was 
specially removed as from the 1st of January 191 1); (2) habitual 
failure to work (except in the case of those who have continuously 
for ten years up to the age of sixty made provision for their 
future by payments to friendly, provident or other societies or 
trade unions; (3) detention in a pauper or criminal lunatic 
asylum; (4) imprisonment without the option of a fine, which 

XX. .3 

disqualifies for ten years; and (5) liability to disqualification 
for a period not exceeding ten years in the case of an habitual 
drunkard. The graduated scale of pensions is given in a schedule 
to the act, and provide that when the yearly means of a pensioner 
do not exceed £21 he shall have the full pension of 5s. a week, 
which diminishes by is. a week for every addition of £2, 12s. 6d. 
to his income, until the latter reaches £31, 10s., when no pension 
is payable. The pension is paid weekly, on Fridays (§5), and is 
inalienable (§6). 

All claims for, and questions relating to, pensions are deter- 
mined by the pension authorities. They are (1) pension officers 
appointed by the Treasury from among inland revenue officers; 
(2) a central pension authority, which is the Local Government 
Board or a committee appointed by it, and (3) local pension com- 
mittees appointed for every borough and urban district with a 
population of over 20,000, and for every county. 

During the first three months of the year 1909, in which the 
act came into operation, there were 837,831 claims made for 
pensions: 490,755 in England and Wales, 85,408 in Scotland, 
and 261,668 in Ireland. Of these claims a total of 647,494 were 
granted: 393,700 in England and Wales, 70,294 in Scotland, and 
183,500 in Ireland. The pensions in force on the 31st of March 
1909 were as follows: 582,565 of 5s., 23,616 of 4s., 23,275 of 
3s., 11,429 of 2s., and 6609 of is. By the 30th of September 
the total amount of money paid to 682,768 pensioners was 
£6,063,658, and in the estimates of 1909-1910 a sum of £8,750,000 
was provided for the payment of pensions. 

Germany. — The movement in favour of state aid to provision 
for old age has been largely due to the example of Germany. 
The German system (which for old age dates from 1891) is 
a form of compulsory and contributory insurance. One half 
of the premium payable is paid by the labourer, the other 
half by the employer. The state adds a subvention to the 
allowances paid to the annuitant. (See Germany.) 

France. — By a law of April 1910 a system of old-age 
pensions, designed to come into operation in 191 1, was adopted. 
It is a contributory system, embracing all wage-earners, with 
the exception of railway servants, miners and sailors on the 
special reserve list of the navy. It applies also to small 
landowners, tenant farmers and farm labourers. All are 
eligible for a pension at the age of 65, if in receipt of less 
than £120 a year. The actual rente or pension is calculated 
on the basis of the total obligatory contribution, together 
with a fixed viagere or state annuity. Male wage-earners are 
required to contribute 9 francs a year, and females 6 francs, 
the employers contributing a like amount. The largest pension 
obtainable is for life contributions and amounts to 414 francs. 
A clause in the act permits wage-earners to claim the rente 
at the age of 55 on a proportionately reduced scale without 
the viagere. The total cost of providing pensions in 191 1 is 
estimated at over £5,500,000. 

Denmark. — The Danish system of old-age pensions was in- 
stituted by a law of 1891, and has been extended by further 
acts of 1902 and 1908. By the law of 1891 the burden of 
maintaining the aged was in part transferred from the local to 
the national taxes, and relief from this latter source was called 
a pension. Recipients of public assistance must be over 
60 years of age, they must be of good character and for 5 
years previous to receipt must have had their domicile in 
Denmark without receiving public charity. Such public assist- 
ance may be granted either in money, or kind, or by residence 
in an institution, such as an hospital. The assistance given, 
whatever it may be, must be sufficient for maintenance, and 
for attendance in case of illness. The actual amount is 
determined by the poor-law authorities, but all private assist- 
ance amounting to more than 100 kroner (£5, 13s.) a year is 
taken into account in measuring the poverty of the applicant. 
The cost of assistance is met in the first case by the commune 
in which the recipient is domiciled, but half the amount is 
afterwards refunded by the state. In 1907-1908, 71,185 persons 
were assisted — 53,008 by money and 18,177 otherwise. The 
total expenditure was £489,200, £242,660 being refunded by 
the state. 




New Zealand. — In 1898 a bill, introduced by the Rt. Hon- R. J- 
Seddon, premier, became law which provided for the payment of 
an old-age pension out of the consolidated fund (revenue of the 
general government) to persons duly qualified, without contribution 
by the beneficiaries. The claimants must be 65 years of age, 
resident in the colony, and have .so resided for 25 years. They must 
be free from conviction for lesser legal offences for 12 years, and 
for more serious breaches of the law for 25 years, previous to the 
application. They must be of good moral character and have a 
record of sobriety and respectability for five years. Their yearly 
income must not exceed £52, and they must not be owners of 
property exceeding in value £270. Aliens, aborigines, Chinese 
and Asiatics are excluded. The pensions are for £18 per annum, 
but for each £1 of yearly income over and above £34, and also for 
each £15 of capital over and above £50, £1 is deducted from the 
amount of the pension. Applications have to be made to the 
deputy registrars of one of 72 districts into which the colony is 
for this purpose divided. The claim is then recorded and submitted 
to a stipendiary magistrate, before whom the claimant has to prove 
his qualifications and submit to cross-examination. If the claim is 
admitted, a certificate is issued to the deputy registrar and in due 
course handed to the claimant. Payment is made through the local 
post-office as desired by the pensioner. The act came into force 
on the 1st of November 1898. An amending act of 1905 increased 
the amount of the maximum pension to £26 a year. See further, New 
Zealand. The authors of the measure maintain that it is a great 
success, while others point to the invidious character of the cross- 
examination required in proving the necessary degree of poverty, 
and allege that the arrangement penalizes the thrifty members of the 
poorer class, and is a direct incentive to transfer of property, of a 
more or less fraudulent character, between members of a family. 

Victoria. — By the Old-Age Pensions Act 1900, £75,000 was 
appropriated for the purpose of paying a pension of not more than 
10s. per week to any person who fulfilled the necessary conditions, 
of which the following were the principal: The pensioner must 
be 65 years of age or permanently disabled, must fill up a declara- 
tion that he has lived twenty years in the state ; has not been 
convicted of drunkenness, wife-desertion, &c. ; that his weekly 
income and his property do not exceed a given sum (the regulation 
of this and other details is intrusted to the governor in council). 
Further sums were subsequently appropriated to the purposes of 
the act. 

Authorities. — Report and Evidence of Select Committee on 
National Provident Insurance (1887); Report of Royal Commission 
on Aged Poor (1895); Report of Lord Rothschild's Committee 
(1898); Report of the Select Committee on Aged Deserving Poor 
(1899); Report of Departmental Committee, &c, about the Aged 
Deserving Poor (1900); J. A. Spender, The State and Pensions 
in Old Age (1892); George King, Old Age Pensions (1899); Reports 
of Poor Law Conferences; Annual Reports of the Chief Registrar 
of Friendly Societies; E. W. Brabrook, Provident Societies and the 
Public Welfare (1898), ch. viii. For: Charles Booth, The Aged Poor 
in England and Wales (1894); Old Age Pensions (1899); Right Hon. 
Joseph Chamberlain, " The Labour Question," Nineteenth Century 
(November 1892); Speeches (21st April 1891 and 24th May 1 899) ; 
Rev. J. Frome Wilkinson, Pensions and Pauperism (1892) ; Publi- 
cations of the National Providence League. Against: C. J. Radley, 
Self -Help versus State-Pensions (3rd edition) ; Plea for Liberty (1892) ; 
Report of Royal Commission from a Friendly Society Point of View, 
reprint from Oddfellows' Magazine (1895); The Foresters' 1 Miscellany 
(February 1902); Unity, a Monthly Journal of Foresters, &c. 
(February 1902) ; C. S. Loch, Old-Age Pensions and Pauperism 
(1892) ; Reply of Bradfield Board of Guardians to circular of 
National Provident League (1891); Publications of the Charity 
Organization Society. 

OLDBURY, an urban district in the Oldbury parliamentary 
division of Worcestershire, England, 5 m. W. of Birmingham, 
on the Great Western and London & North- Western railways 
and the Birmingham canal. Pop. (1901) 25,191. Coal, iron and 
limestone abound in the neighbourhood, and the town possesses 
alkali and chemical works, railway-carriage works, iron, edge- 
tool, nail and steel works, makings, corn-mills, and brick and 
tile kilns. The urban district includes the townships of Langley 
and Warley. 

OLDCASTLE, SIR JOHN (d. 141 7), English Lollard leader, was 
son of Sir Richard Oldcastle of Almeley in Herefordshire. He 
is first mentioned as serving in the expedition to Scotland in 1400, 
when he was probably quite a young man. Next year he was 
in charge of Builth castle in Brecon, and serving all through 
the Welsh campaigns won the friendship and esteem of Henry, 
the prince of Wales. Oldcastle represented Herefordshire in the 
parliament of 1404. Four years later he married Joan, the heiress 
of Cobham, and was thereon summoned to parliament as Lord 
Cobham in her right. As a trusted supporter of the prince, 
Oldcastle held a high command in the expedition which the young 

Henry sent to France in 141 1. Lollardy had many supporters 
in Herefordshire, and Oldcastle himself had adopted Lollard 
opinions before 1410, when the churches on his wife's estates 
in Kent were laid under interdict for unlicensed preaching. 
In the convocation which met in March 1413, shortly before the 
death of Henry IV., Oldcastle was at once accused of heresy. 
But his friendship with the new king prevented any decisive 
action till convincing evidence was found in a book belonging to 
Oldcastle, which was discovered in a shop in Paternoster Row. 
The matter was brought before the king, who desired that nothing 
should be done till he had tried his personal influence. Old- 
castle declared his readiness to submit to the king " all his fortune 
in this world," but was firm in his religious beliefs. When he 
fled from Windsor to his own castle at Cowling, Henry at last 
consented to a prosecution. Oldcastle refused to obey the 
archbishop's repeated citations, and it was only under a royal 
writ that he at last appeared before the ecclesiastical court on 
the 23rd of September. In a confession of his /aith he declared 
his belief in the sacraments and the necessity of penance and 
true confession; but to put hope, faith or trust in images was 
the great sin of idolatry. But he would not assent to the ortho- 
dox doctrine of the sacrament as stated by the bishops, nor 
admit the necessity of confession to a priest. So on the^th of 
September he was convicted as a heretic. Henry was still anxious 
to find a way of escape for his old comrade, and granted a respite 
of forty days. Before that time had expired Oldcastle escaped 
from the Tower by the help of one William Fisher, a parchment- 
maker of Smithfield (Riley, Memorials of London, 641). Old- 
castle now put himself at the head of a wide-spread Lollard 
conspiracy, which assumed a definitely political character. 
The design was to seize the king and his brothers during a 
Twelfth-night mumming at Eltham, and perhaps, as was alleged, 
to establish some sort of commonwealth. Henry, forewarned 
of their intention, removed to London, and when the Lollards 
assembled in force in St Giles's Fields on the 10th of January 
they were easily dispersed. Oldcastle himself escaped into 
Herefordshire, and for nearly four years avoided capture. 
Apparently he was privy to the Scrope and Cambridge plot in 
July 1415, when he stirred some movement in the Welsh Marches. 
On the failure of the scheme he went again into hiding. Oldcastle 
was no doubt the instigator of the abortive Lollard plots of 1416, 
and appears to have intrigued with the Scots. But at last his 
hiding-place was discovered and in November 14 17 he was 
captured by the Lord Charlton of Powis. Oldcastle who was 
" sore wounded ere he would be taken," was brought to London 
in a horse-litter. On the 14th of December he was formally 
condemned, on the record of his previous conviction, and that 
same day was hung in St Giles's Fields, and burnt " gallows and 
all." It is not clear that he was burnt alive. 

Oldcastle died a martyr. He was no doubt a man of fine 
quality, but circumstances made him a traitor, and it is impossible 
altogether to condemn his execution. His unpopular opinions 
and early friendship with Henry V. created a traditional scandal 
which long continued. In the old play The, Famous Victories 
of Henry V ., written before 1588, Oldcastle figures as the prince's 
boon companion. When Shakespeare adapted that play in 
Henry IV., Oldcastle still appeared; but when the play was 
printed in 1598 Falstaff's name was substituted, in deference, 
as it is said, to the then Lord Cobham. Though the fat knight 
still remains " my old lad of the Castle," the stage character 
has nothing to do with the Lollard leader. 

Bibliography. — The record of Oldcastle's trial is printed in 
Fasciculi Zizaniorum (Rolls series) and in Wilkins's Concilia, iii. 
35 I_ 357- The chief contemporary notices of his later career are 
given in Gesta Henrici Quinti (Eng. Hist. Soc.) and in Walsingham's 
Historia Anglicana. There have been many lives of Oldcastle, 
mainly based on The Acles and Monuments of John Foxe, who in his 
turn followed the Briefe Chronycle of John Bale, first published 
in 1544. For notes on Oldcastle's early career, consult J. H. Wylie, 
History of_ England under Henry IV. For literary history see the 
Introductions to Richard James's Iter Lancastrense (Chetham Soc, 
1845) and tc Grosart's edition of the Poems of Richard, James (1880). 
See also W. Barske, Oldcastle- Falstaff in der englischen Literatur bis 
zu Shakespeare (Palaestra, 1. Berlin, 1905). For a recent Life, see 
W. T. Waugh in the English Historical Review, vol. xx. (C. L. K.) 



OLD CATHOLICS (Ger. Altkatholiken) , the designation assumed 
by those members of the Roman Catholic Church who refused 
to accept the decrees of the Vatican Council of 1870 defining 
the dogma of papal infallibility (see Vatican Council and 
Infallibility) and ultimately set up a separate ecclesiastical 
organization on the episcopal model. The Old Catholic move- 
ment, at the outset at least, differed fundamentally from the 
Protestant Reformation of the 16th century in that it aimed 
not at any drastic changes in doctrine but at the restoration 
of the ancient Catholic system, founded on the diocesan episco- 
pate, which under the influence of the ultramontane movement 
of the 19th century had been finally displaced by the rigidly 
centralized system of the papal monarchy. In this respect it 
represented a tendency of old standing within the Church and 
one which, in the 18th century, had all but gained the upper 
hand (see Febronianism and Gallicanism). Protestantism 
takes for its standard the Bible and the supposed doctrines 
and institutions of the apostolic age. Old Catholicism sets up 
the authority of the undivided Church, and accepts the decrees 
of the first seven general councils' — down to the second council 
of Nicaea (787), a principle which has necessarily involved a 
certain amount of doctrinal divergence both from the standards 
of Rome and those of the Protestant Churches. 

The proceedings of the Vatican council and their outcome 
had at first threatened to lead to a serious schism in the Church. 
The minority against the decrees included many of the most 
distinguished prelates and theologians of the Roman com- 
munion, and the methods by which their opposition had been 
overcome seemed to make it difficult for them to submit. The 
pressure put upon them was, however, immense, and the reasons 
for submission may well have seemed overwhelming; in the 
end, after more or less delay, all the recalcitrant bishops gave 
in their adhesion to the decrees. 

The " sacrificio dell' intelletto," as it was termed — the sub- 
ordination of individual opinion to the general authority of 
the Church — was the maxim adopted by one and all. Seventeen 
of the German bishops almost immediately receded from the 
position they had taken up at Rome and assented to the dogma, 
publishing at the same time a pastoral letter in which they sought 
to justify their change of sentiment on the ground of expediency 
in relation to the interests of the Church (Michelis, Der neue 
Fuldaer Hirtenbrief, 1870). Their example was followed by all 
the other bishops of Germany. Darboy, archbishop of Paris, 
and Dupanloup, bishop of Orleans, in France adopted a like 
course, and took with them the entire body of the French clergy. 
Each bishop demanded in turn the same submission from the 
clergy of his diocese, the alternative being suspension from 
pastoral functions, to be followed by deprivation of office. It 
may be urged as some extenuation of this general abandonment 
of a great principle, that those who had refused to subscribe 
to the dogma received but languid support, and in some cases 
direct discouragement, from their respective governments. 
The submission of the illustrious Karl Joseph von Hefele was 
generally attributed to the influence exerted by the court of 

The universities, being less directly under the control of 
the Church, were prepared to show a bolder front. Dr J. F. 
von Schulte, professor at Prague, was one of the first to publish 
a formal protest. A meeting of Catholic professors and dis- 
tinguished scholars convened at Nuremberg (August 1870) 
recorded a like dissent, and resolved on the adoption of measures 
for bringing about the assembling of a really free council north 
of the Alps. The Appel aux Evtques Catholiques of M. Hyacinthe 
Loyson (better known as " Pere Hyacinthe" ), after referring 
to the overthrow of " the two despotisms," " the empire of the 
Napoleons and the temporal power of the popes," appealed 
to the Catholic bishops throughout the world to put an end 
to the schism by declaring whether the recent decrees were or 
were not binding on the faith of the Church. This appeal, on 
its appearance in La Liberta early in 1871, was suppressed by 
the order of the king of Italy. On the 28th of March Dollinger, 
in a letter of some length, set forth the reasons which com- 

pelled him also to withhold his submission alike as " a Christian, 
a theologian, an historical student and a citizen." The publica- 
tion of this letter was shortly followed by a sentence of ex- 
communication pronounced against Dollinger and Professor 
Johannes Friedrich (g.v.), and read to the different congrega- 
tions from the pulpits of Munich. The professors of the univer- 
sity, on the other hand, had shortly before evinced their resolu- 
tion of affording Dollinger all the moral support in their power 
by an address (April 3, 1871) in which they denounced the 
Vatican decrees with unsparing severity, declaring that, at the 
very time when the German people had " won for themselves 
the post of honour on the battlefield among the nations of 
the earth," the German bishops had stooped to the dishonouring 
task of " forcing consciences in the service of an unchristian 
tyranny, of reducing many pious and upright men to distress 
and want, and of persecuting those who had but stood steadfast 
in their allegiance to the ancient faith" (Friedberg, Aktenstilcke 
z. ersten Vaticanischen Concil, p. 187). An address to the king, 
drawn up a few days later, received the signatures of 12,000 
Catholics. The refusal of the rites of the Church to one of the 
signatories, Dr Zenger, when on his deathbed, elicited strong 
expressions of disapproval; 1 and when, shortly after, it became 
necessary to fill up by election six vacancies in the council of 
the university, the feeling of the electors was indicated by the 
return of candidates distinguished by their dissent from the 
new decrees. In the following September the demand for 
another and a free council was responded to by the assembling 
of a congress at Munich. It was composed of nearly 500 dele- 
gates, convened from almost all parts of the world; but the 
Teutonic element was now as manifestly predominant as the 
Latin element had been at Rome. The proceedings were pre- 
sided over by Professor von Schulte, and lasted three days. 
Among those who took a prominent part in the deliberations 
were Landammann Keller, Windscheid, Dollinger, Reinkens, 
Maassen (professor of canon law at Vienna), Friedrich and 
Huber. The arrangements finally agreed upon were mainly 
provisional; but one of the resolutions plainly declared that 
it was desirable if possible to effect a reunion with the Oriental 
Greek and Russian Churches, and also to arrive at an " under- 
standing " with the Protestant and Episcopal communions. 

In the following year lectures were delivered at Munich by 
various supporters of the new movement, and the learning and 
eloquence of Reinkens were displayed with marked effect. In 
France the adhesion of the abbe Michaud to the cause attracted 
considerable interest, not only from his reputation as a preacher, 
but also from the notable step in advance made by his declara- 
tion that, inasmuch as the adoption of the standpoint of the 
Tridentine canons would render reunion with the Lutheran 
and the Reformed Churches impossible, the wisest course would 
be to insist on nothing more with respect to doctrinal belief 
than was embodied in the canons of the first seven oecumenical 
councils. In the same year the Old Catholics, as they now 
began to be termed, entered into relations with the historical 
little Jansenist Church of Utrecht. Dollinger, in delivering his 
inaugural address as rector of the university of Munich, expressed 
his conviction that theology had received a fresh impulse and 
that the religious history of Europe was entering upon a new 

Other circumstances contributed to invest Old Catholicism 
with additional importance. It was evident that the relations 
between the Roman Curia and the Prussian government were 
becoming extremely strained. In February 1872 appeared 
the first measures of the Falk ministry, having for their object 
the control of the influence of the clergy in the schools, and in 
May the pope refused to accept Cardinal Hohenlohe, who during 
the council had opposed the definition of the dogma, as Prussian 
minister at the Vatican. In the same year two humble parish 
priests, Renftle of Mering in Bavaria and Tangermann of Unkel 
in the Rhineland, set an example of independence by refusing 

1 The rites were administered and the burial Sfervice conducted 
by Friedrich, who had refused to acknowledge his excom- 



to accept the decrees. The former, driven from his parish 
church, was followed by the majority of his congregation, who, 
in spite of every discouragement, continued faithful to him; 
and for years after, as successive members were removed by 
death, the crosses over their graves recorded that they had died 
" true to their ancient belief." Tangermann, the poet, expelled 
in like manner from his parish by the archbishop of Cologne, 
before long found himself the minister of a much larger congre- 
gation in the episcopal city itself. These examples exercised 
no little influence, and congregations of Oid Catholics were 
shortly after formed at numerous towns and villages in Bavaria, 
Baden, Prussia, German Switzerland, and even in Austria. 
At Warnsdorf in Bohemia a congregation was collected which 
still represents one of the most important centres of the move- 
ment. In September the second congress was held at Cologne. 
It was attended by some 500 delegates or visitors from all parts 
of Europe, and the English Church was represented by the 
bishops of Ely and Lincoln and other distinguished members. 
At this congress Friedrich boldly declared that the movement 
was directed " against the whole papal system, a system of 
errors during a thousand years, which had only reached its 
climax in the doctrine of infallibility." 

The movement thus entered a new phase, the congress 
occupying itself mainly with the formation of a more definite 
organization and with the question of reunion with other Churches. 
The immediate effect was a fateful divergence of opinion; for 
many who sympathized with the opposition to the extreme 
papal claims shrank from the creation of a fresh schism. Prince 
Chlodwig Hohenlohe, who as prime minister of Bavaria had 
attempted to unite the governments against the definition of 
the dogma, refused to have anything to do with proceedings 
which could only end in the creation of a fresh sect, and would 
make the prospect of the reform of the Church from within 
hopeless; more important still, Dollinger refused to take part 
in setting up a separate organization, and though he afterwards 
so far modified his opinion as to help the Old Catholic community 
with sympathy and advice, he never formally joined it. 

Meanwhile, the progress of the quarrel between the Prussian 
government and the Curia had been highly favourable to the 
movement. In May 1873 the celebrated Falk laws were enacted, 
whereby the articles 15 and 18 of the Prussian constitution were 
modified, so as to legalize a systematic state supervision over 
the education of the clergy of all denominations, and also over 
the appointment and dismissal of all ministers of religion. The 
measure, which was a direct response to the Vatican decrees, 
inspired the Old Catholics with a not unreasonable expectation 
that the moral support of the government would henceforth 
be enlisted on their side. On the nth of August Professor J. H. 
Reinkens of Breslau, having been duly elected bishop of the 
new community, 1 was consecrated at Rotterdam by Bishop 
Heykamp of Deventer, the archbishop of Utrecht, who was 
to have performed the ceremony, having died a few days before. 
In the meantime the extension of the movement in Switzerland 
had been proceeding rapidly, and it was resolved to hold the 
third congress at Constance. The proceedings occupied three 
days .(12th to 14th September), the subjects discussed being 
chiefly the institution of a synod 2 as the legislative and executive 
organ of the Church, and schemes of reunion with the Greek, 
the African and the Protestant communions. On the 20th 
of September the election of Bishop Reinkens was formally 
recognized by the Prussian government, and on the 7th of 
October he took the oath of allegiance to the king. 

The following year (1874) was marked by the assembling 
of the first synod and a conference at Bonn, and of a congress 

1 Reinkens was elected at Cologne in primitive Christian fashion 
by clergy and people, the latter being representatives of Old Catholic 

2 The diocesan synod, under the presidency of the bishop, consists 
of the clergy of the diocese and one lay delegate for every 200 
church members. It now meets twi-e a year and transacts the 
business prepared "for it by an executive committee of 4 clergy and 
5 laymen. In Switzerland the organization is still more democratic; 
the bishop does not preside over the synod and may be deposed by it. 

at Freiburg-im-Breisgau. At the congress Bishop Reinkens spoke 
in hopeful terms of the results of his observations during a 
recent missionary tour throughout Germany. The conference, 
held on the 14th, 15th and 16th of September, had for its special 
object the discussion of the early confessions as a basis of agree- 
ment, though not necessarily of fusion, between the different 
communions above-named. The meetings, which were presided 
over by Dollinger, successively took into consideration the 
Filioque clause in the Nicene creed, the sacraments, the canon of 
Scripture, the episcopal succession in the English Church, "the 
confessional, indulgences, prayers for the dead, and the eucharist 
(see Dollinger). The synod (May 27-29) was the first of a 
series, held yearly till 1879 and afterwards twice a year, in which 
the doctrine and discipline of the new Church were gradually 
formulated. The tendency was, naturally, to move further 
and further away from the Roman model; and though the synod 
expressly renounced any claim to formulate dogma, or any 
intention of destroying the unity of the faith, the " Catholic 
Catechism" adopted by it in 1874 contained several articles 
fundamentally at variance with the teaching of Rome. 8 At the 
first synod, too, it was decided to make confession and fasting 
optional, while later synods pronounced in favour of using the 
vernacular in public worship, allowing the marriage of priests, and 
permitting them to administer the communion in both kinds 
to members -of the Anglican Church attending their services. 
Of these developments that abolishing the compulsory celibacy 
of the clergy led to the most opposition; some opposed it as 
inexpedient, others — notably the Jansenist clergy of Holland — 
as wrong in itself, and when it was ultimately passed in 1878 
some of the clergy, notably Tangermann and Reusch, withdrew 
from the Old Catholic movement. 

Meanwhile the movement had made some progress in other 
countries — in Austria, in Italy and in Mexico; but everywhere 
it was hampered by the inevitable controversies, which either 
broke up its organization or hindered its development. In 
Switzerland, where important conferences . were successively 
convened (at Solothurn in 1871, at Olten in 1872, 1873 and 
1874), the unanimity of the " Christian Catholics," as they 
preferred to call themselves, seemed at one time in danger of 
being shipwrecked on the question of episcopacy. It was not 
until September 18th, 1876, that the conflict of opinions was 
so far composed as to allow of the consecration of Bishop Herzog 
by Bishop Reinkens. The reforms introduced by M. Hyacinthe 
Loyson in his church at Geneva received only a partial assent 
from the general body. Among the more practical results of 
his example is to be reckoned, however, the fact that in French 
Switzerland nearly all the clergy, in German Switzerland about 
one half,- are married men. 

The end of the Kulturkampf in 1878, and the new alliance 
between Bismarck and Pope Leo XIII. against revolutionary 
Socialism, deprived the Old Catholics of the special favour 
which had been shown them by the Prussian government; they 
continued, however, to enjoy the legal status of Catholics, and 
their communities retained the rights and the property secured 
to them by the law of the 4th of July 1875. In Bavaria, on the 
other hand, they were in March 1890, after the death of Dollinger, 
definitely reduced to the status of a private religious sect, 
with very narrow rights. When Bishop Reinkens died in 
January 1896 his successor Theodor Weber, professor of theology 
at Breslau, elected bishop on the 4th of March, was recognized 
only by the governments of Prussia, Baden and Hesse. The 
present position of the Old Catholic Church has disappointed 
the expectation of its friends and of its enemies. It has neither 
advanced rapidly, as the former had hoped, nor retrograded, 
as the latter have frequently predicted it would do. In Germany 
there are 90 congregations, served by 60 priests, and the number 
of adherents is estimated at about 60,000. In Switzerland there 
are 40 parishes (of which only one, that at Lucerne, is in the 

- [E.g. especially Question 164: "this (the Christian) community 
is invisible," and Question 167, " one may belong to the invisible 
Church (i.e. of those sharing in Christ's redemption) without belong- 
ing to the visible Church. 



Roman Catholic cantons), 60 clergy and about 50,000 adherents. 
In Austria, though some accessions have been received since 
the Los von Rom movement began in 1899, the Old Catholic 
Church has not made much headway; it has some 15 churches 
and about 15,000 adherents. In Holland the Old Catholic or 
Jansenist Church has 3 bishops, about 30 congregations and over 
8000 adherents. In France the movement headed by Loyson 
did not go far. There is but one congregation, in Paris, 
where it has built for itself a beautiful new church on 
the Boulevard Blanqin. Its priest is George Volet, who was 
ordained by Herzog, and it has just over 300 members. It 
is under the supervision of the Old Catholic archbishops of 
Utrecht. In Italy a branch of the Old Catholic communion 
was established in 1881 by Count Enrico di Campello, a former 
canon of St Peter's at Rome. A church was opened in Rome 
by Monsignor Savarese and Count Campello, under the super- 
vision of the bishop of Long Island in the United States, who 
undertook the superintendence of the congregation in accordance 
with the regulations laid down by the Lambeth conference. 
But dissensions arose between the two men. The church in 
Rome was closed; Savarese returned to the Roman Church; 
and Campello commenced a reform work in the rural districts 
of Umbria, under the episcopal guidance of the bishop of Salisbury. 
This was in 1885. In 1900 Campello returned to Rome, and once 
more opened a church there. In 1902 he retired from active 
participation in the work, on account of age and bodily infirmity; 
and his place at the head of it was taken by Professor Cicchitti 
of Milan. Campello ultimately returned to the Roman com- 
munion. There are half-a-dozen priests, who are either in 
Roman or Old Catholic orders, and about twice as many con- 
gregations. Old Catholicism has spread to America. The 
Polish Romanists there, in 1899, complained of the rule of Irish 
bishops; elected a bishop of their own, Herr Anton Kozlowski; 
presented him to the Old Catholic bishops in Europe for consecra- 
tion; and he presides over seven congregations in Chicago and 
the neighbourhood. The Austrian and Italian churches possess 
no bishops, and the Austrian government refuses to allow the 
Old Catholic bishops of other countries to perform their functions 
in Austria. Every Old Catholic congregation has its choral 
union, its poor relief, and its mutual improvement society. 
Theological faculties exist at Bonn and Bern, and at the former 
a residential college for theological students was established 
by Bishop Reinkens. Old Catholicism has eight newspapers — 
two in Italy, two in Switzerland, and one each in Holland, 
Germany, Austria and France. It has held reunion conferences 
at Lucerne in 1892, at Rotterdam in 1894, and at Vienna in 1897. 
At these, members of the various episcopal bodies have been 
welcomed. It has also established a quarterly publication, the 
Revue internationale de iheologie, which has admitted articles 
in French, German and English, contributed not merely by 
Old Catholics, but by members of the Anglican, Russian, Greek 
and Slavonic churches. Old Catholic theologians have been 
very active, and the work of Dollinger and Reusch on the Jesuits, 
and the history of the Roman Church by Professor Langen, 
have attained a European reputation. 

An outline of the whole movement up to the year 1875 will be 
found in The New Reformation, by " Theodorus "(J. Bass Mullinger) ; 
and an excellent resume 1 of the main facts in the history of the 
movement in each European country, as connected with other 
developments of liberal thought, and with political history, is given 
in the second volume of Dr F. Nippclci's Kandbuch der neuesten 
Kirchengeschichte, vol. ii. (1883). See also A. M. E. Scarth, The 
Story of the Old Catholic and Kindred Movements (London, 1883); 
Buhler, Der Altkatholicismus (Leiden, 1880); J. F von Schulte, 
Der Altkaiholizismus (Giessen, 1887); and article in Hauck-Herzog's 
Realencyk. fiir prot. Theol. und Kirche, i. 415. For details the follow- 
ing sources may be consulted: (a) For the proceedings of the 
successive congresses: the Slenographische Berichte, published at 
Munich, Cologne, Constance, &c. ; those of the congress of Constance 
were summarized in an English form, with other elucidatory matter, 
by Professor John Mayor, (b) For the questions involved in the 
consecration of Bishop Reinkens : Rechtsgutachten iiber die Frage der 
Anerkennung des altkalholischen Bischofs Dr Reinkens in Bayern 
(Munich, 1874) ; Emil Friedberg, Der Stoat und d. Bischofswahlen in 
Deutschland (Leipzig, 1874) ; F. von Sybel, Das altkatholische Bisthum 
und das Vermogen d. rbmischkatholischen Kirchengesellschaften in 

Preussen (Bonn, 1874). (c) Reinkens's own speeches and pastorals, 
some of which have been translated into English, give his personal 
views and experiences; the Life of Huber has been written and 
published by Eberhard Stirngiebl; and the persecutions to which 
the Old Catholic clergy were exposed have been set forth in a pamphlet 
by J. Mayor, Facts and Documents (London, 1875). (d) For Switzer- 
land, C. Herzog, Beitrage zur Vorgeschichte der Christkathol. Kirche der 
Schweiz (Bern, 1896). 

OLD DEER, a parish and village in the district of Buchan, 
Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Pop. (1901), 4313. The village lies 
on the Deer or South Ugie Water, io£ m. W. of Peterhead, 
and 2 m. from Mintlaw station on the Great North of Scotland 
Railway Company's branch line from Aberdeen to Peterhead. 
The industries include distilling, brewing, and the manufacture 
of woollens, and there are quarries of granite and limestone. 
Columba and his nephew Drostan founded a monastery here in 
the 6th century, of which no trace remains. A most interesting 
relic of the monks was discovered in 1857 in the Cambridge 
University library by Henry Bradshaw. It consisted of a small 
MS. of the Gospels in the Vulgate, fragments of the liturgy 
of the Celtic church, and notes, in the Gaelic script of the 12th 
century, referring to the charters of the ancient monastery, 
including a summary of that granted by David I. These are 
among the oldest examples of Scottish Gaelic. The MS. was also 
adorned with Gaelic designs. It had belonged to the monks of 
Deer and been in the possession of the University Library since 
1715. It was edited by John Stuart (1813-1877) for the Spalding 
Club, by whom it was published in 1869 under the title of 
The Book of Deer. In 1218 William Comyn, earl of Buchan, 
founded the Abbey of St Mary of Deer, now in ruins, f m. farther 
up the river than the monastery and on the opposite bank. 
Although it was erected for Cistercians from the priory of KinloSs, 
near Forres, the property of the Columban monastery was re- 
moved to it. The founder (d. 1233) and his countess were buried 
in the church. The parish is rich in antiquities, but the most 
noted of them — the Stone of Deer, a sculptured block of syenite, 
which stood near the Abbey — was destroyed in 1854. The 
thriving village of New Deer (formerly called Auchriddie) 
lies about 7 m. W. of the older village; it includes the ruined 
castle of Fedderat. 

statesman, was born at Amersfoort on the 14th of September 
1547. The family from which he claimed descent was of ancient 
lineage. After studying law at Louvain, Bourges and Heidelberg, 
and travelling in France and Italy, Oldenbarneveldt settled down 
to practise in the law courts at the Hague. In religion a moderate 
Calvinist, he threw himself with ardour into the revolt against 
Spanish tyranny and became a zealous adherent of William the 
Silent. He served as a volunteer for the relief of Haarlem (1573) 
and again at Leiden (1574). In 1576 he obtained the important 
post of pensionary of Rotterdam, an office which carried with it 
official membership of the States of Holland. In this capacity 
his industry, singular grasp of affairs, and persuasive powers of 
speech speedily gained for him a position of influence. He was 
active in promoting the Union of Utrecht (1579) and the accept- 
ance of the countship of Holland and Zeeland by William (1584) 
On the assassination of Orange it was at the proposal of Olden- 
barneveldt that the youthful Maurice of Nassau was at once 
elected stadholder, captain-general and admiral of Holland. 
During the governorship of Leicester he was the leader of the 
strenuous opposition offered by the States of Holland to the 
centralizing policy of the governor. In 1586 he was appointed, 
in succession to Paul Buys, to the post of Land's Advocate of 
Holland. This great office, which he held for 32 years, gave 
to a man of commanding ability and industry unbounded 
influence in a many-headed republic without any central executive 
authority. Though nominally the servant of the States of 
Holland he made himself politically the personification of the 
province which bore more than half the entire charge of the union, 
and as its mouthpiece in the states-general he practically 
dominated that assembly. In a brief period he became entrusted 
with such large and far-reaching authority in all the details of 
administration, as to be virtually " minister of all affairs." 



During the two critical years which followed the withdrawal 
of Leicester, it was the statesmanship of the advocate which kept 
the United Provinces from falling asunder through their own 
inherent separatist tendencies, and prevented them from becom- 
ing an easy conquest to the formidable army of Alexander of 
Parma. Fortunately for the Netherlands the attention of Philip 
was at their time of greatest weakness riveted upon his con- 
templated invasion of England, and a respite was afforded 
which enabled Oldenbarneveldt to supply the lack of any central 
organized government by gathering into his own hands the con- 
trol of administrative affairs. His task was made the easier 
by the whole-hearted support he received from Maurice of 
Nassau, who, after 1589, held the Stadholderate of five provinces, 
and was likewise captain-general and admiral of the union. 
The interests and ambitions of the two men did not clash, for 
Maurice's thoughts were centred on the training and leadership 
of armies and he had no special capacity as a statesman or in- 
clination for politics. The first rift between them came in 1600, 
when Maurice was forced against his will by the states-general, 
under the advocate's influence, to undertake an expedition 
into Flanders, which was only saved from disaster by desperate 
efforts which ended in victory at Nieuwport. In 1598 Olden- 
barneveldt took part in special embassies to Henry IV. and 
Elizabeth, and again in 1605 in a special mission sent to con- 
gratulate James I. on his accession. 

The opening of negotiations by Albert and Isabel in 1606 for 
a peace or long truce led to a great division of opinion in the 
Netherlands. The archdukes having consented to treat with the 
United Provinces " as free provinces and states over which they 
had no pretensions," Oldenbarneveldt, who had with him the 
States of Holland and the majority of burgher regents throughout 
the county, was for peace, provided that liberty of trading was 
conceded. Maurice and his cousin William Louis, stadholder of 
Frisia, with the military and naval leaders and the Calvinist 
clergy, were opposed to it, on the ground that the Spanish king 
was merely seeking an interval of repose in which to recuperate 
his strength for a renewed attack on the independence of the 
Netherlands. For some three years the negotiations went on, 
but at last after endless parleying, on the 9th of April 1609, a 
truce for twelve years was concluded. All that the Dutch asked 
was directly or indirectly granted, and Maurice felt obliged to 
give a reluctant and somewhat sullen assent to the favourable 
conditions obtained by the firm and skilful diplomacy of the 

The immediate effect of the truce was a strengthening of 
Oldenbarneveldt's influence in the government of the republic, 
nowrecognized as a "free and independent state"; external peace, 
however, was to bring with it internal strife. For some years 
there had been a war of words between the religious parties, 
known as the Gomarists (strict Calvinists) and the Arminians 
(moderate Calvinists). In 1610 the Arminians drew up a petition, 
known as the Remonstrance, in which they asked that their 
tenets (defined in five articles) should be submitted to a national 
synod, summoned by the civil government. It was no secret that 
this action of the Arminians was taken with the approval and 
connivance of the advocate, who was what was styled a libertine, 
i.e. an upholder of the principle of toleration in religious opinions. 
The Gomarists in reply drew up a Contra-Remonstrance in seven 
articles, and appealed to a purely church synod. The whole land 
was henceforth divided into Remonstrants and Contra-Re- 
monstrants; the States of Holland under the influence of 
Oldenbarneveldt supported the former, and refused to sanction 
the summoning of a purely church synod (1613). They likewise 
(1614) forbade the preachers in the Province of Holland to treat 
of disputed subjects from their pulpits. Obedience was difficult 
to enforce without military help, riots broke out in certain towns, 
and when Maurice was appealed to, as captain-general, he 
declined to act. He did more, though in no sense a theologian; he 
declared himself on the side of the Contra-Remonstrants, and 
established a preacher of that persuasion in a church at the 
Hague (161 7). 

The advocate now took a bold step. He proposed that the 

States of Holland should, on their own authority, as a sovereign 
province, raise a local force of 4000 men (waardgelders) to keep 
the peace. The states-general meanwhile by a bare majority 
(4 provinces to 3) agreed to the summoning of a national church 
synod. The States of Holland, also by a narrow majority, refused 
their assent to this, and passed (August 4, 16 17) a strong 
resolution {Scherpe Resolutie) by which all magistrates, officials 
and soldiers in the pay of the province were required to take an 
oath of obedience to the states on pain of dismissal, and were to be 
held accountable not to the ordinary tribunals, but to the States 
of Holland. It was a declaration of sovereign independence on 
the part of Holland, and the states-general took up the challenge 
and determined on decisive action. A commission was appointed 
with Maurice at its head to compel the disbanding of the waard- 
gelders. On the 31st of July 1618 the stadholder appeared at 
Utrecht, which had thrown in its lot with Holland, at the head 
of a body of troops, and at his command the local levies at once 
laid down their arms. His progress through the towns of 
Holland met with no opposition. The states party was crushed 
without a blow being struck. On the 23rd of August, by order of 
the states-general, the advocate and his chief supporters, de 
Groot and Hoogerbeets, were arrested. 

Oldenbarneveldt was with his friends kept in the strictest 
confinement until November, and then brought for examination 
before a commission appointed by the states-general. He 
appeared more than sixty times before the commissioners and 
was examined most severely upon the whole course of his 
official life, and was, most unjustly, allowed neither to consult 
papers nor to put his defence in writing. On the 20th of February 
1619 he was arraigned before a special court of twenty-four 
members, only half of whom were Hollanders, and nearly all of 
them his personal enemies. It was in no sense a legal court, nor 
had it any jurisdiction over the prisoner, but the protest of the 
advocate, who claimed his right to be tried by the sovereign 
province of Holland, whose servant he was, was disregarded. 
He was allowed no advocates, nor the use of documents, pen or 
paper. It was in fact not a trial at all, and the packed bench of 
judges on Sunday, the 1 2th of May, pronounced sentence of death. 
On the following day the old statesman, at the age of seventy-one, 
was beheaded in the Binnenhof at the Hague. Such, to use his 
own words, was his reward for serving his country forty-three 

The accusations brought against Oldenbarneveldt of having 
been a traitor to his country, whose interests he had betrayed for 
foreign gold, have no basis in fact. The whole life of the 
advocate disproves them, and not a shred of evidence has ever 
been produced to throw suspicion upon the patriot statesman's 
conduct. All his private papers fell into the hands of his foes, 
but not even the bitterest and ablest of his personal enemies, 
Francis Aarssens (see Aarssens), could extract from them 
anything to show that Oldenbarneveldt at any time betrayed 
his country's interests. That he was an ambitious man, fond 
of power, and haughty in his attitude to those who differed from 
him in opinion, may be granted, but it must also be conceded 
that he sought for power in order to confer invaluable services 
upon his country, and that impatience of opposition was not 
unnatural in a man who had exercised an almost supreme 
control of administrative affairs for upwards of three decades. 
His high-handed course of action in defence of what he conceived to 
be the sovereign rights of his own province of Holland to decide 
upon religious questions within its borders may be challenged on 
the ground of inexpediency, but not of illegality. The harshness 
of the treatment meted out by Maurice to his father's old friend, 
the faithful counsellor and protector of his own early years, 
leaves a stain upon the stadholder's memory which can never be 
washed away. That the prince should have felt compelled in the 
last resort to take up arms for the Union against the attempt of 
the province of Holland to defy the authority of the Generality 
may be justified by the plea reipublicae salus suprema lex. To 
eject the advocate from power was one thing, to execute him as 
a traitor quite another. The condemnation of Oldenbarneveldt 
was carried out with Maurice's consent and approval, and he 


7 1 

cannot be acquitted of a prominent share in what posterity has 
pronounced to be a judicial murder. 

Oldenbarneveldt was married in 1575 to Maria van Utrecht. 
He left two sons, the lords of Groeneveld and Stoutenburg, and 
two daughters. A conspiracy against the life of Maurice, in 
which the sons of Oldenbarneveldt took part, was discovered in 
1623. Stoutenburg, who was the chief accomplice, made his 
escape and entered the service of Spain; Groeneveld was 

Bibliography. — L. v. Deventer, Gedenkstukken van Johan v. 
Oldenbarneveldt en zijn tijd (1577-1609; 3 vols., 1860-1865); J. van 
Oldenbarneveldt, Historie Warachtige van de ghevanckennise . . . 
leste wonder ende droevige doot van J. v. 0. . . . uyt de verklaringe 
van Z. E. dienaar Johan Francken (1620) ; Historie van het leven en 
sterven van den Heer Johan van Olden Bameveldt (1648); Groen van 
Prinsterer, Maurice et Bameveldt (1875); J- L. Motley, Life and 
Death of John of Bameveldt (2 vols., 1874). (G. E.) 

OLDENBURG, a grand-duchy of Germany, with an area of 
2479 sq. m. It consists of three widely separated portions of 
territory — (1) the duchy of Oldenburg, (2) the principality of 
Ltibeck, and (3) the. principality of Birkenfeld. It ranks tenth 
among the states of the German empire and has one vote in 
the Bundesrat (federal council) and three members in the 

I. The duchy of Oldenburg, comprising fully four-fifths of 
the entire area and population, lies between 52° 29' and 53 
44' N. and between 7 37' and 8° 37' E., and is bounded on the N. 
by the North Sea and on the other three sides by Hanover, with 
the exception of a small strip on the east, where it is conter- 
minous with the territory of the free city of Bremen. It forms 
part of the north-western German plain lying between the Weser 
and the Ems, and, except on the south, where the Dammerge- 
birge attain a height of 478 ft., it is almost entirely flat, with a 
slight inclination towards the sea. In respect of its soil it is 
divided broadly into two parts — the higher and inland-lying 
Geest, consisting of sandy plains intermixed with extensive 
heaths and moors, and the marsh lands along the coast, con- 
sisting of rich but somewhat swampy alluvial soil. The latter, 
which compose about one-fifth of the duchy, are protected 
against the inroads of the sea by dikes as in Holland; and 
beyond these are the so-called Watten, generally covered at high 
tide, but at many points being gradually reclaimed. The 
climate is temperate and humid; the mean temperature of the 
coldest month at the town of Oldenburg is 26° F. of the warmest 
66°. Storms are numerous, and their violence is the more felt 
owing to the almost entire absence of trees; and fogs and ague 
are prevalent in the marsh lands. The chief rivers are the 
Hunte, flowing into the Weser, and the Hase and Leda flowing 
into the Ems. The Weser itself forms the eastern boundary 
for 42 m., and internal navigation is greatly facilitated by a 
canal, passing through the heart of the duchy and connecting 
the Hunte and the Leda. On the north there are several small 
coast streams conducted through the dikes by sluices, the only 
one of importance being the Jade, which empties itself into the 
Jade Busen, a deep gulf affording good accommodation for 
shipping. The duchy also contains numerous small lakes, the 
chief of which is the Diimmer See in the south-east corner, 
measuring 4 m. in length by 25 in width. About 30% of the 
area of the duchy is under cultivation and 17% under pasture 
and meadows, while the rest consists mainly of marsh, moor and 
heath. Forests occupy a very small proportion of the whole, but 
there are some fine old oaks. In the Geest the principal crops are 
rye, oats, potatoes and buckwheat, for which the heath is some- 
times prepared by burning. Large tracts of moorland, however, 
are useful only as producing peat for fuel, or as affording pasture 
to the flocks of small coarse-woolled Oldenburg sheep. The rich 
soil of the marsh lands produces good crops of wheat, oats, rye, 
hemp and rape, but is especially adapted for grazing. The 
cattle and horses raised on it are highly esteemed throughout 
Germany, and the former are exported in large numbers to 
England. Bee-keeping is much in vogue on the moors. The live 
stock of Oldenburg forms a great part of its wealth, and the ratio 
of cattle, sheep and horses to the population is one of the highest 

among the German states. There are few large estates, and the 
ground is mostly in the hands of small farmers, who enjoy the 
right of fishing and shooting on their holdings. Game is scarce, 
but fishing is fairly productive. The mineral wealth of Oldenburg 
is very small. Woollen and cotton fabrics, stockings, jute and 
cigars are made at Varel, Delmenhorst and Lohne; cork-cutting 
is extensively practised in some districts, and there are a few 
iron-foundries. Trade is relatively of more importance, chiefly 
owing to the proximity of Bremen. The agricultural produce of 
the duchy is exported to Scandinavia, Russia, England and the 
United States, in return for colonial goods and manufactures. 
Varel, Brake and Elsfleth are the chief commercial harbours. 

II. The principality of Liibeck has an area of 209 sq. m. ano 
shares in the general physical characteristics of east Holstein, 
within which it lies. On the east it extends to Ltibeck Bay of the 
Baltic Sea, and on the south-east it is bounded by the Trave. 
The chief rivers are the Schwartau, a tributary of the Trave, and 
the Schwentine, flowing northwards to the Gulf of Kiel. The 
scenery of Liibeck is often picturesque, especially in the vicinity 
of the Plon See and the Eutin See, the most important of the small 
lakes with which it is dotted. Agriculture is practised here 
even more extensively than in the duchy of Oldenburg, about 
75% of the area being cultivated. The population in 1905 was 

III. The principality of Birkenfeld, 312 sq. m. in extent, lies in 
the midst of the Prussian province of the Rhine, about 30 m. W. 
of the Rhine at Worms and 150 m. S. of the duchy of Oldenburg. 
The population in 1905 was 46,484. (See Birkenfeld.) 

The total population of the grand-duchy of Oldenburg in 1880 
was 337,478, and in 1905 438,856. The bulk of the inhabitants 
are of the Saxon stock, but to the north and west of the duchy 
there are numerous descendants of the ancient Frisians. The 
differences between the two races are still to some extent percept- 
ible, but Low German (Platt-deulsch) is universally spoken, except 
in one limited district, where a Frisian dialect has maintained 
itself. In general characteristics the Oldenburg peasants resemble 
the Dutch, and the absence of large landowners has contributed 
to make them sturdy and independent. The population of 
Oldenburg is somewhat unequally distributed, some parts of the 
marsh lands containing over 300 persons to the square mile, 
while in the Geest the number occasionally sinks as low as 40. 
About 70% of the inhabitants belong to the " rural " population. 
The town of Oldenburg is the capital of the grand-duchy. The 
war-harbour of Wilhelmshaven, on the shore of the Jade Busen, 
was built by Prussia on land bought from Oldenburg. The 
chief towns of Birkenfeld and Ltibeck respectively are Birkenfeld 
and Eutin. 

Oldenburg is a Protestant country, and the grand-duke is 
required to be a member of the Lutheran Church. Roman 
Catholicism, however, preponderates in the south-western pro- 
vinces, which formerly belonged to the bishopric of Minister. 
Oldenburg Roman Catholics are under the sway of the bishops of 
Miinster, who is represented by an official at Vechta. The 
educational system of Oldenburg is on a similar footing to 
that of north Germany in general, though the scattered posi- 
tion of the farmhouses interferes to some extent with school 

The constitution of Oldenburg, based upon a decree of 1849, 
revised in 1852, is one of the most liberal in Germany. It pro- 
vides for a single representative chamber (Landtag), elected 
indirectly by universal suffrage and exercising concurrent rights 
of legislation and taxation with the grand-duke. The chamber 
which consists of forty members, one for every 10,000 inhabitants, 
is elected every three years. The executive consists of three 
ministers, who are aided by a committee of the Landtag, when 
that body is not in session. The local affairs of Birkenfeld and 
Liibeck are entrusted to provincial councils of fifteen members 
each. All citizens paying taxes and not having been convicted 
of felony are enfranchised. The municipal communities enjoy 
an unusual amount of independence. The finances of each 
constituent state of the grand-duchy are managed separately, 
and there is also a fourth budget concerned with the joint 



administration. The total revenue and expenditure are each 
about £650,000 annually. The grand-duchy had a debt in 1967 
of £2,958,409. 

History. — The earliest recorded inhabitants of the district 
now called Oldenburg were a Teutonic people, the Chauci, who 
were afterwards merged in the Frisians. The chroniclers delight 
in tracing the genealogy of the counts of Oldenburg to the Saxon 
hero, Widukind, the stubborn opponent of Charlemagne, but 
their first historical representative is one Elimar (d. 1108) who 
is described as comes in confinio Saxoniae et Frisiae. Elimar's 
descendants appear as vassals, although sometimes rebellious 
ones, of the dukes of Saxony; but they attained the dignity 
of princes of the empire when the emperor Frederick I. dis- 
membered the Saxon duchy in 1180. At this time the county of 
Delmenhorst formed part of the dominions of the counts of 
Oldenburg, but afterwards it was on several occasions separated 
from them to form an apanage for younger branches of the 
family. This was the case between 1262 and 1447, between 
1463 and 1547, and between 1577 and 1617. The northern and 
western parts of the present grand-duchy of Oldenburg were in 
the hands of independent, or semi-independent, Frisian princes, 
who were usually heathens, and during the early part of the 
13th century the counts carried on a series of wars with these 
small potentates which resulted in a gradual expansion of their 
territory. The free city of Bremen and the bishop of Munster 
were also frequently at war with the counts of Oldenburg. 

The successor of Count Dietrich (d. 1440), called Fortunatus, 
was his son Christian, who in 1448 was chosen king of Denmark 
as Christian I. In 1450 he became king of Norway and in 1457 
king of Sweden; in 1460 he inherited the duchy of Schleswig 
and the county of Holstein, an event of high importance for 
the future history of Oldenburg. In 1454 he handed over Olden- 
burg to his brother Gerhard (c. 1430-1499) a turbulent prince, 
who was constantly at war with the bishop of Bremen and other 
neighbours. In 1483 Gerhard was compelled to abdicate in 
favour of his sons, and he died whilst on a pilgrimage in Spain. 
Early in the 16th century Oldenburg was again enlarged at the 
expense of the Frisians. Protestantism was introduced into the 
county by Count Anton I. (1505-1573), who also suppressed 
the monasteries; however, he remained loyal to Charles V. 
during the war of the league of Schmalkalden, and was able 
thus to increase his territories, obtaining Delmenhorst in 1547. 
One of Anton's brothers, Count Christopher (c. 1506-1560), 
won some reputation as a soldier. Anton's grandson, Anton 
Giinther (1583-1667), who succeeded in 1603, proved himself 
the wisest prince who had yet ruled Oldenburg. Jever had been 
acquired before he became count, but in 1624 he added Knyp- 
hausen and Varel to his lands, with which in 1647 Delmenhorst 
was finally united. By his prudent neutrality during the 
Thirty Years' War Anton Giinther secured for his dominions an 
immunity from the terrible devastations to which nearly all 
the other states of Germany were exposed. He also obtained 
from the emperor the right to levy tolls on vessels passing along 
the Weser, a lucrative grant which soon formed a material 
addition to his resources. 

When Count Anton Giinther died in June 1667 Oldenburg 
was inherited by virtue of a compact made in 1649 by Frederick 
III., king of Denmark, and Christian Albert, duke of Holstein- 
Gottorp. Some difficulties, however, arose from this joint 
ownership, but eventually these were satisfactorily settled, and 
from r7o2 to 1773 the county was ruled by the kings of Denmark 
only, this period being on the whole one of peaceful development. 
Then in 1773 another change took place. Christian VII. of 
Denmark surrendered Oldenburg to Paul, duke of Holstein- 
Gottorp, afterwards the emperor Paul of Russia, 1 and in return 
Paul gave up to Christian his duchy of Holstein-Gottorp and his 
claims on the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. At once Paul 
handed over Oldenburg to his kinsman, Frederick Augustus, 
bishop of Liibeck, the representative of a younger branch of 

•His father, Charles Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp (1 700-1 739), 
a descendant of Christian I. of Denmark, married Anne, daughter of 
Peter the Great, and became tsar as Peter III. in 1762. 

the family, 2 and in 1777 the county was raised to the rank of a 
duchy. The bishop's son William, who succeeded his father 
as duke in 1785, was a man of weak intellect, and his cousin 
Peter Frederick, bishop of Liibeck, acted as administrator and 
eventually, in 1823, inherited the duchy. This prince is the 
direct ancestor of the present grand duke. 

To Peter fell the onerous task of governing the duchy during 
the time of the Napoleonic wars. In 1806 Oldenburg was occupied 
by the French and the Dutch, the duke and the regent being 
put to flight; but in 1807 William was restored, and in 1808 he 
joined the Confederation of the Rhine. However, in 1810 his 
lands were forcibly seized by Napoleon because he refused to 
exchange them for Erfurt. This drove him to join the Allies, 
and at the congress of Vienna his services were rewarded by the 
grant of the principality of Birkenfeld, an addition to his lands 
due to the good offices of the tsar Alexander I. At this time 
Oldenburg was made a grand duchy, but the title of grand-duke 
was not formally assumed until 1829, when Augustus succeeded 
his father Peter as ruler. Under Peter's rule the area of Olden- 
burg had been increased, not only by Birkenfeld, but by the 
bishopric of Liibeck (secularized in 1802) and some smaller 
pieces of territory. 

Oldenburg did not entirely escape from the revolutionary 
movement which swept across Europe in &4&, but no serious 
disturbances took place therein. In 1849 the grand-duke granted 
a constitution of a very liberal character to his subjects. Hitherto 
his country had been ruled in the spirit of enlightened despotism, 
which was strengthened by the absence of a privileged class of 
nobles, by the comparative independence of the peasantry, 
and by the unimportance of the towns; and thus a certain 
amount of friction was inevitable in the working of the new order. 
In 1852 some modifications were introduced into the constitution, 
which, nevertheless, remained one of the most liberal in Germany. 
Important alterations were made in the administrative system 
in 1855, and again in 1868, and church affairs were ordered by 
a law of 1853. In 1863 the grand-duke Peter II. (1827-1900), 
who had ruled Oldenburg since the death of his father Augustus 
in 1853, seemed inclined to press a claim to the vacant duchies 
of Schleswig and Holstein, but ultimately in 1867 he abandoned 
this in favour of Prussia, and received some slight compensation. 
In 1866 he had sided with this power against Austria and had 
joined the North German Confederation; in 1871 Oldenburg 
became a state of the new German empire. In June 1900 
Frederick Augustus (b. 1852) succeeded his father Peter as grand- 
duke. By a law passed in 1904 the succession to Oldenburg 
was vested in Frederick Ferdinand, duke of Schleswig-Holstein- 
Sonderburg-Gliicksburg, and his family, after the extinction of 
the present ruling house. This arrangement was rendered 
advisable because the grand-duke Frederick Augustus had only 
one son Nicholas (b. 1897), and his only brother George Louis 
(1855) was unmarried. 

For the history of Oldenburg see Runde, Oldenburgische Chronik 
(Oldenburg, 1863); E. Pleitner, Oldenburg im 19 Jahrhundert 
(Oldenburg, 1899-1900); and Oldenburgisches Quellenbuch (Olden- 
burg, 1903). See also the Jahrbuch fur die Geschichte des Herzogtums 
Oldenburg (1892 seq.). 

OLDENBURG, a town of Germany, and capital of the grand- 
duchy of Oldenburg. It is a quiet and pleasant-looking town, 
situated 27 m. by rail W. of Bremen, on the navigable Hunte 
and the Hunte-Ems canal. Pop. (1905), including the suburbs, 
28,565. The inner or old town, with its somewhat narrow 
streets, is surrounded by avenues laid out on the site of the 
former ramparts, beyond which are the villas, promenades 
and gardens of the modern quarters. Oldenburg has almost 
nothing to show in the shape of interesting old buildings. The 

2 To this branch belonged Adolphus Frederick, son of Christian 
Augustus bishop of Liibeck (d. 1726), who in 1751 became king of 

Another branch of the Oldenburg family, descended from John, 
son of Christian III. of Denmark, is that of Holstein-Sonderburg. 
This was subdivided into the lines of Sonderburg-Augustenburg and 
Sonderburg-Glucksburg. Prince Christian, who married Princess 
Helena of Great Britain, belongs to the former of them. To the 
latter belong the kings of Denmark, Greece and Norway. 



Evangelical Lambertikirche, though dating from the 13th century, 
has been so transformed in the last century (1874-1886) as to 
show no trace of its antiquity. The palaces of the grand-duke 
and the old town-hall are Renaissance buildings of the 17 th and 
1 8th centuries. Among the other prominent buildings — all 
modern — are the palace of the heir apparent, the new town- 
hall, the theatre, the law-courts, the gymnasium, the com- 
mercial school, the three hospitals and the new Roman Catholic 
church. The grand-ducal picture gallery in the Augusteum 
includes works by Veronese, Velasquez, Murillo and Rubens, 
and there are collections of modern paintings and sculptures 
in the two palaces. The public library contains 110,000 volumes 
and the duke's private library 55,000. There is also a large 
natural history museum and a museum with a collection of 
antiquities. The industries of Oldenburg, which are of no 
great importance, include iron-founding, spinning and the 
making of glass, tobacco, gloves, soap and leather. A consider- 
able trade is carried on in grain, and the horse fairs are largely 
frequented. According to popular tradition Oldenburg was 
founded by Walbert, grandson of the Saxon hero, Widukind, 
and was named after his wife Altbufga, but the first historical 
mention of it occurs in a document of 1108. It was fortified 
in 1155, and received a municipal charter in 1345. The sub- 
sequent history of the town is merged in that of the grand- 

See Sello, Historische Wanderung durch die Stadt Oldenburg (Olden- 
burg, 1896) ; and Alt-Oldenburg (Oldenburg, 1903) ; and Kohl, 
Die Allmende der Stadt Oldenburg (Oldenburg, 1903). 

OLDFIELD, ANNE (1683-1730), English actress, was born 
in London, the daughter of a soldier. She worked for a time 
as apprentice to a semptress, until she attracted George 
Farquhar's attention by reciting some lines from a play in his 
hearing. She thereupon obtained an engagement at Drury 
Lane, where her beauty rather than her ability slowly brought 
her into favour, and it was not until ten years later that she 
was generally acknowledged as the best actress of her time. 
In polite comedy, especially, she was unrivalled, and even the 
usually grudging Cibber acknowledged that she had as much as 
he to do with the success of the Careless Husband (1704), in 
which she created the part of Lady Modish, reluctantly given 
her because Mrs Verbruggen was ill. In tragedy, too, she won 
laurels, and the list of her parts, many of them original, is a 
long and varied one. She was the theatrical idol of her day. 
Her exquisite acting and lady-like carriage were the delight 
of her contemporaries, and her beauty and generosity found 
innumerable eulogists, as well as sneering detractors. Alexander 
Pope, in his Sober Advice from Horace, wrote of her — 

" Engaging Oldfield, who, with grace and ease, . 
Could join the arts to ruin and to please." 

It was to her that the satirist alluded as the lady who detested 

being buried in woollen, who said to her maid — 

" No, let a charming chintz and Brussels lace 
Wrap my cold limbs and shade my lifeless face ; 
One would not, sure, be frightful when one's dead, 
And— Betty — give this cheek a little red." 

She was but forty-seven when she died on the 23rd of October 
1 730, leaving all the court and half the town in tears. 

She divided her property, for that time a large one, between 
her natural sons, the first by Arthur Mainwaring (1668-1712) — 
who had left her and his son half his fortune on his death — 
and the second by Lieut. -General Charles Churchill (d. 1745). 
Mrs Oldfield was buried in Westminster Abbey, beneath the 
monument to Congreve, but when Churchill applied for per- 
mission to erect a monument there to her memory the dean of 
Westminster refused it. 

OLD FORGE, a borough of Lackawanna county, Pennsylvania, 
U.S.A., on the Lackawanna river, about 6 m. S.W. of Scranton. 
Pop. (1900) 5630 (2494 foreign-born, principally Italians); (1910) 
11,324. It is served by the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 
and the Lehigh Valley railways. The principal public buildings 
are the town-hall and the high school. The borough is situated 
in the anthracite coal region, and the mining of coal is the 
principal industry, though there are also various manufactures. 

Old Forge was settled in 1830 and incorporated as a borough 
in 1899. 

OLDHAM, JOHN (1653-1683), English satirist, son of a 
Presbyterian minister, was born at Shipton Moyne, near Tetbury, 
Gloucestershire, on the 9th of August 1653. He graduated 
from St Edmund Hall, Oxford, in 1674, and was for three years 
an usher in a school at Croydon. Some of his verses attracted 
the attention of the town, and the earl of Rochester, with Sir 
Charles Sedley and other wits, came down to see him. The 
visit did not affect his career apparently, for he stayed at Croy- 
don until 1 68 1, when he became tutor to the grandsons of Sir 
Edward Thurland, near Reigate. Meanwhile he had tried, he 
says, to conquer his inclination for the unprofitable trade of 
poetry, but in the panic caused by the revelations of Titus 
Oates, he found an opportunity for the exercise of his gift for 
rough satire. Garnet's Ghost was published as a broadside in 
1679, but the other Satires on the Jesuits, although written at 
the same time, were not printed until i68r. The success of these 
dramatic and unsparing invectives apparently gave Oldham 
hope that he might become independent of teaching. But his 
undoubted services to the Country Party brought no reward 
from its leaders. He became tutor to the son of Sir William 
Hickes, and was eventually glad to accept the patronage of 
William Pierrepont, earl of Kingston, whose kindly offer of a 
chaplaincy he had refused earlier. He died at Holme-Pierre- 
point, near Nottingham, on the 9th of December 1683, 
of smallpox. 

Oldham took Juvenal for his model, and in breadth of treat- 
ment and power of invective surpassed his English predecessors. 
He was original in the dramatic setting provided for his satires. 
Thomas Garnet, who suffered for supposed implication in the 
Gunpowder Plot, rose from the dead to encourage the Jesuits 
in the first satire, and in the third Ignatius Loyola is represented 
as dictating his wishes to his disciples from his death-bed. Old- 
ham wrote other satires, notably one " addressed to a friend 
about to leave the university," which contains a well-known 
description of the state of slavery of the private chaplain, and 
another " dissuading from poetry," describing the ingratitude 
shown to Edmund Spenser, whose ghost is the speaker, to 
Samuel Butler and to Abraham Cowley. Oldham's verse is 
rugged, and his rhymes often defective, but he met with a 
generous appreciation from Dryden, whose own satiric bent 
was perhaps influenced by his efforts. He says (" To the Memory 
of Mr Oldham," Works, ed. Scott, vol. xi. p. 99) : — 

" For sure our souls were near allied, and thine 
Cast in the same poetic mould with mine." 

The real wit and rigour of Oldham's satirical poetry are un- 
deniable, while its faults — its frenzied extravagance and lack 
of metrical polish — might, as Dryden suggests, have been cured 
with time, for Oldham was only thirty when he died. 

The best edition of his works is The Compositions in Prose and 
Verse of Mr John Oldham . . . (1770), with memoir and explanatory 
notes by Edward Thompson. 

OLDHAM, THOMAS (1816-1878) British geologist, was born 
in Dublin on the 4th of May 1816. He was educated there at 
Trinity College, graduating B.A. in 1836, and afterwards studied 
engineering in Edinburgh, where he gained a good knowledge 
of geology and mineralogy under Jameson. On his return to 
Ireland in 1839 he became chief assistant to Captain (afterwards 
Major General) Portlock, who conducted the geological depart- 
ment of the Ordnance Survey, and he rendered much help in 
the field and office in the preparation of the Report on the Geology 
of Londonderry, &°c. (1843). Subsequently he served under 
Captain (afterwards Sir Henry) James, the first local director 
of the Geological Survey of Ireland, whom he succeeded in 1846. 
Meanwhile in 1845 he was appointed professor of Geology in 
the university of Dublin. In 1848 he was elected F.R.S. In 
1849 he discovered in the Cambrian rocks of Bray Head the 
problematical fossil named Oldhamia. In 1850 he was selected 
to take charge of the Geological Survey of India, which he 
organized, and in due course he established the Memoirs, the 
Palaeontologia Indica and the Records, to which he contributed 



many important articles. In 1864 he published an elaborate 
report On the Coal Resources of India. He retired in 1876, and 
died at Rugby on the 17th of July 1878. 

OLDHAM, a municipal county and parliamentary borough of 
Lancashire, England, 7 m. N.E. of Manchester, on the London & 
North-Western, Great Central and Lancashire & Yorkshire 
railways and the Oldham canal. Pop. (1891) 131.463; (1901) 
137,246. The principal railway station is called Mumps, but 
there are several others. The town lies high, near the source of 
the small river Medlock. Its growth as a manufacturing centre 
gives it a wholly modern appearance. Among several handsome 
churches the oldest dates only from the later 18th century. 
The principal buildings and institutions include the town-hall, 
with tetrastyle portico copied from the Ionic temple of Ceres 
near Athens, the reference library, art gallery and museum, 
the Union Street baths, commemorating Sir Robert Peel the 
statesman, and the county court. Of educational establishments 
the chief are the Lyceum, a building in Italian style, containing 
schools of art and science, and including an observatory; the 
largely-endowed blue-coat school founded in 1808 by Thomas 
Henshaw, a wealthy manufacturer of hats; the Hulme grammar 
school (1895), and municipal technical schools. The Alexandra 
Park, opened in 1865, was laid out by operatives who were 
thrown out of employment owing to the cotton famine in the 
years previous to that date. The site is picturesquely undulating 
and terraced. Oldham is one of the most important centres 
of the cotton manufactures, the consumption of cotton being 
about one-fifth of the total importation into the United Kingdom, 
the factories numbering some 230, and the spindles over 13 
millions, while some 35,000 operatives are employed. The 
principal manufactures are fustians, velvets, cords, shirtings, 
sheetings and nankeens. There are also large foundries and 
mill and cotton machinery works; and works for the construction 
of gas-meters and sewing-machines; while all these industries 
are assisted by the immediate presence of collieries. There are 
extensive markets and numerous fairs are held. Oldham was 
incorporated in 1849, and became a county borough in 1888. 
The corporation consists of a mayor, 12 aldermen and 36 
councillors. The parliamentary borough has returned two 
members since 1832. Area of municipal borough, 4736 acres. 

A Roman road, of which some traces are still left, passes 
through the site of the township, but it does not appear to have 
been a Roman station. It is not mentioned in Domesday; but 
in the reign of Henry III. Alwardus de Aldholme is referred to as 
holding land in Vernet (Werneth). A daughter and co-heiress 
of this Alwardus conveyed Werneth Hall and its manor to the 
Cudworths, a branch of the Yorkshire family, with whom it 
remained till the early part of the 18th century. From the 
Oldhams was descended Hugh Oldham, who died bishop of Exeter 
in 1519. From entries in the church registers it would appear 
that linens were manufactured in Oldham as early as 1630. 
Watermills were introduced in 1770, and with the adoption of 
Arkwright's inventions the cotton industry grew with great 

OLD MAID, a game of cards. Any number may play, and the 
full pack is used, the Queen of Hearts being removed. The 
cards are dealt out one by one until exhausted, and each player 
then sorts his hand and discards the pairs. The dealer then 
offers his hand, spread out face downwards to the next player, 
who draws a card, which, if it completes a pair, is discarded, 
but otherwise remains in the hand. The process continues from 
player to player, until all the cards have been paired and dis- 
carded excepting the odd queen, the holder of which is the " Old 

OLDMIXON, JOHN (1673-1742), English historian, was a son 
of John Oldmixon of Oldmixon, near Bridgwater. His first 
writings were poems and dramas, among them being Amores 
Britannici; Epistles historical and gallant (1703); and a tragedy, 
The Governor of Cyprus. His earliest historical work was 
The British Empire in America (1708 and again 1741), which 
was followed by The Secret History of Europe (1712-1715); by 
Arcana Gallica, or the Secret History of France for the last Century 

(1714); and by other smaller writings. More important, how- 
ever, although of a very partisan character, are Oldmixon's 
works on English history. His Critical history of England (1724- 
1726) contains attacks on Clarendon and a defence of Bishop 
Burnet, and its publication led to a controversy' between Dr 
Zachary Grey (1 688-1 766) and the author, who replied to Grey 
in his Clarendon and W hillock compared (1727). On the same 
lines he wrote his History of England during the Reigns of the Royal 
House of Stuart (1730). Herein he charged Bishop Atterbury and 
other of Clarendon's editors with tampering with the text of the 
History. From his exile Atterbury replied to this charge in a 
Vindication, and although Oldmixon continued the controversy 
it is practically certain that he was in the wrong. He completed 
a continuous history of England by writing the History of England 
during the Reigns of William and. Mary, Anne and George I. (1735) ; 
and the History of England during the Reigns of Henry VIII., 
Edward VI., Mary and Elizabeth (1739). Among his other 
writings are, Memoirs of North Britain (1715), Essay on Criticism 
(1728) and Memoirs of the Press 1710-1740 (1742), which was only 
published after his death. Oldmixon had much to do with 
editing two periodicals, The Muses Mercury and The Medley, 
and he often complained that his services were overlooked by 
the government. He died on the 9th of July 1742. 

OLD POINT COMFORT, a summer and winter resort, in 
Elizabeth City county, Virginia, U.S.A., at the southern end 
of a narrow, sandy peninsula projecting into Hampton Roads 
(at the mouth of the James river), about 12 m. N. by W. of 
Norfolk. It is served directly by the Chesapeake & Ohio railway, 
and indirectly by the New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk (Penn- 
sylvania System), passengers and freight being carried by 
steamer from the terminus at Cape Charles; by steamboat lines 
connecting with the principal cities along the Atlantic coast, 
and with cities along the James river; by ferry, connecting with 
Norfolk and Portsmouth; and by electric railway (3 m.) to 
Hampton and (1 2 m.) to Newport News. There is a U.S. garrison 
at Fort Monroe, one of the most important fortifications on the 
Atlantic coast of the United States. Old Point Comfort is 
included in the reservation of Fort Monroe. The fort lies within 
the tract of 252 acres ceded, for coast defence purposes, to the 
Federal government by the state of Virginia in 182 1, the survey 
for the original fortifications having been made in 1818, and the 
building begun in 1819. It was named in honour of President 
Monroe and was first regularly garrisoned in 1823; in 1824 the 
Artillery School of Practice (now called the United States 
Coast Artillery School) was established to provide commissioned 
officers of the Coast Artillery with instruction in professional 
work and to give technical instruction to the non-commissioned 
staff. During the Civil War the fort was the rendezvous for 
several military expeditions, notably those of General Benjamin 
F. Butler to Hatteras Inlet, in 1861; of General A. E. Burnside, 
to North Carolina, in 1862; and of General A. H. Terry, against 
Fort Fisher, in 1865; within sight of its parapets was fought the 
famous duel between the " Monitor " and the " Merrimac " 
(March 9, 1862). Jefferson Davis was a prisoner here for two 
years, from the 22nd of May 1865, and Clement Claiborne Clay 
(1819-1882), a prominent Confederate, from the same date until 
April 1866. Between Fort Monroe and Sewell's Point is Fort 
Wool, almost covering a small island called Rip Raps. The 
expedition which settled Jamestown rounded this peninsula 
(April 26, 1607), opened its sealed instructions here, and named 
the peninsula Poynt Comfort, in recognition of the sheltered 
harbour. (The " Old " was added subsequently to distinguish 
it from a Point Comfort settlement at the mouth of the York 
river on Chesapeake Bay). On the site of the present fortifica- 
tion a fort was erected by the whites as early as 1630. 

OLD TOWN, a city of Penobscot county, Maine, U.S.A., on 
the Penobscot river, about 12 m. N.E. of Bangor. Pop. (1890) 
5312; (1900) 5763 (1247 foreign-born); (1910) 6317. It is 
served by the Maine Central and the Bangor & Aroostook 
railways, and by an electric line connecting with Bangor. The 
city proper is on an island (Marsh, or Old Town Island), but 
considerable territory on the W. bank of the river is included 



within the municipal limits. The manufacture of lumber is 
the principal industry of the city. On Indian Island (opposite 
the city) is the principal settlement of the Penobscot Indians, 
an Abnaki tribe, now wards of the state. The abbe Louis 
Pierre Thury was sent here from Quebec about 1687 and built 
a church in 1688-1689; in 1705 the mission passed under the 
control of the Jesuits. The first white settler in the vicinity 
seems to have been John Marsh, who came about 1774, and who 
bought the island now known as Marsh Island. From 1806 to 
1840, when it was incorporated as a separate township, Old 
Town was a part of Orono. In 1891 it was chartered as a city. 
One of the oldest railways in the United States, and the first in 
Maine, was completed to Old Town from Bangor in 1836. 

OLDYS, WILLIAM (1696-1761), English antiquary and biblio- 
grapher, natural son of Dr William Oldys, chancellor of Lincoln, 
was born on the 14th of July 1696, probably in London. His 
father had also held the office of advocate of the admiralty, but 
lost it in 1693 because he would not prosecute as traitors and 
pirates the sailors who had served against England under 
James II. William Oldys, the younger, lost part of his small 
patrimony in the South Sea Bubble, and in 1724 went to York- 
shire, spending the greater part of the next six years as the 
guest of the earl of Malton. On his return to London he found 
that his landlord had disposed of the books and papers left 
in his charge. Among these was an annotated copy of Gerard 
Langbaine's Dramatick Poets. The book came into the hands of 
Thomas Cox'eter (1689-1747), and subsequently into Theophilus 
Cibber's possession, and furnished the basis of the Lives of 
the Poets (1753) published with Cibber's name on the title page, 
though most of it was written by Robert Shiels. In 1731 Oldys 
sold his collections to Edward Harley, second earl of Oxford, 
who appointed him his literary secretary in 1738. Three years 
later his patron died, and from that time he worked for the 
booksellers. His habits were irregular, and in 1751 his debts 
drove him to the Fleet prison. After two years' imprisonment 
he was released through the kindness of friends who paid his 
debts, and in April 1755 he was appointed Norroy king-at-arms 
by the duke of Norfolk. He died on the 15th of April 1761. 

Oldys's chief works are: The British Librarian, a review of scarce 
and valuable books in print and in manuscript (1737-1738) ; the 
Harleian Miscellany (1744-1746), a collection of tracts and pamphlets 
in the earl of Oxford's library, undertaken in conjunction with 
Dr Johnson; twenty-two articles contributed to the Biographia 
Britannica (1747-1760) ; an edition of Raleigh's History of the World, 
with a Life of the author (1736) ; Life of Charles Cotton prefixed to 
Sir John Hawkins's edition (1760) of the Compleat Angler. In 1727 
Oldys began to annotate another Langbaine to replace the one he 
had lost. This valuable book, with a MS. collection of notes by 
Oldys on various bibliographical subjects, is preserved in the British 

OLEAN, a city of Cattaraugus county, in south-western New 
York, U.S.A., on Olean Creek and the N. side of the Allegheny 
river, 70 m. S.E. of Buffalo. Pop. (1880), 3036; (1890), 7358; 
(1900), 9462, of whom 1514 were foreign-born and 122 were 
negroes; (1910 census), 14,743. The city is served by the 
Erie, the Pittsburg, Shawmut & Northern, and the Pennsylvania 
railways (the last has large car shops here); and is connected 
with Bradford, Pa., Allegany, Pa., Salamanca, N.Y., Little 
Valley, N.Y., and Bolivar, N.Y., by electric lines. Olean is 
situated in a level valley 1440 ft. above sea-level. The sur- 
rounding country is rich in oil and natural gas. Six miles from 
Olean and 2000 ft. above the sea-level is Rock City, a group of 
immense, strangely regular, conglomerate rocks (some of them 
pure white) covering about 40 acres. They are remnants of 
a bed of Upper Devonian Conglomerate, which broke along 
the joint planes, leaving a group of huge blocks. In the city 
are a public library, a general hospital and a state armoury; 
and at Allegany (pop. 1910, 1286), about 3 m. W. of Olean, is 
St Bonaventure's College (1859; Roman Catholic). Olean's 
factory product was valued at $4,677,477 in 1905; the city is 
the terminus of an Ohio pipe line, and of a sea-board pipe line 
for petroleum; and among its industries are oil-refining and 
the refining of wood alcohol, tanning, currying, and finishing 
leather; and the manufacture of flour, glass (mostly bottles), 

lumber, &c. The vicinity was settled in 1804, and this was 
the first township organized (1808), being then coextensive with 
the county. Olean Creek was called Ischue (or Ischua); then 
Olean was suggested, possibly in reference to the oil-springs in 
the vicinity. The village was officially called Hamilton for a 
time, but Olean was the name given to the post-office in 1817, 
and Olean Point was the popular local name. In 1909 several 
suburbs, including the .village of North Olean (pop. in 1905, 
1 761), were annexed to Olean, considerably increasing its area 
and population. 

See History of Cattaraugus County, New York (Philadelphia, 1879). 

OLEANDER, the common name for the shrub known to 
botanists as Nerium Oleander. It is a native of the Mediterranean 
and Levant, and is characterized by its tall shrubby habit and 
its thick lance-shaped opposite leaves, which exude a milky 
juice when punctured. The flowers are borne in terminal 
clusters, and are like those of the common periwinkle (Vinca), but 
are of a rose colour, rarely white, and the throat or upper edge 
of the tube of the corolla is occupied by outgrowths in the 
form of lobed and fringed petal-like scales. The hairy anthers 
adhere to the thickened stigma. The fruit or seed-vessel consists 
of two long pods, which, bursting along one edge, liberate a 
number of seeds, each of which has a tuft of silky hairs like thistle 
down at the upper end. 
The genus belongs to 
the natural order 
Apocynaceae, a family 
that, as is usual where 
the juice has a milky 
appearance, is marked 
by its poisonous pro- 
perties. Cases are re- 
corded by Lindley of 
children poisoned by 
the flowers. The same 
author also narrates how 
in the courseof thePenin- 
sular War some French 
soldiers died in conse- 
quence of employing „ . _. , 
, j / Nerium Oleander. 
skewers made from 

freshly-cut twigs of oleander for roasting their meat. The 
oleander was known to the Greeks under three names, viz. 
rhododendron, nerion and rhododaphne, and is well described 
by Pliny (xvi. 20), who mentions its rose-like flowers and 
poisonous qualities, at the same time stating that it was 
considered serviceable as a remedy against snake-bite. The 
name is supposed to be a corruption of lorandrum, lauridendrum 
(Du Cange), influenced by olea, the olive-tree, lorandrum being 
itself a corruption of rhododendron. The modern Greeks still 
know the plant as^oSo5d<^wj, although in a figure in the Rinuccini 
MSS. of Dioscorides a plant is represented under this name, 
which, however, had rather the appearance of a willow herb 
(Epilobium). The oleander has long been cultivated in green- 
houses in England, being, as Gerard says, " a small shrub of a 
gallant shewe "; numerous varieties, differing in the colour of their 
flowers, which are often double, have been introduced. 

OLEASTER, known botanically as Elaeagnus hortensis, a 
handsome deciduous tree, 15 to 20 ft. high, growing in the 
Mediterranean region and temperate Asia, where it is commonly 
cultivated for its edible fruit. The brown smooth branches 
are more or less spiny; the narrow leaves have a hoary look 
from the presence of a dense covering of star-shaped hairs; 
the small fragrant yellow flowers, which are borne in the axils 
of the leaves, are scaly on the outside. The genus contains other 
species of ornamental deciduous or evergreen shrubs or small 
trees. E. argentea, a native of North America, has leaves and 
fruit covered with shining silvery scales. In E. glabra, from 
Japan, the evergreen leaves are clothed beneath with rust- 
coloured scales; variegated forms of this are cultivated, as 
also of E. pungens, another Japanese species, a spiny shrub 
with leaves silvery beneath. 

7 6 


OLEFINE, in organic chemistry, the generic name given to 
open chain hydrocarbons having only singly and doubly linked 
pairs of carbon atoms. The word is derived from the French 
olefiant (from oUfier, to make oil), which was the name given to 
ethylene, the first member of the series, by the Dutch chemists, 
J. R. Deiman, Paets van Troostwyk, N. Bondt and A. Lauweren- 
burgh in 1795. The simple olefines containing one doubly- 
linked pair of carbon atoms have the general formula (C„H 2 „; 
the di-olefines, containing two doubly-linked pairs, have the 
general formula C n H 2n -2 and are consequently isomeric with the 
simple acetylenes. Tri-, tetra- and more complicated members 
are also known. The name of any particular member of the 
series is derived from that of the corresponding member of the 
paraffin series by removing the final syllable " -ane," and replac- 
ing it by the syllable " ylene." Isomerism in the define series 
does not appear until the third member of the series is reached. 

The higher olefines are found in the tar which is obtained by 
distilling bituminous shales, in illuminating gas, and among the 
products formed by distilling paraffin under pressure (T. E. 
Thorpe and J. Young, Ann., 1873, 165, p. 1). The olefines 
may be synthetically prepared by eliminating water from the 
alcohols of the general formula C n H 2 n+i -OH, using sulphuric 
acid or zinc chloride generally as the dehydrating agent, although 
phosphorus pentoxide, syrupy phosphoric acid and anhydrous 
oxalic acid may frequently be substituted. In this method of 
preparation it is found that the secondary alcohols decompose 
more readily that the primary alcohols of the series, and when 
sulphuric acid is used, two phases are present in the reaction, 
the first being the building up of an intermediate sulphuric acid 
ester, which then decomposes into sulphuric acid and hydro- 
carbon: C2H50H->C2H5-HS04-^C 2 H4-|-H 2 S04. As an alter- 
native to the above method, V. Ipatiew (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 596 
et seq.) has shown that the alcohols break up into ethylenes and 
water when their vapour is passed through a heated tube 
containing some " contact " substance, such as graphite, kiesel- 
guhr, &c. (see also J. B. Senderens, Comptes rendus, 1907, 144, 
pp. 382, 1 109). 

They may also be prepared by eliminating the halogen hydride 
from the alkyl halides by heating with alcoholic potash, or with 
litharge at 220° C. (A. Eltekow, Ber., 1878, 11, p. 414); by the 
action of metals on the halogen compounds C„H 2 ,,Br 2 ; by boiling 
the aqueous solution of nitrites of the primary amines (V. Meyer, 
Ber., 1876, 9, p. 543), C 3 H7NH 2 +HN0 2 = N 2 +2H 2 0+C 3 H 6 ; by the 
electrolysis of the alkali salts of saturated dicarboxylic acids; by 
the decomposition of /3-haloid fatty acids with sodium carbonate, 
CH 3 CHBr-CH(CH 3 )-C0 2 H =C0 2 +HBr+CH 3 CH :CH-CH 3 ; by dis- 
tilling the barium salts of acids CiH2n_ 2 2 with sodium methylate 
in vacuo (I. Mai, Ber., 1889, 22, p. 2135); from the higher alcohols 
by converting them into esters which are then distilled (F. Krafft, 
Ber., 1883, 16, p. 3018) : 
Ci6H 3 3-CH 2 -CH 2 -OH^Ci6H 33 CH 2 -CH 2 -0-CO-R-^ 

C 16 H 33 CH : CH 2 +R-COOH ; 
from tertiary alcohols .by the action of acetic anhydride in the 
presence of a small quantity of sulphuric acid (L. Henry, Comptes 
rendus, 1907, 144, p. 552) : 
(CH 3 ) 2 -C(OH)-CH(CH 3 ) 2 ->(CH 3 ) 2 C:C(CH 3 ) 2 +CH 2 :C(CH 3 )-CH 

(CH 3 ) 2 ; 
from unsaturated alcohols by the action of metal-ammonium com- 
pounds (E. Chablay, Comptes rendus, 1906, 143, p. 123): 
2CH 2 :CH-CH 2 OH+2NH 3 -Na = CH 2 :CH-CH 3 +CH 2 :CH-CH 2 ONa 

+NaOH+2NH 3 ; 
from the lower members of the series by heating them with alkyl 
halides in the presence of lead oxide or lime: C5Hio+2CH 3 I =2HI + 
C7H14; and by the action of the zinc alkyls upon the halogen 
substituted olefines. 

A. Mailhe (Chem. Zeit., 1906, 30, p. 37) has shown that on passing 
the monohalogen derivatives of the paraffins through a glass tube 
containing reduced nickel, copper or cobalt at 250° C, olefines are 
produced, together with the halogen acids, and recombination 
is prevented by passing the gases through a solution of potash. 
The reaction probably proceeds thus: MCl 2 -j-C»H 2 » + iCl— >HCH" 
Cl-M-C n H 2 „Cl->MCl 2 +C„H 2n , since the haloid derivatives of the 
monovalent metals do not act similarly. The anhydrous chlorides 
of nickel, cobalt, cadmium, barium, iron and lead act in the same way 
as catalysts at about 300° C, and the bromides of lead, cadmium, 
nickel and barium at about 320° C. 

In their physical properties, the olefines resemble the normal 
paraffins, the lower members of the series being inflammable 
gases, the members from C5 to Cu liquids insoluble in water, 

and from C16 upwards of solids. The chief normal members 
of the series are shown in the table. 



point. C. 

Boiling-point. C. 


CH 2 :CH 2 


-102-7° (757 mm.) 

Propylene . 

CH 3 CH:CH 2 

-50-2° (749 mm.) 


C 2 H 5 -CH:CH 2 



C 3 H r CH:CH 2 

39° — 40° 


C 4 H 9 CH:CH 2 

68°— 70° 

Heptylene . 

CbHjiCH :CH2 



CeHisCH :CH2 

I22°— 123° 


C 9 Hi„CH:CH 2 ] 


Undecylene . 

84° (18 mm.) 

Duodecylene . 

CioH 2 iCH :CH 2 


96° (15 mm.) 

In chemical properties, however, they differ very markedly 
from the paraffins. As unsaturated compounds they can combine 
with two monovalent atoms. Hydrogen is absorbed readily at 
ordinary temperature in the presence of platinum black, and 
paraffins are formed; the halogens (chlorine and bromine) 
combine directly with them, giving dihalogen substituted com- 
pounds; the halogen halides to form monohalogen derivatives 
(hydriodic acid reacts most readily, hydrochloric acid, least); 
and it is to be noted that the haloid acids attach themselves 
in such a manner that the halogen atom unites itself to the 
carbon atom which is in combination with the fewest hydrogen 
atoms (W. Markownikow, Ann., 1870, 153, p. 256)1. 

They combine with hypochlorous acid to form chlorhydrins ; 
and are easily soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid, giving rise to 
sulphuric acid esters; consequently if the solution be boiled with 
water, the alcohol from which the olefine was in the first place derived 
is regenerated. The oxides of nitrogen convert them into nitrosites 
and nitrosates (O. Wallach, Ann., 1887, 241, p. 288, &c; J. Schmidt, 
Ber., 1902, 35, pp. 2323 et seq.). They also combine with nitrosyl 
bromide and chloride, and with many metallic haloid salts (platinum 
bichloride, iridium chloride), with mercury salts (see K. A. Hofmann 
and J. Sand, Ber., 1900, 33, pp. 1340 et seq.), and those with a 
tertiary carbon atom yield double salts with zinc chloride. Dilute 
potassium permanganate oxidizes the olefines to glycols (G. Wagner, 
Ber., 1888, 21, p. 3359). With ozone they form ozonides (C. Harries, 
Ber., 1904, 37, p. 839). The higher members of the series readily 
polymerize in the presence of dilute sulphuric acid, zinc chloride, &c. 

For the first member of the series see Ethylene. 

Propylene, C 3 H 6 , may be obtained by passing the vapour of 
trimethylene through a heated tube (S. M. Tanatar, Ber., 1899, 32, 
pp. 702, 1965). It is a colourless gas which may be liquefied by a 
pressure of 7 to 8 atmospheres. Butylene, CiHg, exists in three 
isomeric forms : normal butylene, G 2 H 6 -CH :CH 2 ; pseudo-butylene, 
CH 3 -CH :CH-CH 3 ; and isobutylene, (CH 3 ) 2 C : CH 2 . Normal butylene 
is a readily condensible gas. Two spatial modifications of pseudo- 
butylene, CH 3 -CH:CH-CH 3 , are known, the cis and the trans; they 
are prepared by heating the sodium salts of hydro-iodo-tiglic and 
hydro-iodo-angelic acids respectively (J. Wislicenus, Ann., 1900, 
313, p. 228). Isobutylene, (CH 3 ) 2 C : CH 2 , is formed in the dry distil- 
lation of fats, and also occurs among the products obtained when the 
vapour of fusel oil is led through a heated tube. It is a gas at 
ordinary temperature, and may be liquefied, the liquid boiling at 
-5° C. It combines with acetyl chloride in the presence of zinc 
chloride to form a ketone, which on warming breaks down into 
hydrochloric acid and mesityl oxide (I. L. Kondakow, Jour. Russ. 
phys. chem. Soc. 26, p. 12). It polymerizes, giving isodibutylene, 
CjHie, and isotributylene, Ci 2 H 24 , liquids which boil at 110-113° 
and 178-181° C. Amylene, C5H10, exists in five isomeric forms, viz. 
(n) propylethvlene, CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH: CH 2 ; isopropylethylene, 
(CH 3 ) 2 CH • CH : CH 2 ; symmetrical methyl-ethy 1-ethylene, 
CH 3 - CH : CH • C 2 H 6 ; unsymmetrical methyl-ethyl-ethylene, 
(CH 3 )(C 2 H 6 )C:CH 2 ; and trimethyl ethylene, (CH 3 ) 2 C: CH(CH 3 ). 
The highest members of the series as yet known are cerotene, C 26 He 2 , 
which is obtained by the distillation of Chinese wax and is a paraffin- 
like solid which melts at 57° C, and melene, C 3 oH 6 o(?), which is 
obtained by the distillation of bees'-wax. It melts at 62° C. (B. J. 
Brodie, Ann., 1848, 67, p. 210; 1849, 71, p. 156). 

OLEG (?~9i2), prince of Kiev, succeeded Rurik, as being the 
eldest member of the ducal family, in the principality of Great 
Novgorod, the first Russian metropolis. Three years later he 
moved southwards and, after taking Smolensk and other places, 
fixed his residence at Kiev, which he made his capital. He then 
proceeded to build a fortress there and gradually compelled the 
surrounding tribes to pay him tribute, extending his conquests 
in all directions (883-903) at the expense of the Khazars, who 
hitherto had held all southern Russia to tribute. In 907, 



with a host made up of all the subject tribes, Slavonic and Finnic, 
he sailed against the Greeks in a fleet consisting, according to 
the lyetopis, of 2000 vessels, each of which held 40 men; but this 
estimate is plainly an exaggeration. On reaching Constantinople, 
Oleg disembarked his forces, mercilessly ravaged the suburbs 
of the imperial city, and compelled the emperor to pay tribute, 
provide the Russians with provisions for the return journey, 
and take fifty of them over the city. A formal treaty was then 
concluded, which the Slavonians swore to observe in the names 
of their gods Perun and Volos. Oleg returned to Iliev laden with 
golden ornaments, costly cloths, wines, and all manner of precious 
things. In 911 he sent an embassy of fourteen persons to 
Constantinople to get the former treaty confirmed and enlarged. 
The names of these ambassadors are preserved and they point 
to the Scandinavian origin of Oleg's host; there is not a Slavonic 
name among them. A new and elaborate treaty, the terms of 
which have come down to us, was now concluded between the 
Russians and Greeks, a treaty which evidently sought to bind 
the two nations closely together and obviate all possible differences 
which might arise between them in the future. There was also 
to be free trade between the two nations, and the Russians 
might enter the service of the Greek emperor if they desired it. 
The envoys returned to Kiev in 912 after being shown the 
splendours of the Greek capital and being instructed in the 
rudiments of the Greek faith. In the autumn of the same year 
Oleg died and was buried at Kiev. 

See S. M. Solovev, History of Russia (Rus.), vol. i. (St Petersburg, 
1895, &c.) ; M. F. Vladimirsky-Budctnov, Chrestomathy of the History 
of Russian Law (Rus.), pt. i. (Kiev, 1889). (R. N. B.) 

OLEIC ACID, CjsHmO* or C 8 H I7 -CH:CH- [CH 2 ] 7 • C0 2 H, an 
organic acid occurring as a glyceride, triolein, in nearly all fats, 
and in many oils — olive, almond, cod-liver, &c. (see Oils). It 
appears as a by-product in the manufacture of candles. To 
prepare it olive oil is saponified with potash, and lead acetate 
added; the lead salts are separated, dried, and extracted with 
ether, which dissolves the lead oleate; the solution is then 
treated with hydrochloric acid, the lead chloride filtered off, 
the liquid concentrated, and finally distilled under diminished 
pressure. Oleic acid is a colourless, odourless solid, melting at 
14 and boiling at 223° (10 mm.). On exposure it turns yellow, 
becoming rancid. Nitric acid oxidizes it to all the fatty acids 
from acetic to capric. Nitrous acid gives the isomeric elaidic 
acid, C 8 H 17 -CH:CH-(CH 2 ] 7 -C0 2 H, which is crystalline and 
melts at 51 . Hydriodic acid reduces both oleic and elaidic 
acids to stearic acid. 

Erucic acid, C s HirCH:CH-[CH 2 ]irC0 2 H, and the isomeric 
brassidic acid, belong to the oleic acid series. They occur as gly- 
cerides in rape-seed oil, in the fatty oil of mustard, and in the oil of 
grape seeds. Linoleic acid, Ci s H 32 2 , found as glyceride in drying 
oils, and ricinoleic acid, Ci 8 H 33 (OH)0 2 , found as glyceride in castor 
oil, closely resemble oleic acid. 

OLEN, a semi-legendary Greek bard and seer, and writer of 
hymns. He is said to have been the first priest of Apollo, his 
connexion with whom is indicated by his traditional birthplace — 
Lycia or the land of the Hyperboreans, favourite haunts of the 
god. The Delphian poetess Boeo attributed to him theintroduc- 
ion of the cult of Apollo and the invention of the epic metre. 
Many hymns, nomes (simple songs to accompany the circular 
dance of the chorus), and oracles, attributed to Olen, were pre- 
served in Delos. In his hymns he celebrated Opis and Arge, 
two Hyperborean maidens who founded the cult of Apollo in 
Delos, and in the hymn to Eilythyia the birth of Apollo and 
Artemis and the foundation of the Delian sanctuary. His reputed 
Lycian origin corroborates the view that the cult of Apollo was 
an importation from Asia to Greece. His poetry generally was 
of the kind called hieratic. 

See Callimachus, Hymn to Delos, 305; Pausanias i. 18; ii. 13; 
v. 7 ; ix. 27 ; x. 5 ; Herodotus iv. 35. 

OLERON, an island lying off the west coast of France, opposite 
the mouths of the Charente and Seudre, and included in the 
department of Charente-Inferieure. In 1906 the population 
numbered 16,747. In area (66 sq. m.) it ranks next to Corsica 
among French islands. It is about 18 m. in length from N.W. 

to S.E., and 7 in extreme breadth; the width of the. strait 
(Pertuis de Maumusson) separating it from the mainland is at 
one point less than a mile. The island is flat and low-lying and 
fringed by dunes on the coast. The greater part is very fertile, 
but there are also some extensive salt marshes, and oyster 
culture and fishing are carried on. The chief products are 
corn, wine, fruit and vegetables. The inhabitants are mostly 
Protestants and make excellent sailors. The chief places are 
St Pierre (pop. 1582 in 1906), Le Chateau d'Oleron (1546), 
and the watering-place of St Trojan-les-Bains. 

Oleron, the Uliarus Insula of Pliny, formed part of the duchy 
of Aquitaine, and finally came into the possession of the French 
crown in 1370. It gave its name to a medieval code of maritime 
laws promulgated by Eleanor of Guienne. 

OLFACTORY SYSTEM, in anatomy. The olfactory system 
consists of the outer nose, which projects from the face, and the 
nasal cavities, contained in the skull, which support the olfactory 
mucous membrane for the perception of smell in their upper 
parts, and act as respiratory passages below. 

The bony framework of the nose is part of the skull (q.v.), but the 
outer nose is only supported by bone above; lower down its 
shape is kept by an " upper " and " lower lateral cartilage " and 
two or three smaller plates known as " cartilagines minores." 

Nasal bone. 

Nasal process of 
superior maxilla' 

From R. Howden, in Cunningham's Text-Book of Anatomy. 
FlG. 1. — Profile View of the Bony and Cartilaginous Skeleton of 
the Nose. 

The expanded lower part of the side of the outer nose is known 
as the " ala " and is only formed of skin, both externally and 
internally, with fibro-fatty tissue between the layers. The inner 
nose or nasal cavities are separated by a septum, which is seldom 
quite median and is covered in its lower two-thirds by thick, 
highly vascular mucous membrane composed of columnar 
ciliated epithelium with masses of acinous glands (see Epithelial 
Tissues) embedded in it, while in its upper part it is covered 
by the less vascular but more specialized olfactory membrane. 
Near the front of the lower part of the septum a slight opening 
into a short blind tube, which runs upward and backward, may 
sometimes be found; this is the vestigial remnant of " Jacobson's 
organ," which will be noticed later. The supporting framework 
of the septum is made up of ethmoid above, vomer below, and 
the " septal cartilage " in front. The outer wall of each nasal 
cavity is divided into three meatus by the overhanging turbinated 

7 8 


bones (see fig. 2). Above the superior turbinated is a space 
between it and the roof known as the " recessus spheno-ethmoi- 
dalis," into the back of which the " sphenoidal air sinus " opens. 
Between the superior and middle turbinated bones is the 
" superior meatus," containing the openings of the " posterior 
ethmoidal air cells," while between the middle and inferior 
turbinateds is the "middle meatus," which is the largest of the 
three and contains a rounded elevation known as the " bulla 
ethmoidalis." Above and behind this is often an opening for 
the " middle ethmoidal cells," while below and in front a deep 
sickle-shaped gutter runs, the " hiatus semilunaris," which 
communicates above with the " frontal air sinus " and below 
with the opening into the " antrum of Highmore " or " maxillary 
antrum." So deep is this hiatus semilunaris that if, in the dead 
subject, water is poured into the frontal sinus it all passes into, the 

Frontal air-sinus. 
Bristle passed 

Opening of middle ethmoidal cells 

Openings of posterior ethmoidal cells 
Recessus spheno-ethmoidalis 

Sphenoidal air-sinus 

From R. Howden, in Cunningham's Text-Book of Anatomy. 

Fig. 2. — View of the Outer Wall of the Nose — the Turbinated Bones having been removed. 

6. Opening of anterior ethmoidal cells. 

7. Cut edge of superior turbinated bone. 
Cut edge of middle turbinated bone. 


Opening of antrum of Highmore. 

Hiatus semilunaris. 

Bulla ethmoidalis. 

Agger nasi. 

9. Pharyngeal orifice of Eustachian tube. 

antrum and none escapes through the nostrils until that cavity 
is full. The passage from the frontal sinus to the hiatus semi- 
lunaris is known as the " infundibulum," and into this open the 
" anterior ethmoidal cells," so that the antrum acts as a sink 
for the secretion of these cells and of the frontal sinus. Running 
downward and forward from the front of the middle turbinated 
bone is a curved ridge known as the " agger nasi," which forms 
the anterior boundary of a slightly depressed area called the 
" atrium." 

The " inferior meatus" is below the inferior turbinated bone, 
and, when that is lifted up, the valvular opening of the nasal 
duct (see Eye) is seen. In front of the inferior meatus there is a 
depression just above the nostril which is lined with skin instead 
of mucous membrane and from which short hairs grow; this is 
called the " vestibule." The roof of the nose is very narrow, 
and here the olfactory nerves pass in through the cribriform 
plate. The floor is a good deal wider so that a coronal section 
through each nasal cavity has roughly the appearance of a right- 
angled triangle. The anterior wall is formed by the nasal bones 
and the upper and lower lateral cartilages, while posteriorly 

the sphenoidal turbinated bone separates the nasal cavity from 
the sphenoidal sinus above, and below there is an opening into 
the naso-pharynx known as the " posterior nasal aperture " 
or " choana." The mucous membrane of the outer wall is 
characteristic of the respiratory tract as high as the superior 
turbinated bone; it is ciliated all over and very vascular where 
it covers the inferior turbinated : superficial to and above the 
superior turbinated the olfactory tract is reached and the 
specialized olfactory epithelium begins. 


In the third week of intra-uterine life two pits make their appear- 
ance on the under side of the front of the head, and are known as the 
olfactory or nasal pits; they are the first appearance of the true 
olfactory region of the nose, and some of their epithelial lining cells 
send off axons (see Nervous System) which arborize with the 
dendrites of the cells of the olfactory lobe 
of the brain and so form the olfactory 
nerves (see J. Disse, Anat. Hefte, 1897; 
also P. Anat. Soc, J. Anat. and Phys., 
1897, p. 12). Between the olfactory pits 
the broad median fronto-nasal process 
grows down from the forehead region to 
form the dorsum of the nose (see fig. 3), 
and the anterior part of the nasal septum, 
while outside them the lateral nasal pro- 
cesses grow down, and later on meet the 
maxillary processes from the first visceral 
arch. In this way the nasal cavities are 
formed, but for some time they are 
separated from the mouth by a thin bucco- 
nasal membrane which eventually is broken 
through; after this the mouth and nose 
are one cavity until the formation of the 
palate in the third month (see Mouth and 
Salivary Glands). In the third month 
Jacobson's organ may be seen as a well- 
marked tube lined with respiratory mucous 
membrane and running upward and back- 
ward, close to the septum, from its orifice, 
which is just above the foramen of Stensen 
in the anterior palatine canal. In man it 
never has any connexion with the olfactory 
membrane or olfactory nerves. Internally 
and below it is surrounded by a delicate 
sheet of cartilage, which is distinct from 
that of the nasal septum. No explana- 
tion of the function of Jacobson's organ in 
man is known, and it is probably entirely 
atavistic. At birth the nasal cavities are 
very shallow from above downward, but 
they rapidly deepen till the age of puberty. 
The external nose at birth projects very 
little from the plane of the face except at 
the tip, the button-like shape of which in 
babies is well known. In the second and 
third year the bridge becomes more promi- 
nent, but after puberty the nasal bones tend 
to tilt upward at their lower ends to form 
the eminence which is seen at its best in 
the Roman nose. (For further details see 
Quain's Anatomy, vol. i., London, 1908.) 

Comparative Anatomy. 
In Amphioxus among the Acrania there is a ciliated pit above the 
anterior end of the central nervous system, which is probably a rudi- 
ment of an unpaired olfactory organ. In the Cyclostomata (lampreys 
and hags) the pit is at first ventral, but later becomes dorsal and 
shares a common opening with the pituitary invagination. It 
furthermore becomes divided internally into two lateral halves. 
In fishes there are also two lateral pits, the nostrils of which open 
sometimes, as in the elasmobranchs (sharks and rays), on to the 
ventral surface of the snout, and sometimes, as in the higher fishes, 
on to the dorsal surface. Up to this stage the olfactory organs are 
mere pits, but in the Dipnoi (mud-fish) an opening is established 
from them into the front of the roof of the mouth, and so they serve 
as respiratory passages as well as organs for the sense of smell. 
In the higher Amphibia the nasal organ becomes included in the skull 
and respiratory and olfactory parts are distinguished. In this class, 
too, turbinal ingrowths are found, and the naso-lachrymal duct 
appears. In the lizards, among the Reptilia, the olfactory and 
respiratory parts are very distinct, the latter being lined only by 
stratified epithelium unconnected with the olfactory nerves. There 
is one true turbinal bone growing from the outer wall, and close to 
this is a large nasal gland. In crocodiles the hard palate is formed, 
and there is henceforward a considerable distance between the open- 
ings of the external and internal nares. In this order, too (Crocodilia) 

Cut edge of inferior turbinated bone 

Bristle passed into opening of nasal duct 



air sinuses are first found extending from the olfactory cavities 
into the skull-bones. The birds' arrangement is very like that of the 
reptiles; olfactory and respiratory chambers are present, and into 
the latter projects the true turbinal, though there is a pseudo-turbinal 
in the upper or olfactory chamber. In mammals the olfactory 
chamber of the nose is variously developed; most of them are 
" macrosmatic," and have a large area of olfactory mucous mem- 
brane ; some, like the seals, whalebone whales, monkeys and man are 
" microsmatic," while the toothed whales have the olfactory region 
practically suppressed in the adult, and are said to be " anosrr.atic." 
There are generally five turbinal bones in macrosmatic mammals, 
so that man has a reduced number. The lowest of the series or 
" maxillo-turbinal " is the equivalent of the single true turbinal bone 

P. Zocl. Soc. (1891). and ia the kangaroo, J. Anat. and Phys.,vo\. 
26 (1891); also G. Eliot Smith on Jacobson's organ, Anatorn. 
Anzeiger, xi. Band No. 6 (1895). For general literature on the 
comparative anatomy of the olfactory system up to 1906, see 
R. Wiedersheim's Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates, translated 
and adapted by W. N. Parker (London, 1907). (F. G. P.) 

Diseases of Olfactory System 
External Affections and Injuries of the Nose. — Acne rosacea is one 
of the most frequent nasal skin affections. In an early stage it 
consists of dilatation or congestion of the capillaries, and later of a 
hypertrophy of the sebaceous follicles. This may be accompanied 
by the formation of pustules. In an exaggerated stage the sebaceous 

of birds and reptiles, and in most mammals is a double scroll, one I glands become overgrown, forming large protuberant nodular masses 

over which the dilated capillaries are 
plainly visible. This condition is termed 




Mesial nasal 


lipoma nasi (rhinophynia or hammer 
nose), though there is no increase in fatty 
tissue. Nasal acne occurs mainly in 
dyspeptics and tea drinkers, and the 
more advanced condition, lipoma nasi, 
chiefly in elderly men addicted to al- 
coholism. The treatment of acne is the 
removal of the dyspepsia with the local 
application of sulphur ointment or of a 
lotion of perchloride of mercury. Un- 
sightly capillaries may be destroyed by an 
application of the galvano-cautery or by 
electrolysis. Free dissection of the re- 
dundant tissue from around the nasal 
cartilages is necessary in lipoma nasi, 
skin being grafted on to the raw surface. 
The nasal bones are frequently frac- 
tured as the result of direct violence, as 
by a blow from a cricket ball or stick. 
The fracture is usually transverse, and 
may be communicated, leading to much 
deformity if left untreated. The treat- 
ment is the immediate reposition of the 
bony fragments. The old-standing cases 
where there is considerable depression 
Cerebral wiring the fragments may be resorted to. 
hemi- In numerous cases the subcutaneous 
sphere injection of paraffin may improve the 
shape of the organ. Deflection of the 
septum may also result from similar 
injuries, and lateral displacement may 
cause subsequent nasal obstruction and 




Olfactory rec iuire the straightening of the septum. 

.. * I £i01/-\T»C3 1fl-irAl»7inrf />An«lHavnrt1n 1.-11".,-. n f 




From A. H. Young and A. Robinson, in Cunningham's Text-Book of Anatomy. 

Fig. 3. 

I. Side view of the head of human embryo 
about 27 days old, showing the olfactory 
pit and the visceral arches and clefts 
(from His). 
II. Transverse section through the head of 
an embryo, showing the relation of the 
olfactory pits to the forebrain and to 
the roof of the stomatodaeal space. 
III. Head of human embryo about 29 days 
old, showing the division of the lower 
part of the mesial frontal process into 

Lesions involving considerable loss of 
substance due to injury or to syphilitic or 
tuberculous disease have led to many 
methods being devised to supply the 
Globular missing part. In the Indian method of 
process rhinoplasty a flap is cut from the fore- 
head, to which it is left attached by a 
pedicle; the flap is then turned down- 
wards to cover the missing portion of the 
nose; when the parts have united, the 
pedicle is cut through. In the Italian 

leaf turning upward and the other down. Jacobson's organ first 
appears in amphibians, where it is found as an anteroposterior 
gutter in the floor of the nasal cavity, sometimes being close to the 
septum, at other times far away, though the former position is the 
more primitive. In reptiles the roof of the gutter closes in on each 
side, and a tube is formed lying below and internal to the nasal 
cavity, opening anteriorly into the mouth and ending by a blind 
extremity, posteriorly to which branches of the olfactory and tri- 
geminal nerves are distributed. In the higher reptiles (crocodiles 
and chelonians) the organ is suppressed in the adult, and the same 
applies to birds; but in the lower mammals, especially the mono- 
tremes, it is very well developed, and is enclosed in a cartilaginous 
sheath, from which a turbinal process projects into its interior. 
In other mammals, with the exception of the Primates and perhaps 
the Chiroptera, the organ is quite distinct, though even in man, 
as has been shown, its presence can be demonstrated in the embryo. 
The special opening through which it communicates with the mouth 
is the foramen of Stensen in the anterior palatine canal. 

See J. Symington on the organ of Jacobson in the Ornithorynchus, 

the two globular processes, the inter- _ _ 

vention of the olfactory pits between operation devised by fagliacotius (TaglTa- 
the_ mesial and lateral nasal processes, cozzi), a flap was taken from the patient's 
and the approximation of the maxillary arm, the arm being kept fixed to the 
and lateral nasal processes, which, how- head until the flap has united, 
ever, are separated by the oculo-nasal Diseases of the Interior of the Nose. — 
_ sulcus (from His). Epistaxis or bleeding of the nose may 

IV. Transverse section of head of embryo, arise from many conditions. It is par- 
showing the deepening of the olfactory ticularly common in young girls at the 
pits and their relation to the hemi- time of puberty, being a form of vicarious 
sphere vesicles of the fore-brain. menstruation. It also occurs in cerebral 

congestion, heart disease, scurvy, haemo- 
phylia, or as a sign of local disease. The treatment will depend 
upon the cause. In patients with high arterial tension epistaxis 
may be of direct benefit. In other cases rest on the back may be 
tried, with the local application of tanno-gallic acid or hazelin or 
adrenalin, either in a spray or on absorbent cotton. If these should 
not stop the haemorrhage the nose must be plugged. In cases which 
arise from specific forms of ulceration, such as tuberculosis and 
syphilis, the area should be rendered anaesthetic by cocaine, the 
bleeding points found, and the vessels obliteu ted by the electro- 
cautery. Polypi in the nasal passages are also a frequent cause of 

Rhinitis, or inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose, 
occurs both in acute and chronic forms. Of the acute 'he simple 
catarrhal form termed " coryza " forms the widely known ' cold in 
the head." The tendency of acute coryza to affect entire families, 
and to be communicable from one person to another, points to its 
infectious nature, though probably some predisposing condition of 
health is necessary for its development. It is considered proved 
that the symptoms are due to the presence and development of 



several distinct micro-organisms. Of these flhe most important is the 
micrococcus catarrhalis described by Martin Kirchner in 1890, but 
Friedlander's pneumo-bacillus has also been found. In ordinary 
cases of coryza, sneezing, congestion of the nasal mucous membrane 
and a profuse watery discharge usher in the attack, and the inflam- 
mation may extend to the pharynx, larynx and trachea, blocking 
of the Eustachian tube producing a temporary deafness. Later the 
discharge may become muco-purulent. One attack of coryza 
conveys no immunity from subsequent attacks and some persons 
seem particularly susceptible. The treatment is directed towards 
increasing the action of the kidneys, skin and bowels, A brisk 
mercurial purgative is indicated, and salicin and aspirin are useful 
in many cases. Considerable relief may be obtained by washing 
out the nasal cavities several times a day with a warm lotion con- 
taining boric acid. Those who are unusually prone to catch cold 
should habituate themselves to an open air life by day and an open 
window by night, adenoids or enlarged tonsils should be removed, 
and the diet should be modified so as not to contain an excess of 
starchy foods. An acute croupous inflammation occasionally attacks 
the nasal mucous membrane when the Klebs-Loffler bacillus is not 
present, but the nasal membrane often shares in true diphtheria, 
or it may be the only organ to be infected thereby. The diagnosis is 
of course bacteriological. 

As a result of frequent catarrhal attacks the nasal mucous mem- 
brane may become the seat of a chronic rhinitis in which the turbinals 
become swollen with oedema, and congested and finally thickened 
by increase in the fibrous tissue. There is an excessive muco-purulent 
discharge, and the patient is unable to breathe through the nose; 
deafness and adenoid vegetations may be the result. In the early 
stages the nasal cavity should be washed out night and morning 
with an alkaline lotion, such as bicarbonate of soda, or a caustic, 
such as chromic acid, should be used in swabbing over the affected 
part. The application of the galvano-cautery here is useful, but 
when the areas are much hypertrophied the hypertrophied portion 
of the inferior turbinals may have to be removed under cocaine. 
A special form of recurrent hypertrophic rhinitis is hay fever ( 

Rhinitis Sicca is a form of chronic rhinitis in which there is but 
little discharge, crusts or scabs which may be difficult to remove 
forming in the nasal cavities; the pharynx may be also affected. 

Atrophic rhinitis or ozaena usually attacks children and young 
adults, following on measles or scarlet fever. Crusts form, and favour 
the retention of the purulent discharge. The disease may extend to 
the nasal sinuses and septic absorption take place. The treatment 
is to keep the nasal cavity clean by irrigation with solution of per- 
manganate of potash or carbolic acid lotion, the nose then being 
wiped and smeared with lanolin or partially plugged with a tampon 
of cotton-wool, the process being repeated at frequent intervals, the 
general treatment being that for anaemia. Disease of the middle 
turbinated bone is also a cause of an offensive nasal discharge, and 
rhinitis occurring in infants gives rise to the obstructed respiration 
known as " the snuffles." 

Three forms of nasal polypi are described, the mucous, the fibrous 
and the malignant. The general symptoms of nasal polypus are a 
feeling of stuffiness in one or both nostrils, inability to breathe down 
the nose and a thin watery discharge. A nasal tone of voice, together 
with cough and asthma, may be present, or there may be partial 
or complete loss of the sense of smell (anosmia). The treatment of 
mucous polypi is their removal by the forceps or the snare, the base 
of the growth being afterwards carefully examined and cauterized 
with the galvano-cautery. 

Fibrous polypi are usually very vascular, and may be a cause of 
severe epistaxis as well as of obstruction of breathing, " dead voice,'' 
sleepiness and deafness. The increasing growth may lead to ex- 
pansion of the bridge of the nose and deformity of the facial bones, 
known as '' frog-face." The tendency of fibrous polypi to take on 
malignant sarcomatous characters is specially noticeable. Extir- 
pation of the growth as soon as its nature is recognized is therefore 
urgently demanded. 

The chief diseases of the nasal septum are abscesses, due to the 
breaking down of haematomata, syphilitic gummata (leading to deep 
excavation and bony destruction), tuberculous disease in which 
a small yellowish grey ulcer forms and what is known as perforating 
ulcer of the septum, which is met with just within the nostril. 
The latter tends to run a chronic course, and the detachment of one 
of its crusts may cause epistaxis. Rhinoscleroma was first described 
by F. Hebra in 1870, and is endemic in Russian Poland, Galicia and 
Hungary, but is unknown in England, except amongst alien immi- 
grants. The infecting organism is a specific bacillus, and the disease 
starts as a chronic smooth painless obstruction with the formation 
of dense plate-like masses of tissue of stony hardness. Treatment 
other than that of excision of the masses has proved useless, 
though the recent plan of introduction of the injection of a 
vaccine of the bacillus may in future modify the progress of the 

The accessory sinuses of the nose are also prone to disease. The 
maxillary antrum may become filled with muco-pus, forming an 
empyema, pus escaping intermittently by way of the nose. The 
condition causes pain and swelling, and may require the irrigation 
and drainage of the antrum. The frontal sinuses may become filled 
with mucous, owing to the swelling of the nasal mucous membrane 

over the middle turbinated bone, or an acute inflammation may 
spread to the frontal sinuses, giving rise to an empyema in that 
locality. There is severe frontal pain, and in some cases a fulness 
on the forehead over the affected side, the pus often pointing in this 
site, or there may be a discharge of pus through the nose. The 
treatment is that of incision and irrigation of the sinus (in some cases 
scraping out of the sinus) and the re-establishment of communication 
with the nose, with free drainage. The ethmoidal and sphenoidal 
sinuses are also frequently the site of empyemata. giving rise to pain 
in the orbit and the back of the nose, and a discharge into the naso- 
pharynx. In the case of the ethmoidal sinus it may give rise to 
exophthalmus and to strabismus (squint), with the formation of a 
tumour at the inner wall of the orbit and fever and delirium at night. 
In the young the condition may become rapidly fatal. Suppuration 
in the sphenoidal sinus may lead to blindness from involvement of 
the sheath of the optic nerve, and dangerous complications such as 
septic basal meningitis and thrombosis of the cavernous sinus may 
occur. Acute ethmoiditis and sphenoiditis are serious conditions 
demanding immediate surgical intervention. (H. L. H.) 

OLGA, wife of Igor, prince of Kiev, and afterwards (from 945) 
regent for Sviatoslav her son, was baptized at Constantinople 
about 955 and died about 969. She was afterwards canonized in 
the Russian church, and is now commemorated on the nth of 

0L6IERD (d. 1377), grand-duke of Lithuania, was one of the 
seven sons of Gedymin, grand-duke of Lithuania, among whom 
on his death in 134 1 he divided his domains, leaving the youngest, 
Yavnuty, in possession of the capital, Wilna, with a nominal 
priority. With the aid of his brother Kiejstut, Olgierd in 1345 
drove out the incapable Yavnuty and declared himself grand- 
duke. The two and thirty years of his reign (1345-1377) were 
devoted to the development and extension of Lithuania, and he 
lived to make it one of the greatest states in Europe. Two 
factors contributed to produce this result, the extraordinary 
political sagacity of Olgierd and the life-long devotion of his 
brother Kiejstut. The Teutonic knights in the north and the 
Tatar hordes in the south were equally bent on the subjection 
of Lithuania, while Olgierd's eastern and western neighbours, 
Muscovy and Poland, were far more frequently hostile competitors 
than serviceable allies. Nevertheless, Olgierd not only succeeded 
in holding his own, but acquired influence and territory at the 
expense of hoth Muscovy and the Tatars, and extended the 
borders of Lithuania to the shores of the Black Sea. The principal 
efforts of this eminent empire-maker were directed to securing 
those of the Russian lands which had formed part of the ancient 
grand-duchy of Kiev. He procured the election of his son 
Andrew as prince of Pskov, and a powerful minority of the citizens 
of the republic of Novgorod held the balance in his favour against 
the Muscovite influence, but his ascendancy in both these 
commercial centres was at the best precarious. On the other 
hand he acquired permanently the important principalities of 
Smolensk and Bryansk in central Russia. His relations with 
the grand-dukes of Muscovy were friendly on the whole, and 
twice he married orthodox Russian princesses; but this did not 
prevent him from besieging Moscow in 1368 and again in 1372, 
both times unsuccessfully. Olgierd's most memorable feat was 
his great victory over the Tatars at Siniya Vodui on the Bug in 
1362, which practically broke up the great Kipchak horde and 
compelled the khan to migrate still farther south and establish his 
headquarters for the future in the Crimea. Indeed, but for the 
unceasing simultaneous struggle with the Teutonic knights, 
the burden of which was heroically borne by Kiejstut, Russian 
historians frankly admit that Lithuania, not Muscovy, must have 
become the dominant power of eastern Europe. Olgierd died 
in 1377, accepting both Christianity and the tonsure shortly 
before his death. His son Jagiello ultimately ascended the 
Polish throne, and was the founder of the dynasty which ruled 
Poland for nearly 200 years. 

See Kazimierz Stadnicki, The Sons of Gedymin (Pol.) (Lemberg, 
1849-1853); Vladimir Bonifatevich Antonovich, Monograph on the 
History of Western Russia (Rus.), vol. i. (Kiev, 1885). (R. N. B.) 

OLHAO, a seaport of southern Portugal, in the district of 
Faro; 5 m. E. of Faro, on the Atlantic coast. Pop. (1900) 10,009. 
Olhao has a good harbour at the head of the Barra Nova, a deep 
channel among the sandy islands which fringe the coast. Wine, 
fruit, cork, baskets and sumach are exported in small coasting 



vessels; there are important sardine and tunny fisheries; and 
boats, sails and cordage are manufactured. 

OLIGARCHY (Gr. 6X1701, few, apxn, rule), in political philo- 
sophy, the term applied to a government exercised by a relatively 
small number of the members of a community. It is thus the 
appropriate term for what is now generally known as " aristo- 
cracy " (?.».). The meaning of the terms has substantially 
altered since Plato's day, for in the Republic " oligarchy " 
meant the rule of the wealthy, and " aristocracy " that of the 
really best people. 

OLIGOCENE SYSTEM (from the Gr. 6X1705, few, and kmvos, 
recent) , in geology, the name given to the second division of the 
older Tertiary rocks, viz. those which occur above the Eocene 
and below the Miocene strata. These rocks were originally classed 
by Sir C. Lyell as " older Miocene," the term Oligocene being 
proposed by H. E. Beyrich in 1854 and again in 1858. Following 
A. de Lapparent, the Oligocene is here regarded as divisible 
into two stages, an upper one, the Etampian (from Etampes), 
equivalent to the Rupelian of A. Dumont (1849), and a lower 
one, the Sannoisian (from Sannois near Paris), equivalent to 
the Tongrian (from Tongris in Limburg) of Dumont (1859). 
This lower division is the Ligurian of some authors, and corre- 
sponds with the Lattorfian (Latdorf) of K. Mayer in north 
Germany; it is in part the equivalent of the older term Ludian 
of de Lapparent. It should be pointed out that several authors 
retain the Aquitanian stage (see Miocene) at the top of the 
Oligocene, but there are sufficiently good reasons for removing 
it to the younger system. 

The Oligocene deposits are of fresh-water, brackish, marine 
and terrestrial origin; they include soft sands, sandstones, grits, 
marls, shales, limestones, conglomerates and lignites. The 
geographical aspect of Europe during this period is indicated 
on the accompanying map. Here and there, as in N. Germany, 

In the early nart of the 

Oligocene Period 

I \ jan<tor undifferentiate! area 
li-,-j'jt '°8°»"° / 

After LJjigureqt 

Emery Walker sc. 

the sea gained ground that had been unoccupied by Eocene 
waters, but important changes, associated with the continuation 
of elevatory processes in the Pyrenees and Alps which had 
begun in the preceding period, were in progress, and a general 
relative uplifting took place which caused much of the Eocene 
sea floor to be occupied at this time by lake basins and lagoons. 
The movements, however, were not all of a negative character 
as regards the water areas, for oscillations were evidently 
frequent, and subsidence must have been considerable in some 
regions to admit of the accumulation of the great thickness of 
material found deposited there. Perhaps the most striking 
change from Eocene topography in Europe is to be seen in the 
extension of the Oligocene sea over North Germany, whence 
it extended eastward through Poland and Russia to the Aral- 
Caspian region, communicating thence with Arctic waters by 
way of a Ural depression. The Asian extension of the central 
mediterranean sea appears to have begun to be limited. It was 
later in the period when the wide-spread emersion set in. 

In Britain Oligocene formations are found only in the Hampshire 
Basin and the Isle of Wight; from the admixture of fresh-water, 
marine and estuarine deposits, E. Forbes named these the " Fluvio- 
marine series." The following are the more important subdivisions, 
in descending order: The Hamstead (Hampstead) beds, marine at 
the top, with Ostrea callifera, Natica, &c, estuarine and fresh- 
water below, with Unto, Viviparus and the remains of crocodiles, 
turtles and mammals. The Bembridge marls, fresh-water, estuarine 
and marine, resting upon the Bembridge limestone, with many 
fresh-water fossils such as Limnaea, Planorbis, Chara, large land 
snails, Amphidromus, Helix, Glandina, and many insects and plant 
leaves. The Osborne beds, marls, clays and limestones, with Unio, 
Limnaea, &c. The Headon beds (upper), fresh- water clays, marls 
and limestones (middle), brackish and marine, more sandy (lower), 
brackish and fresh-water clays, marls, tufaceous limestones and 
sandstones. The clays and sands of the Bovey Basin in Devonshire 
were formerly classed as Miocene, but they are now regarded by 
C. Reid as Eocene on the evidence of the plant remains, though there 
is still a possibility that they may be found to be of Oligocene age. 

In France the best-known tract of Oligocene rocks rests in the 
Paris basin in close relationship with the underlying Eocene. These 
rocks include the first and second gypsum beds, the source of " plaster 
of Paris"; at Montmartre the first or upper bed is 20 metres in 
thickness, and some of the beds contain siliceous nodules (fusils) 
and numerous mammalian remains. Above the gypsum beds is the 
travertine of Champigny-sur-Marne, a series of blue and white marls 
(supra-gypseous marls), followed by the " glaises verts " or greenish 
marls. At the top of the lower Oligocene of this district is the 
lacustrine " calcaire de Brie " or middle travertine, which at Ferte- 
sous-Jouane is exploited for millstones; this is associated with the 
Fontainebleau limestone, which at Chateau-Landon and Souppes is 
sufficiently compact to form an important building stone, used in the 
Arc de Tnomphe and other structures in Paris. The upper Oligocene 
of Paris begins with the marnes d huitres, followed by the brackish 
and fresh-water molasse of Etrechy, and a series of sandy beds, of 
which the best known are those of Fontainebleau, fitampes and 
Ormoy; in these occur the groups of calcite crystals, charged with 
sand, familiar in all mineral collections. Elsewhere in France similar 
mixed marine, fresh-water and brackish beds are found: in Aqui- 
taine there are marine and lacustrine marls, limestones and molasse; 
marine beds occur at Biarritz; lacustrine and fresh-water marls and 
limestones with lignite appear in the sub-Pyrenees; in Provence 
there are brackish red clays, conglomerates and lignites, with 
limestones in the upper parts; and in Limagne there are mottled 
sands, arkoses, clays and fresh-water limestones. In the Jura region 
and on the borders of the central massif a peculiar group of deposits, 
the terrain sidSrolithique, is found in beds and in pockets in Jurassic 
limestones. Sometimes this deposit consists of red clay (bolus) with 
nests of pisolitic iron, as in Jura and Franche-comte, Alsace, &c. ; 
occasionally, as in Bourgogne, Berry, the valley of the Aubois, 
Chatillon, it is made up of a breccia or conglomerate of Jurassic 
pebbles cemented with limonite and carbonate of lime or silica 
(an intimate mixture of marl and iron ore in these districts is called 
" castillard "). At Quercy the cementing material is phosphate of 
lime derived from the bones of mammals (Adapis, Necrolemur, 
Palaeothcrium, Xiphodon, &c), which are so numerous that it has 
been suggested that these animals must have been suffocated by 
gaseous emanations. Similar ferruginous deposits occur in South 

In the Alpine region the Oligocene rocks assume the character 
of the Flysch, a complex assemblage of marly and sandy shales and 
soft sandstones with calcareous cement (" macigno "). The Flysch 
phase of deposition had begun before the close of the preceding 
period, but the bulk of it belongs to the Oligocene, and is especially 
characteristic of the lower part. The Flysch may attain a very great 
thickness ; in Dauphine it is said to be 2000 metres. Obscure plant- 
like impressions are common on certain horizons of this formation, 
and have received such names as Chondrites, Fucoids, Helmin- 
thoidea. The " gres de Taveyannaz " and " Wildflysch " of Lake 
Thun contain fragments of eruptive rocks. Marine beds occur at 
Barreme, Desert, Chambery, &c, and parallel with the normal Flysch 
in the higher Alps of Vaudois is a nummulitic limestone; both 
here and near Interlaken, in the marble of Ralligstocke, calcareous 
algae are abundant. Part of the " schistes des Grisons " (" Biindner 
Schiefer ") have been regarded as of Oligocene age. In the Leman 
region the " Flysch rouge " at the foot of the Dent du Midi belongs 
to the upper part of the Flysch formation. 

In North Germany the lower Oligocene consists largely of sandy 
marls, often glauconitic ; typical localities are Egeln near Magdeburg 
and Latdorf near Bernburg; at Samland the glauconitic sand con- 
tains nodules of amber, with insects, derived from Eocene strata. 
The upper Oligocene beds, which cover a wide area, comprise the 
Stettin sands and Septarian Clay or Rupelton, marine beds tending 
to merge laterally one into another. In the Mainz basin a petroleum- 
bearing sandy marl is found at Pechelbronn and Lobsann in Alsace 
underlying a fresh-water limestone which is followed by the marine 
" Meeressand " of Alzey. Lignites (Braunkohl) are widely spread in 
this region and appear at Latdorf, Leipzig, in Westphalia and 
Mecklenburg; at Halle is a variety called pyropissite, which is 
exploited at Weissenfels for the manufacture of paraffin. 



In Belgium a sandy series (Wemmelian, Asschian, Henisian), 
mainly of brackish-water origin, is succeeded by the marine sands of 
Bergh (with the clay of Boom), which pass up through the inferior 
sands of Bolderberg into the Miocene In Switzerland, beyond the 
limits of the Flysch, nearer the Alpine massif, is a belt of grits, 
limestones and clays in an uncompacted condition, to which the name 
" molasse " is usually given; mixed with the molasse is an inconstant 
conglomeratic littoral formation, called Nagelfluh. The molasse 
occurs also in Bavaria, where it is several thousand feet thick and 
contains lignites. Oligocene deposits occur in the Carpathian region 
and Tirol; as Flysch and brackish and lacustrine beds with lignite 
in Klausenburg, lignites at Haring in Tirol. In the Spanish Pyrenees 
they are well developed; in the Apennines the scaly clays (" argille 
scagliose ") are of this age; while in Calabria they are represented 
by thick conglomerates and Flysch. Flysch appears also in Dalmatia 
and Istria (where it is called " tassello ") and in North Bosnia, 
where it contains marine limestones. Lignites are found at Sotzka 
and Styria, marine beds in the Balkan peninsula, glauconitic sands 
prevail in South Russia, Flysch with sands and grits in the Caucasus, 
while marine deposits also occupy the Aral-Caspian region and Ar- 
menia, and are to be traced into Persia. Oligocene rocks are known 
in North Africa, Algeria, Tunis and Egypt, with the silicified trees 
and basalt sheets north of the Fayum. In North America the rocks 
of this period have not been very clearly differentiated, but they 
may possibly be represented by the White river beds of S. Dakota, 
the white and blue marls of Jackson on the Mississippi, the " Jack- 
sonian " white limestone of Alabama, the limestone of Ocala in 
Florida, certain lacustrine clays in the Uinta basin, and by the rib- 
band shales with asphalt and petroleum in the coastal range of 
California. In South America and the Antilles upper Oligocene is 
found, and the lignite beds of Coronel and Lota in Chile and in the 
Straits of Magellan may be of this age; in Patagonia are the lower 
Oligocene marine beds (" Patagonian ") and beds with mammalian 
remains. In New Zealand the Oamaru series of J. Hutton is regarded 
as Oligocene ; at its base are interstiatified basic volcanic rocks. 

A correlation of Oligocene strata is summarized in the following 
table : — 

in the Eocene seas (Coelopleurus, Echinolampus, Clypeaster, Scutella) 
Corals were abundant, and nummulites still continued till near the 
close of the period, but they were diminished in size. 

References.—" Geology of the Isle of Wight," Mem. Geol 
Survey (2nd ed. 1889); A. von Koenen, Abhand. geol. Specialkart 
Preuss. x. (1889-1894); M. Vollest, Der Braunkohlenbergbaum 
(Halle, 1889); E. van den Brocek, " Materiaux pour l'etude de 
1 Oligocene beige," Bull. Soc. Belg. Geol. (1894); also the works of 
O. Heer, H Filhol, G. Vasseur, H. F. Osborn, A. Gaudry, H. Douville 
R. B. Newton, H. Dall, M. Cossmann, G. Lambert, &c, and the 
article Flysch. q_ a. H.) 

OLIGOCLASE, a rock-forming mineral belonging to the 
plagioclase (q.v.) division of the felspars. In chemical com- 
position and in its crystallographical and physical characters 
it is intermediate between albite (NaAlSi 3 8 ) and anorthite 
(CaAl 2 Si20 8 ), being an isomorphous mixture of three to six 
molecules of the former with one of the latter. It is thus a soda- 
lime felspar crystallizing in the anorthic system. Varieties 
intermediate between oligoclase and albite are known as oligo- 
clase-albite. The name oligoclase was given by A. Breithaupt 
in 1826 from the Gr. 6X1705, little, and kXcjlv, to break, because the 
mineral was thought to have a less perfect cleavage than albite. 
It had previously been recognized as a distinct species by J. J. 
Berzelius in 1824, and was named by him soda-spodumene 
(Natron -spodumen), because of its resemblance in appearance 
to spodumene. The hardness is 6| and the sp. gr. 2-65-2-67. 
In colour it is usually whitish, with shades of grey, green or red. 
Perfectly colourless and transparent glassy material found at 
Bakersville in North Carolina has occasionally been faceted as 
a gem-stone. Another variety more frequently used as a gem- 
stone is the aventurine-felspar or " sun-stone " (q.v.) found as 
reddish cleavage masses in gneiss at Tvedestrand in southern 

Oligocene System 8. 


Paris Basin. 


North German Region. 

Other Localities. 

Alps and S. 


•if 3,| 

S ~ 

Hamstead Beds. 

Sands and sandstones of 
Ormoy, Fontainebleau and 

Sands of Morigny, Falun of 
Jeurre, Oyster marJs. 
Molasse of Etrechy. 

Lower sands of 

Sands of Bergh 

Clay of Boom. 

Septarian Clay, 

. or 


Stettin sands. 

Cyrena marls of Mainz. 

Lignites of Haring, 

Gypsiferous limestone of Aix, 


Lower marine Molasse of 



" I i 


1 -a 

i a 

s >> 

3 Cn 

Bembridge Beds. 
Osborne Beds. 

Headon Beds. 

Limestone of Brie, 
marine beds of Sannois, 
"Glaises vertes," and 

Cyrene marls. 

Supragypseous marls, 

limestones of Champigny, 

"First" and "Second" 

masses of gypsum. 

Sands of Vieux- Jones. 

Clays of Henis. 

Sands of Grimmertingen. 

Sands of Wemmel. 

Clays of Egeln and 


Glauconitic sands of 


Lignites of Celas 
(Languedoc) . 

Lignites of Brunstatt. 

Marls of Priabona, 
limestones of Crosara. 

The land flora of this period was a rich one consisting largely of 
evergreens with characters akin to those of tropical India and 
Australia and subtropical America. Sequoias, sabal palms, ferns, 
cinnamon-trees, gum-trees, oaks, figs, laurels and willows were 
common. Chara is a common fossil in the fresh-water beds. The 
most interesting feature of the land fauna was undoubtedly the 
astonishing variety of mammalians, especially the long series from 
the White river beds and others in the interior of North America. 
Pachyderms were very numerous. Many of the mammals were of 
mixed types, Hyaenodon (between marsupials and placentals), 
Adapts (between pachyderms and lemurs), and many were clearly 
the forerunners of living genera. Rhinocerids were represented in 
the upper Oligocene by the hornless Aceratherium; Palaeomastodon 
and Arsinoitherium, from Egypt are early proboscidian forms 
which may have lived in this period; Anchitherium, Anchippus, &c, 
were forerunners of the horse. Falaeolherium, Anthracotherium, 
Palaeogale, Steneofiber, Cynodictis, Dinictis, Ictops, Palaeolagus, 
Sciurus, Colodon, Hyopotamus, Oreodon, Poebrotherium, Protoceras, 
Hyperlragulus and the gigantic Titanotherids (Titanotherium, 
Brontotherium, &c.) are some of the important genera, representatives 
of most of the modern groups, including carnivores (Canidae and 
Felidae), insectivores, rodents, ruminants, camels. Tortoises were 
abundant, and the genus Rana made its appearance. Rays and dog- 
fish were the dominant marine fish; logoonal brackish-water fish 
are represented by Prolebias, Smerdis, &c. Insects abounded and 
arachnids were rapidly developing. Gasteropods were increasing in 
importance, most of the genera still existing (Cerithium, Potamides, 
Melania, large Naticas, Pleurolomaria, Voluta, Turritella, Rostellaria, 
Pyrula). Cephalopods, on the other hand, show a falling off. 
Pelecypods include the genera Cardita, PeUunculus, Lucina, Ostrea, 
Cyrena, Cytherea. Bryozoa were very abundant (Membranipora, 
Lepralia, Hornera, Idmonea). Echinoids were less numerous than 

Norway; this presents a brilliant red metallic glitter, due to the 
presence of numerous small scales of haematite or gothite enclosed 
in the felspar. 

Oligoclase occurs, often accompanying orthoclase, as a con- 
stituent of igneous rocks of various kinds; for instance, amongst 
plutonic rocks in granite, syenite, diorite; amongst dike-rocks 
in porphyry and diabase; and amongst volcanic rocks in andesite 
and trachyte. It also occurs in gneiss. The best developed and 
largest crystals are those found with orthoclase, quartz, epidote 
and calcite in veins in granite at Arendal in Norway. (L. J. S.) 

OLIPHANT, LAURENCE (1829-1888), British author, son 
of Anthony Oliphant (1793-1859), 1 was born at Cape Town. 

1 The family to which Oliphant belonged is old and famous in 
Scottish history. Sir Laurence Oliphant of Aberdalgie, Perthshire, 
who was created a lord of the Scottish parliament before 1458, was 
descended from Sir William Oliphant of Aberdalgie and on the 
female side from King Robert the Bruce. Sir William (d. 1329) is 
renowned for his brave defence of Stirling castle against Edward I. 
in 1304, Sir Laurence was sent to conclude a treaty with England 
in 1484; he he'ped to establish the young king James IV. on his 
throne, p.nd he died about 1500. His son John, the 2nd lord (d. 1516), 
having lo-5t_ his son and heir, Colin, at Flodden, was succeeded 
by his grandson Laurence (d. 1566), who was taken prisoner by the 
English at the rout of Solway Moss in 1542. Laurence's son, Laur- 
ence, the 4th lord (1529-1593). was a partisan of Mary queen of 
Scots, and was succeeded by his grandson Laurence (1583-1631), 
who le't no sons when he died. The 6th lord was Patrick Oliphant, 
a descendant of the 4th lord, and the title was held by his descendants 



His father was then attorney-general in Cape Colony, but was 
soon transferred as chief justice to Ceylon. The boy's education 
was of the most desultory kind. Far the least useless portion 
of it belonged to the years 1848 and 1849, when he accompanied 
his parents on a tour on the continent of Europe. In 1851 
he accompanied Jung Bahadur from Colombo to Nepaul. He 
passed an agreeable time there, and saw enough that was new 
to enable him to write his first book, A Journey to Katmandu 
(1852). From Nepaul he returned to Ceylon and thence to 
England, dallied a little with the English bar, so far at least 
as to eat dinners at Lincoln's Inn, and then with the Scottish 
bar, so far at least as to pass an examination in Roman law. 
He was more happily inspired when he threw over his legal 
studies and went to travel in Russia. The outcome of that tour 
was his book on The Russian Shores oj the Black Sea (1853). 
Between 1853 and 1861 he was successively secretary to Lord 
Elgin during the negotiation of the Canada Reciprocity treaty 
at Washington, the companion of the duke of Newcastle on a 
visit to the Circassian coast during the Crimean War, and Lord 
Elgin's private secretary on his expedition to China. Each 
of these experiences produced a pleasant book of travel. In 
1 86 1 he was appointed first secretary in Japan, and might have 
made a successful diplomatic career if it had not been interrupted, 
almost at the outset, by a night attack on the legation, in which 
he nearly lost his life. It seems probable that he never properly 
recovered from this affair. He returned to England and resigned 
the service, and was elected to parliament in 1865 for the Stirling 

Oliphant did not show any conspicuous parliamentary ability, 
but made a great success by his vivacious and witty novel, 
Piccadilly (1870). He fell, however, under the influence of the 
spiritualist prophet Thomas Lake Harris (q.v.), who about 1861 
had organized a small community, the Brotherhood of the New 
Life, 1 which at this time was settled at Brocton on Lake Erie 
and subsequently moved to Santa Rosa in California. Harris 
obtained so strange an ascendancy over Oliphant that the latter 
left parliament in 1868, followed him to Brocton, and lived there 
the life of a farm labourer, in obedience to the imperious will of 
his spiritual guide. The cause of this painful and grotesque 
aberration has never been made quite clear. It was part of the 
Brocton regime that members of the community should be 
allowed to return into the world from time to time, to make 
money for its advantage. After three years this was permitted 
to Oliphant, who, when once more in Europe, acted as corres- 
pondent of The Times during the Franco-German War, and spent 
afterwards several years at Paris in the service of that journal. 
There he met Miss Alice le Strange, whom he married. In 1873 
he went back to Brocton, taking with him his wife and mother. 
During the years which followed he continued to be employed 
in the service of the community and its head, but on work very 
different from that with which he had been occupied on his first 
sojourn. His new work was chiefly financial, and took him much 
to New York and a good deal to England. As late as December 
1878 he continued to believe that Harris was an incarnation of 
the Deity. By that time, however, his mind was occupied with 
a large project of colonization in Palestine, and he made in 1879 
an extensive journey in that country, going also to Constantinople, 

until the death of Francis, the loth lord, in April 1748. It has 
since been claimed by several persons, but without success. 

Another member of the family was Laurence Oliphant (1691- 
1767) the Jacobite, who belonged to a branch settled at Gask in 
Perthshire. He tookpart in the rising of I7i5,and both he and his 
son Laurence (d. 1792) were actively concerned in that of 1745, 
being present at the battles of Falkirk and Culloden. After the ruin 
of the Stuart cause they escaped to France, but were afterwards 
allowed to return to Scotland. One of this Oliphant's descendants 
was Carolina, Baroness Nairne (q.v.). 

1 It should be mentioned that the unfavourable view of Harris 
taken by Oliphant's own biographer, and certainly not shaken by 
subsequent evidence, has been strongly repudiated by some who 
knew him. Mr J. Cuming Walters, for instance, in the Westminster 
Gazelle (London, July 28, 1906) defends the purity of his character. 
It is difficult to arrive at the exact truth as to Oliphant's relations 
with him, or the financial scandal which ended them; and it must 
be admitted that Oliphant himself was at least decidedly cranky. 

in the vain hope of obtaining a lease of the northern half of the 
Holy Land with a view to settling large numbers of Jews there. 
This he conceived would be an easy task from a financial point 
of view, as there were so many persons in England and America 
" anxious to fulfil the prophecies, and bring about the end of the 
world." He landed once more in England without having 
accomplished anything definite; but his wife, who had been 
banished from him for years and had been living in California, 
was allowed to rejoin him, and they went to Egypt together. 
In 1 88 1 he crossed again to America. It was on this visit that 
he became utterly disgusted with Harris, and finally split from 
him. He was at first a little afraid that his wife would not 
follow him in his renunciation of " the prophet," but this 
was not the case, and they settled themselves very agree- 
ably, with one house in the midst of the German community 
at Haifa, and another about twelve miles off at Dalieh on Mount 

It was at Haifa in 1884 that they wrote together the strange 
book called Sympneumata: Evolutionary Forces now active in 
Man, and in the next year Oliphant produced there his novel 
Masollam, which may be taken to contain its author's latest 
views with regard to the personage whom he long considered 
as " a new Avatar." One of his cleverest works, Altiora Pelo, 
had been published in 1883. In 1886 an attack of fever, caught 
on the shores of the Lake of Tiberias, resulted in the death of his 
wife, whose constitution had been undermined by the hardships 
of her American life. He was persuaded that after death he was 
in much closer relation with her than when she was still alive, 
and conceived that it was under her influence that he wrote 
the book to which he gave the name of Scientific Religion. In 
November 1887 he went to England to publish that book. 
By the Whitsuntide of 1888 he had completed it and started 
for America. There he determined to marry again, his second 
wife being a granddaughter of Robert Owen the Socialist. They 
were married at Malvern, and meant to have gone to Haifa, but 
Oliphant was taken very ill at Twickenham, and died on the 
23rd of December 1888. Although a very clever man and a 
delightful companion, full of high aspiration and noble feeling, 
Oliphant was only partially sane. In any case, his education 
was ludicrously inappropriate for a man who aspired to be an 
authority on religion and philosophy. He had gone through 
no philosophical discipline in his early life, and knew next to 
nothing of the subjects with regard to which he imagined it 
was in his power to pour a flood of new light upon the world. 
His shortcomings and eccentricities, however, did not prevent 
his being a brilliant writer and talker, and a notable figure in 
any society. 

See Mrs (Margaret) Oliphant, Memoir of the Life of Laurence 
Oliphant and of Alice Oliphant his Wife (1892). (M. G- D.) 

novelist and historical writer, daughter of Francis Wilson, was 
born at Wallyford, near Musselburgh, Midlothian, in 1828. Her 
childhood was spent at Lasswade (near Dalkeith), Glasgow 
and Liverpool. As a girl she constantly occupied herself with 
literary experiments, and in 1849 published her first novel, 
Passages in the Life of Mrs Margaret Maitland. It dealt with the 
Scottish Free Church movement, with which Mr and Mrs Wilson 
both sympathized, and had some success. This she followed 
up in 1851 with Caleb Field, and in the same year met Major 
Blackwood in Edinburgh, and was invited by him to contribute 
to the famous Blackwood's Magazine. The connexion thus 
early commenced lasted during her whole lifetime, and she 
contributed considerably more than 100 articles to its pages. 
In May 1832 she married her cousin, Frank Wilson Oliphant, 
at Birkenhead, and settled at Harrington Square, in London. 
Her husband was an artist, principally in stained glass. He 
had very delicate health, and two of their children died in infancy, 
while the father himself developed alarming symptoms of 
consumption. For the sake of his health they moved in January 
1859 to Florence, and thence to Rome, where Frank Oliphant 
died. His wife, left almost entirely without resources, returned 
to England and took up the burden of supporting her three 

8 4 


children by her own literary activity. She had now become a 
popular writer, and worked with amazing industry to sustain 
her position. Unfortunately, her home life was full of sorrow 
and disappointment. In January 1864 her only daughter died 
in Rome, and was buried in her father's grave. Her brother, 
who had emigrated to Canada, was shortly afterwards involved 
in financial ruin, and Mrs Oliphant offered a home to him and 
his children, and added their support to her already heavy 
responsibilities. In 1866 she settled at Windsor to be near her 
sons who were being educated at Eton. This was her home for 
the rest of her life, and for more than thirty years she pursued 
a varied literary career with courage scarcely broken by a series 
of the gravest troubles. The ambitions she cherished for her 
sons were unfulfilled. Cyril Francis, the elder, died in 1890, 
leaving a Life of Alfred de Musset, incorporated in his mother's 
Foreign Classics for English Readers. The younger, Frank, 
collaborated with her in the Victorian Age of English Literature 
and won a position at the British Museum, but was rejected by 
the doctors. He died in 1894. With the last of her children 
lost to her, she had but little further interest in life. Her health 
steadily declined, and she died at Wimbledon, on the 25th of 
June 1897. 

In the course of her long struggle with circumstances, Mrs 
Oliphant produced more than 120 separate works, including 
novels, books of travel and description, histories and volumes 
of literary criticism. Among the best known of her works of 
fiction are Adam Graeme (1852), Magdalen Hepburn (1854), 
Lilliesleaf (1855), The Laird of Norlaw (1858) and a series of 
stories with the collective title of The Chronicles of Carlingford, 
which, originally appearing in Blackwood's Magazine (1862-1865), 
did much to widen her reputation. This series included Salem 
Chapel (1863), The Rector; and the Doctor's Family (1863), 
The Perpetual Curate (1864) and Miss Marjoribanks (1866). 
Other successful novels were Madonna Mary (1867), Squire Arden 
(1871), He that will not when he may (1880), Hester (1883) ,Kirsteen 
(1890), TheMarriageof Elinor (1892) and The Ways of Life (1897). 
Her tendency to mysticism found expression in The Beleaguered 
City (1880) and A Little Pilgrim in the Unseen (1882). Her 
biographies of Edward Irving ( 1 86 2) and Laurence Oliphant (1892), 
together with her life of Sheridan in the " English Men of Letters " 
(1883), have vivacity and a sympathetic touch. She also wrote 
historical and critical works of considerable variety, including 
Historical Sketches of the Reign of George II. (1869), The Makers 
of Florence (1876), A Literary History of England' from 1790 to 
1825 (1882), The Makers of Venice (1887), Royal Edinburgh 
(1890), Jerusalem (1891) and The Makers of Modern Rom^(i8gs), 
while at the time of her death she was still occupied upon Annals 
of a Publishing House, a record of the progress and achievement 
of the firm of Blackwood, with which she had been so long and 
honourably connected. 

Her Autobiography and Letters, which present a touching picture of 
her domestic anxieties, appeared in 1899. 

OLIPHANT, Olifant (Ger. Helfant), the large'signal horn of 
the middle ages, made, as its name indicates, from the tusk of 
an elephant. The oliphant was the instrument of knights and 
men of high degree, and was usually ornamented with scenes of 
hunting or war carved either lengthways or round the horn in 
sections divided by bands of gold and studded with gems. The 
knights used their oliphants in the hunting field and in battle, 
and the loss of this precious horn was considered as shameful as 
the loss of sword or banner. 

OLIVA, FERNAN PEREZ DE (1492?-! 530), Spanish man of 
letters, was born at Cordova about 1492. After studying at 
Salamanca, Alcala, Paris and Rome, he was appointed rector 
at Salamanca, where he died in 1530. His Didlogo de la dignidad 
del hombre (1543), an uniinished work completed by Francisco 
Cervantes de Salazar, was written chiefly to prove the suitability 
of Spanish as a vehicle for philosophic discussion. He also 
published translations of the Amphitruo (1525), the Electro 
(1528) and the Hecuba (1528). 

OLIVARES, 6ASPAR DE GUZMAN, count of Olivares and 
duke of San Lucar (1587-1645), Spanish royal favourite and 

minister, was born in Rome, where his father was Spanish 
ambassador, on the 6th of January 1587. His compound title is 
explained by the fact that he inherited the title of count of 
Olivares, but was created duke of San Lucar by the favour of 
Philip IV. He begged the king to allow him to preserve his 
inherited title in combination with the new honour — according 
to a. practice of which there are a few other examples in Spanish 
history. Therefore he was commonly spoken of as el conde- 
duque. During the life of Philip III. he was appointed to a post 
in the household of the heir apparent, Philip, by the interest of 
his maternal uncle Don Baltasar de Zufiiga, who was the head of 
the prince's establishment. Olivares made it his business to 
acquire the most complete influence over the young prince. 
When Philip IV. ascended the throne in 1621, at the age of six- 
teen, he showed his confidence in Olivares by ordering that all 
papers requiring the royal signature should first be sent to the 
count-duke. Olivares could now boast to his uncle Don 
Baltasar de Zufiiga that he was " all." He became what is 
known in Spain as a valido — something more than a prime 
minister, the favourite and alter ego of the king. For twenty-two 
years he directed the policy of Spain. It was a period of constant 
war, and finally of disaster abroad and of rebellion at home. 
The Spaniards, who were too thoroughly monarchical to blame 
the king, held his favourite responsible for the misfortunes of the 
country. The count-duke became, and for long remained, in 
the opinion of his countrymen, the accepted model of a grasping 
and incapable favourite. Of late, largely under the inspiration 
of Don Antonio Canovas, there has been a certain reaction in his 
favour. It would certainly be most unjust to blame Olivares 
alone for the decadence of Spain, which was due to internal 
causes of long standing. The gross errors of his policy — the 
renewal of the war with Holland in 1621, the persistence of Spain 
in taking part in the Thirty Years' War, the lesser wars undertaken 
in northern Italy, and the entire neglect of all effort to promote 
the unification of the different states forming the peninsular 
kingdom — were shared by him with the king, the Church and 
the commercial classes. When he had fallen from power he 
wrote an apology, in which he maintained that he had always 
wished to see more attention paid to internal government, and 
above all to the complete unification of Portugal with Spain. 
But if this was not an afterthought, he must, on his own showing, 
stand accused of having carried out during long years a policy 
which he knew to be disastrous to his country, rather than risk 
the loss of the king's favour and of his place. Olivares did not 
share the king's taste for art and literature, but he formed a vast 
collection of state papers, ancient and contemporary, which he 
endeavoured to protect from destruction by entailing them as an 
heirloom. He also formed a splendid aviary which, under the 
name of the " hencoop," was a favourite subject of ridicule with 
his enemies. Towards the end of his period of favour he caused 
great offence by legitimizing a supposed bastard son of very 
doubtful paternity and worthless personal character, and by 
arranging a rich marriage for him. The fall of Olivares was 
immediately due to the revolts of Portugal and Catalonia in 1640. 
The king parted with him reluctantly, and only under the pressure 
of a strong court intrigue headed by Queen Isabella. It was 
noted with anxiety by his enemies thjit he was succeeded in the 
king's confidence by his nephew the count of Haro. There 
remains, however, a letter from the king, in which Philip tells his 
old favourite, with frivolous ferocity, that it might be necessary 
to sacrifice his life in order to avert unpopularity from the royal 
house. Olivares was driven from office in 1643. He retired by 
the king's order to Toro. Here he endeavoured to satisfy his 
passion for activity, partly by sharing in the municipal govern- 
ment of the town and the regulation of its commons, woods and 
pastures, and partly by the composition of the apology he 
published under the title of El Nicandro, which was perhaps 
written by an agent, but was undeniably inspired by the fallen 
minister. The Nicandro was denounced to the Inquisition, and 
it is not impossible that Olivares might have ended in the prisons 
of the Holy Office, or on the scaffold, if he had not died on the 
22nd of July 1645. 



See the Estudios del reinado de Felipe IV. of Don Antonio 'Canovas 
(Madrid, 1889) ; and Don F. Silvela's introduction, much less 
favourable to Olivares, to his edition of the Cartas de Sor Maria de 
Agreda y del rey Felipe IV. (Madrid, 1885-1886). 

OLIVE (Olea europaea), the plant that yields the olive oil of 
commerce, belonging to a section of the natural order Oleaceae, 
of which it has been taken as the type. The genus Olea includes 
about thirty species, very widely scattered, chiefly over the 
Old World, from the basin of the Mediterranean to South 
Africa and New Zealand. The wild olive is a small tree or 
bush of rather straggling growth, with thorny branches and 
opposite oblong pointed leaves, dark greyish-green above and, 
in the young state, hoary beneath with whitish scales; the small 
white flowers, with four-cleft calyx and corolla, two stamens 
and bifid stigma, are borne on the last year's wood, in racemes 
springing from the axils of the leaves; the drupaceous fruit 
is small in the wild plant, and the fleshy pericarp, which gives 
the cultivated olive its economic value, is hard and comparatively 
thin. In the cultivated forms the tree acquires a more compact 
habit, the branches lose their spinous character, while the young 
shoots become more or less angular; the leaves are always 

hoary on the under-side, 
and are generally lanceo- 
late in shape, though 
varying much in breadth 
and size in the different 
kinds. The fruit is sub- 
ject to still greater 
changes of form and 
colour; usually oval or 
nearly globular, in some 
sorts it is egg-shaped, in 
others much elongated; 
while the dark hue that 
it commonly assumes 
when ripe is exchanged 
in many varieties for 
violet, green or almost 
white. At present the 
wild olive is found in 
most of the countries 
around the Mediter- 
ranean, extending its 
range on the west to 
Portugal, and eastward 
to the vicinity of the 
Caspian, while, locally, 
it occurs even in Afghanistan. An undoubted native of 
Syria and the maritime parts of Asia Minor, its abund- 
ance in Greece and the islands of the Archipelago, and the 
frequent allusions to it by the earliest poets, seem to 
indicate that it was there also indigenous; but in localities 
remote from the Levant it may have escaped from cultivation, 
reverting more or less to its primitive type. It shows a marked 
preference for calcareous soils and a partiality for the sea-breeze, 
flourishing with especial luxuriance on the limestone slopes 
and crags that often form the shores of the Greek peninsula 
and adjacent islands. 

The varieties of olive known to the modern cultivator are 
extremely numerous — according to some authorities equalling 
or exceeding in number those of the vine. In France and Italy 
at least thirty kinds have been enumerated, but comparatively 
few are grown to any large extent. None of these can be safely 
identified with ancient descriptions, though it is not unlikely 
that some of the narrow-leaved sorts that are most esteemed 
may be descendants of the famed " Licinian " (see below). 
Italy retains its old pre-eminence in olive cultivation; and, 
though its ancient Gallic province now excels it in the production 
of the finer oils, its fast-improving culture may restore the old 
prestige. The broad-leaved olive trees of Spain bear a larger 
fruit, but the pericarp is of more bitter flavour and the oil of 
ranker quality. The olive tree, even when free increase is 

A, Shoot of olive (Olea europaea) (from 
nature), reduced; B, opened flower; C, 
vertical section of pistil. B and C en- 

unchecked by pruning, is of very slow growth; but, where 
allowed for ages its natural development, the trunk sometimes 
attains a considerable diameter. De Candolle records one 
exceeding 23 ft. in girth, the age being supposed to amount 
to seven centuries. Some old Italian olives have been credited 
with an antiquity reaching back to the first years of the empire, 
or even to the days of republican Rome; but the age of such 
ancient trees is always doubtful during growth, and their identity 
with old descriptions still more difficult to establish. The tree 
in cultivation rarely exceeds 30 ft. in height, and in France 
and Italy is generally confined to much "more limited dimensions 
by frequent pruning. The wood, of a yellow or light greenish- 
brown hue, is often finely veined with a darker tint, and, being 
very hard and close grained, is valued by the cabinetmaker 
and ornamental turner. 

The olive is propagated in various ways, but cuttings or layers are 
generally preferred ; the tree roots in favourable soil almost as easily 
as the willow, and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. 
Branches of various thickness are cut into lengths of several feet 
each, and, planted rather deeply in manured ground, soon vegetate; 
shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches, 
when, covered with a few inches of soil, they rapidly throw up sucker- 
like shoots. In Greece and the islands grafting the cultivated tree 
on the wild form is a common practice. In Italy embryonic buds, 
which form small swellings on the stems, are carefully excised and 
planted beneath the surface, where they grow readily, these " uovoli " 
soon forming a vigorous shoot. Occasionally the larger boughs are 
inarched, and young trees thus soon obtained. The olive is also 
sometimes raised from seed, the oily pericarp being first softened by 
slight rotting, or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution, to 
facilitate germination. The olives in the East often receive little 
attention from the husbandman, the branches being allowed to grow 
freely and without curtailment by the pruning-knife; water, how- 
ever, must be supplied in long droughts to ensure a crop ; with this 
neglectful culture the trees bear abundantly only at intervals of 
three or four years ; thus, although wild growth is favourable to 
the picturesque aspect of the plantation, it is not to be recommended 
on economic grounds. Where the olive is carefully cultivated, as in 
Languedoc and Provence, it is planted in rows at regular intervals, 
the distance between the trees varying in different " olivettes," 
according to the variety grown. Careful pruning is practised, the • 
object being to preserve the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding 
year, while keeping the head of the tree low, so as to allow the easy 
gathering of the fruit ; a dome or rounded form is generally the aim 
of the pruner. The spaces between the trees are occasionally 
manured with rotten dung or other nitrogenous matter; in France 
woollen rags are in high esteem for this purpose. Various annual 
crops are sometimes raised between the rows, and in Calabria wheat 
even is grown in this way; but the trees are better without any 
intermediate cropping. Latterly a dwarf variety, very prolific and 
with green fruit, has come into favour in certain localities, especially 
in America, where it is said to have produced a crop, two or three 
seasons after planting. The ordinary kinds do not become profitable 
to the grower until from five to seven years after the cuttings are 
placed in the olive-ground. Apart from occasional damage by- 
weather or organic foes, the olive crop is somewhat precarious even 
with the most careful cultivation, and the large untended trees so 
often seen in Spain and Italy do not yield that certain income to the 
peasant proprietor that some authors have attributed to them ; the 
crop from these old trees is often enormous, but they seldom bear 
well two years in succession, and in many instances a luxuriant 
harvest can only be reckoned upon every sixth or seventh season. 
The fruit when ripe is, by the careful grower, picked by hand and 
deposited in cloths or baskets for conveyance to the mill; but in 
many parts of Spain and Greece, and generally in Asia, the olives 
are beaten down by poles or by snaking the boughs, or even allowed 
to drop naturally, often lying on the ground until the convenience 
of the owner admits of their removal; much of the inferior oil 
owes its bad quality to the carelessness of the proprietor of the trees. 
In southern Europe the olive harvest is in the winter months, con- 
tinuing for several weeks ; but the time varies in each country, and 
also with the season and the kinds cultivated. The amount of oil 
contained in the fruit differs much in the various sorts ; the pericarp 
usually yields from 60 to 70 %. The ancient agriculturists believed 
that the olive would not succeed if planted more than a few leagues 
from the sea (Theophrastus gives 300 stadia as the limit), but modern 
experience does not confirm the idea, and, though showing a prefer- 
ence for the coast, it has long been grown far inland. A calcareous 
soil, however dry or poor, seems best adapted to its healthy develop- 
ment, though the tree will grow in any light soil, and even on clay if 
well drained ; but, as remarked by Pliny, the plant is more liable to 
disease on rich soils, and the oil is inferior to the produce of the 
poorer and more rocky ground the species naturally affects. The 
olive suffers greatly in some years from the attacks of various 
enemies. A fungoid growth has at times infested the trees for several 



successive seasons, to the great damage of the plantations. A 
species of coccus, C. oleae, attaches itself to the shoots, and certain 
lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves, while the " olive-fly " 
attacks the fruit. In France the olivettes suffer occasionally 
from frost; in the early part of the 1 8th century many trees 
were cut to the ground by a winter of exceptional severity. Gales 
and long-continued rains during the gathering season also cause 

The unripe fruit of the olive is largely used in modern as in ancient 
times as an article of dessert, to enhance the flavour of wine, and to 
renew the sensitiveness of the palate for other viands. For this 
purpose the fruit is picked while green, soaked for a few hours in an 
alkaline ley, washed well in clean water and then placed in bottles 
or jars filled with brine; the Romans added amurca to the salt to 
increase the bitter flavour of the olives, and at the present day spices 
are sometimes used. 

The leaves and bark of the tree are employed in the south, as a 
tonic medicine, in intermittent fever. A resinous matter called 
" olive gum," or Lucca gum, formed by the exuding juice in hot 
seasons, was anciently in medical esteem, and in modern Italy is used 
as a perfume. 

In England the olive is not hardy, though in the southern counties 
it will stand ordinary winters with only the protection of a wall, 
and will bear fruit in such situations; but the leaves are generally 
shed in the autumn, and the olives rarely ripen. 

The genus Olea includes several other species of some economic 
importance. 0. paniculata is a larger tree, attaining a height of 50 
or 60 ft. in the forests of Queensland, and yielding a hard and tough 
timber. The yet harder wood of 0. laurifolia, an inhabitant of Natal, 
is the black ironwood of the South African colonist. 

At what remote period of human progress the wild olive 
passed under the care of the husbandman and became the 
fruitful garden olive it is impossible to conjecture. The frequent 
reference in the Bible to the plant and its produce, its implied 
abundance in the land of Canaan, the important place it has 
always held in the economy of the inhabitants of Syria, lead 
us to consider that country the birthplace of the cultivated 
olive. An improved variety, possessed at first by some small 
Semitic sept, it was probably slowly distributed to adjacent 
tribes; and, yielding profusely, with little labour, that oily 
matter so essential to healthy life in the dry hot climates of the 
East, the gift of the fruitful tree became in that primitive age 
a symbol of peace and goodwill among the warlike barbarians. 
At a later period, with the development of maritime enterprise, 
the oil was conveyed, as an article of trade, to the neighbouring 
Pelasgic and Ionian nations, and the plant, doubtless, soon 

In the Homeric world, as depicted in the Iliad, olive oil is 
known only as a luxury of the wealthy — an exotic product, 
prized chiefly for its value in the heroic toilet; the warriors 
anoint themselves with it after the bath, and the body of Patroclus 
is similarly sprinkled; but no mention of the culture of the plant 
is made, nor does it find any place on the Achillean shield, 
on which a vineyard is represented. But, although no reference 
to the cultivation of the olive occurs in the Iliad, the presence 
of the tree in the garden of Alcinous and other familiar allusions 
show it to have been known when the Odyssey was written. 
Whenever the introduction may have taken place, all tradition 
points to the limestone hills of Attica as the seat of its first 
cultivation on the Hellenic peninsula. When Poseidon and 
Athena contended for the future city, an olive sprang from the 
barren rock at the bidding of the goddess, the patron of those 
arts that were to bring undying influence to the rising state. 
That this myth has some relation to the first planting of the 
olive in Greece seems certain from the remarkable story told 
by Herodotus of the Epidaurians, who, on their crops failing, 
applied for counsel to the Delphic oracle, and were enjoined 
to erect statues to Damia and Auxesia (symbols of fertility) 
carved from the wood of the true garden olive, then possessed 
only by the Athenians, who granted their request for a tree on 
condition of their making an annual sacrifice to Athena, its 
patron; they thus obeyed the command of the Pythian, and their 
lands became again fertile. The sacred tree of the goddess long 
stood on the Acropolis, and, though destroyed in the Persian 
invasion, sprouted again from the root — some suckers of which 
were said to have produced those olive trees of the Academy in 
an after age no less revered. By the time of Solon the olive had 

so spread that he found it necessary to enact laws to regulate 
the cultivation of the tree in Attica, from which country it was 
probably distributed gradually to all the Athenian allies and 
tributary states. To the Ionian coast, where it abounded in 
the time of Thales, it may have been in an earlier age brought 
by Phoenician vessels; some of the Sporades may have received 
it from the same source; the olives of Rhodes and Crete had 
perhaps a similar origin. Samos, if we may judge from the 
epithet of Aeschylus (IXoto^wos), must have had the fruitful 
plant long before the Persian wars. 

It is not unlikely that the valued tree was taken to Magna 
Graecia by the first Achaean colonists, and the assertion of 
Pliny (quoted from Fenestella), that no olives existed in Italy 
in the reign of Tarquinius Priscus, must be received with the 
caution due to many statements of that industrious compiler. 
In Latin Italy the cultivation seems to have spread slowly, 
for it was not until the consulship of Pompey that the production 
of oil became sufficient to permit of its exportation. In Pliny's 
time it was already grown abundantly in the two Gallic provinces 
and in Spain; indeed, in the earlier days of Strabo the 
Ligurians supplied the Alpine barbarians with oil, in exchange 
for the wild produce of their mountains; the plant may have 
been introduced into those districts by Greek settlers in a 
previous age. Africa was indebted for the olive mainly to 
Semitic agencies. In Egypt the culture never seems to have 
made much progress; the oil found in Theban tombs was 
probably imported from Syria. Along the southern shore of 
the great inland sea the tree was carried by the Phoenicians, 
at a remote period, to their numerous colonies in Africa — ■ 
though the abundant olives of Cyrene, to which allusion 
is made by Theophrastus, and the glaucous foliage of whose 
descendants still clothes the rocks of the deserted Cyrenaica, 
may have been the offspring of Greek plants brought by the 
first settlers. The tree was most likely introduced into southern 
Spain, and perhaps into Sardinia and the Balearic Islands, by 
Phoenician merchants; and, if it be true that old olive trees 
were found in the Canaries on their rediscovery by medieval 
navigators, the venerable trees probably owed their origin 
to the same enterprising pioneers of the ancient world. De 
Candolle says that the means by which the olive was distributed 
to the two opposite shores of the Mediterranean are indicated 
by the names given to the plant by their respective inhabitants — 
the Greek eXata passing into the Latin olea and oliva, that in 
its turn becoming the ulivo of the modern Italian, the olivo 
of the Spaniard, and the olive, olivier, of the French, while in 
Africa and southern Spain the olive retains appellatives derived 
from the Semitic zaii or seit; but the complete subjugation of 
Barbary by the Saracens sufficiently accounts for the prevalence 
of Semitic forms in that region; and aceytuno (Arab. zeitUn), 
the Andalusian name of the fruit, locally given to the tree 
itself, is but a vestige of the Moorish conquest. 

Yielding a grateful substitute for the butter and animal fats 
consumed by the races of the north, the olive, among the southern 
nations of antiquity, became an emblem not only of peace but of 
national wealth and domestic plenty; the branches borne in the 
Panathenaea, the wild olive spray of the Olympic victor, the olive 
crown of the Roman conqueror at ovation, and those of the 
equites at their imperial review alike typified gifts of peace that, 
in a barbarous age, could be secured by victory alone. Among 
the Greeks the oil was valued as an important article of diet, 
as well as for its external use. The Roman people employed 
it largely in food and cookery — the wealthy as an indispensable 
adjunct to the toilet; and in the luxurious days of the later 
empire it became a favourite axiom that long and pleasant life 
depended on two fluids, " wine within and oil without." Pliny 
vaguely describes fifteen varieties of olive cultivated in his day, 
that called the " Licinian " being held in most esteem, and the 
oil obtained from it at Venafrum in Campania the finest known 
to Roman connoisseurs; the produce of Istria and Baetica was 
regarded as second only to that of the Italian peninsula. The gour- 
met of the empire valued the unripe fruit, steeped in brine, as a 
provocative to the palate, no less than his modern representative; 



and pickled olives, retaining their characteristic flavour, have 
been found among the buried stores of Pompeii. The bitter 
juice or refuse deposited during expression of the oil (called 
amurca), and the astringent leaves of the tree have many virtues 
attributed to them by ancient authors. The oil of the bitter wild 
olive was employed by the Roman physicians in medicine, 
but does not appear ever to have been used as food or in the 
culinary art. 

In modern times the olive has been spread widely over the 
world; and, though the Mediterranean lands that were its ancient 
home still yield the chief supply of the oil, the tree is now culti- 
vated successfully in many regions unknown to its early dis- 
tributors. Soon after the discovery of the American continent 
it was conveyed thither by the Spanish settlers. In Chile it 
flourishes as luxuriantly as in its native land, the trunk some- 
times becoming of large girth, while oil of fair quality is yielded 
by the fruit. To Peru it was carried at a later date, but has not 
there been equally successful. Introduced into Mexico by the 
Jesuit missionaries of the 17th century, it was planted by similar 
agency in Upper California, where it has prospered latterly under 
the more careful management of the Anglo-Saxon conqueror. Its 
cultivation has also been attempted in the south-eastern states, 
especially in S. Carolina, Florida and Mississippi. In the eastern 
hemisphere the olive has been established in many inland districts 
which would have been anciently considered ill-adapted for its 
culture. To Armenia and Persia it was known at a comparatively 
early period of history, and many olive-yards now exist in Upper 
Egypt. The tree has been introduced into Chinese agriculture, 
and has become an important addition to the resources of the 
Australian planter. In Queensland the olive has found a climate 
specially suited to its wants; in South Australia, near Adelaide, 
it also grows vigorously; and there are probably few coast 
districts of the vast island-continent where the tree would not 
flourish. It has likewise been successfully introduced into some 
parts of Cape Colony. 

Portuguese writer, was born in Lisbon and received his early 
education at the Lyceo Nacional and the Academia das Bellas 
Artes. At the age of fourteen his father's death compelled him 
to seek a living as clerk in a commercial house, but he gradually 
improved his position until in 1870 he was appointed manager 
of the mine of St Eufemia near Cordova. In Spain he wrote 
0. Socialismo, and developed that sympathy for the industrial 
classes of which he gave proof throughout his life. Returning to 
Portugal in 1874, he became administrator of the railway from 
Oporto to Povoa, residing in Oporto. He had married when only 
nineteen, and for many years devoted his leisure hours to the 
study of economics, geography and history. In 1878 his memoir 
A CirculaQao fiduciaria brought him the gold medal and member- 
ship of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Lisbon. Two years 
later he was elected president of the Society of Commercial 
Geography of Oporto, and in 1884 he became director of the 
Industrial and Commercial Museum in that city. In 1885 he 
entered public life, and in the following year represented Vianna 
do Castello in parliament, and in 1887 Oporto. Removing to 
Lisbon in 1888, he continued the journalistic work which he had 
commenced when living in the north, by editing the Reporter, 
and in 1889 he was named administrator of the Tobacco Regie. 
He represented Portugal at international conferences in Berlin 
and Madrid in 1890, and was chosen to speak at the celebration of 
the fourth centenary of Columbus held in Madrid in 1891, which 
gained him membership of the Spanish Royal Academy of 
History. He became minister of finance on the 17th of January 
1892, and later vice-president of the Junta do Credito Publico. 
His health, however, began to break down as a result of a life 
spent in unremitting toil, and he died on the 24th of August 

His youthful struggles and privations had taught him a serious 
view of life, which, with his acute sensibility, gave him a reserved 
manner, but Oliveira Martins was one of the most generous and 
noble of men. Like Anthero de Quental, he was impregnated 
with modern German philosophy, and his perception of the low 

moral standard prevailing in public life made him a pessimist 
who despaired of his country's future, but his sense of proportion, 
and the necessity which impelled him to work, saved him from 
the fate which befell his friend, and he died a believing Catholic. 
At once a gifted psychologist, a profound sociologist, a stern 
moralist, and an ardent patriot, Oliveira Martins deserved his 
European reputation. His Bibliotheca das sciencias sociaes, 
a veritable encyclopaedia, comprises literary criticism, socialism, 
economics, anthropology, histories of Iberian civilization, of the 
Roman Republic, Portugal and Brazil. Towards the end of his 
life he specialized in the 15th century and produced two notable 
volumes, Os fithos de D. Joao I. and A vida de Nun'Alvares, 
leaving unfinished O principe perfeito, a study on King 
John II., which was edited by his friend Henrique de Barros 

As the literary leader of a national revival, Oliveira Martins 
occupied an almost unique position in Portugal during the last 
third of the 19th century. If he judged and condemned the 
parliamentary regime and destroyed many illusions in his sensa- 
tional Contemporary Portugal, and if in his philosophic History of: 
Portugal he showed, in a series of impressionist pictures, the slow 
decline of his country commencing in the. golden age of the 
discoveries and conquests, be at the lame time directed the gaze 
of his countrymen to the days of their real greatness under the 
House of Aviz, and incited them to work for a better future by 
describing the faith and patriotism which had animated the 
foremost men of the race in the middle ages. He had neither 
time nor opportunity for original research, but his powerful 
imagination and picturesque style enabled him to evoke the 
p&st and make it present to his readers. 

The chief characteristics of the man — psychological imagination 
combined with realism and a gentle irony— make his strength 
as a historian and his charm as a writer. When some critics 
objected that his Historia de Portugal ought rather to be named 
" Ideas on Portuguese History," he replied that a synthetic 
and dramatic picture of one of those collective beings called 
nations gives the mind a clearer, truer and more lasting impression 
than a summary narrative of successive events. But just 
because he possessed the talents and temperament of a poet, 
Oliveira Martins was fated to make frequent mistakes as well as 
to discover important truths. He must be read with care because 
he is emotional, and cannot let facts speak for themselves, but 
interrupts the narrative with expressions cf praise or blame. 
Some of his books resemble a series of visions, while, despite his 
immense erudition, he does not always supply notes or refer to 
authorities. He can draw admirable portraits, rich with colour 
and life; in his Historia de Portugal and Contemporaneo Portugal 
those of King Pedro I. and Herculano are among the best known. 
He describes to perfection such striking events as the Lisbon 
earthquake, and excels in the appreciation of an epoch. In 
these respects Castelar considered him superior to Macaulay, 
and declared that few men in Europe possessed the universal 
aptitude and the fullness of knowledge displayed by Oliveira 

The works of Oliveira Martins include Elementos de anihropologia, 
As Rasas humanas e a civilisacao primitiva, Systema dos mythos 
religiosos, Quadro das instituicoes primitivas, O Regime ' das 
riquezas, Politica e economia nacional, Taboas de chronologia e 
geographia historica, O Hellenismo e a civilisacao christa, Historia 
da Republica Romano, Historia da civilisacao iberica, Historia de 
Portugual, Brazil e as colonias portuguezas, Portugal nos Mares, 
Portugal em Africa, Portugal contemporaneo, Cam&s os Lusiadas 
e a renascenca em Portugal — a brilliant commentary on the physiog- 
nomy of the poet and his poem, Os Filhos de D. Joao I., the preface 
to which gives his views on the writing of history — A Vida de 
Nun' Alvares; and A. Inglaterra de Hoje — the result of a visit to 

See Moniz Barreto, Oliveira Martins, estudo de psychologia (Paris, 
1887), a remarkable study; F. Diniz D'Ayalla, Os Ideaes de Oliveira 
Martins (Lisbon, 1897), which contains an admirable statement of 
his ideas, philosophical and otherwise; Anthero de Quental, Oliveira 
Martins (Lisbon, 1894) and Diccionario bibliographico portuguez, 
xii. 125. (E. Pr.) 

OLIVENITE, a mineral consisting of basic copper arsenate 
with the formula Cu 2 (OH)As04. It crystallizes in the ortho- 



rhombic system, and is sometimes found in small brilliant crystals 
of simple prismatic habit terminated by domal faces. More 
usually, however, it occurs as globular aggregates of acicular 
crystals, these fibrous forms often having a velvety lustre: 
sometimes it is lamellar in structure, or soft and earthy. A 
characteristic feature, and one to which the name alludes (German, 
Olivenerz, of A. G. Werner, 1789), is the olive-green colour, 
which varies in shade from blackish-green in the crystals to 
almost white in the finely fibrous variety known as " wood- 
copper." The hardness is 3, and the sp. gr. 4-3. The 
mineral was formerly found in some abundance, associated with 
limonite and quartz, in the upper workings in the copper mines 
of the St Day district in Cornwall; also near Redruth, and in the 
Tintic district in Utah. It is a mineral of secondary origin, 
having been formed by the alteration of copper ores and 

The arsenic of olivenite is sometimes partly replaced by a small 
amount of phosphorus, and in the species libethenite we have 
the corresponding basic copper phosphate Cu 2 (OH)P0 4 . This 
is found as small dark green crystals resembling olivenite at 
Libethen in Hungary, and in small amount also in Cornwall. 
Other members of this isomorphous group of minerals are adamite, 
Zn 2 (OH)As0 4 , and descloizfte (q.v.). (L. J. S.) 

OLIVER, ISAAC (c. 1566-1617), English miniature painter, was 
probably born in London, as in 1571 a certain Peter Olivier of 
Rouen was residing in London with his wife and had been there 
for three years with one " chylde " named " Isake." It would 
seem likely, therefore, that he was not at that time more than six 
years old. It has been suggested by Mr Lionel Cust, from the 
Huguenot records, that he is identical with one Isaac Oliver of 
Rouen, married at the Dutch church in Austin Friars in 1602. 
His death occurred in 16 17, and he was buried in the church 
of St Anne, Blackfriars. He was probably a pupil of Nicholas 
Hilliard, and connected through his wife, whose name is un- 
known, with the artists Gheeraerts and De Critz. He was an 
exceedingly expert miniature painter, and splendid examples of 
his work can be seen at Montagu House, Windsor Castle, Sher- 
borne Castle and in the collections of Mr J. Pierpont Morgan 
and the late Baroness Burdett-Coutts. Some of his pen draw- 
ings are in the British Museum. (G. C. W.) 

OLIVER, PETER (1594-1648), English miniature painter, was 
the eldest son of Isaac Oliver, probably by his first wife; 
and to him Isaac Oliver left his finished and unfinished 
drawings, with the hope that he would live to exercise the 
art of his father. The younger sons of the artist appear to 
have been under age at the time of his death, and were probably 
therefore sons by a later wife than the mother of Peter Oliver. 
He resided at Isleworth, and was buried beside his father at 
St Anne's, Blackfriars. He was even more eminent in minia- 
ture painting than his father, and is specially remarkable for a 
series of copies in water-colour he made after celebrated pictures 
by old masters. Most of these were done by the desire of the 
king, and seven of them still remain at Windsor Castle. A great 
many of Oliver's works were purchased by Charles II. from his 
widow; several of his drawings are in existence, and a leaf from 
his pocket-book in the collection of the earl of Derby. His most 
important work is the group of the three grandsons of the 1st 
Viscount Montacute with their servant, now belonging to the 
marquess of Exeter; and there are fine miniatures by him at 
Welbeck Abbey, Montagu House, Sherborne Castle, Minley 
Manor, Belvoir Castle and in the private collection of the queen 
of Holland. (G. C. W.) 

OLIVES, MOUNT OF, or Mount Olivet ("Opos 'EXcuukos or 
tCsv 'EXauov; mod. Jebel-et-Tur) , the ridge facing the Temple 
Mount at Jerusalem on the east, and separated from it by the 
Kidron. A basis of hard cretaceous limestone is topped with 
softer deposits of the same, quaternary deposits forming the 
summit. There are four distinct elevations in the ridge: tradi- 
tionally the southernmost, which is separated by a cleft from the 
others, is called the " Hill of Offence," and said to be the scene of 
Solomon's idolatry. The summit to the north of this is often 
(wrongly) spoken of as Olivet proper. Still worse is the error of 

calling the next hill but one to the north " Scopus." The top of 
the ridge affords a comprehensive view. There are four Old 
Testament references: 2 Sam. xv. 30 sqq., Neh. viii. 15, Ezek. xi. 
23, Zech. xiv. 4. In the New Testament the place is mentioned 
in connexion with the last days of the life of Jesus. He crossed 
it on his kingly entry into Jerusalem, and upon it he delivered 
his great eschatological address (Mark xiii. 3) . That the Ascension 
took place from the summit of the Mount of Olives is not necessarily 
implied in Acts i. 12; the words "over against Bethany" 
(Luke xxiv. 50) perhaps mean one of the secluded ravines on 
the eastern slope, beside one of which that village stands. But 
since Constantine erected the " Basilica of the Ascension " on the 
spot marked by a certain sacred cave (Euseb. Vita Const, iii. 41), 
the site of this event has been placed here and marked by a 
succession of churches. The present building is quite modern, 
and is in the hands of the Moslems. Close to the Chapel of the 
Ascension is the vault of St Pelagia, and a little way down the 
hill is the labyrinth of early Christian rock-hewn sepulchral 
chambers now called the " Tombs of the Prophets." During 
the middle ages Olivet was also shown as the mount of the 
Transfiguration. A chapel, bearing the name of the Caliph Omar, 
and said to occupy the place where he encamped when Jerusalem 
surrendered to the Moslems, formerly stood beside the Church 
of the Ascension. There are a considerable number of monasteries 
and churches of various religious orders and sects on the hill, 
from whose beauty their uniform and unredeemed ugliness 
detracts sadly. On Easter day 1907 was laid the foundation 
of a hospice for pilgrims, under the patronage of the German 

OLIVETANS, one of the lesser monastic orders following the 
Benedictine Rule, founded by St Bernard Tolomei, a Sienese 
nobleman. At the age of forty, when the leading man in Siena, 
he retired along with two companions to live a hermit's life at 
Accona, a desert place fifteen miles to the south of Siena, 13 13. 
Soon others joined them, and in 1324 John XXII. approved of 
the formation of an order. The Benedictine Rule was taken as 
the basis of the life; but austerities were introduced beyond 
what St Benedict prescribed, and the government was framed 
on the mendicant, not the monastic, model, the superiors being 
appointed only for a short term of years. The habit is white. 
Partly from the olive trees that abound there, and partly out of 
devotion to the Passion, Accona was christened Monte Oliveto, 
whence the order received its name. By the end of the 14th 
century there were upwards of a hundred monasteries, chiefly 
in Italy; and in the 18th there still were eighty, one of the most 
famous being San Miniato at Florence. The monastery of 
Monte Oliveto Maggiore is an extensive building of considerable 
artistic interest, enhanced by frescoes of Signorelli and Sodoma; 
it is now a national monument occupied by two or three monks 
as custodians, though it could accommodate three hundred. The 
Olivetans have a house in Rome and a few others, including one 
founded in Austria in 1899. There are about 125 monks in all, 
54 being priests. In America are some convents of Olivetan 

See Helyot, Hist, des ordres religieux (171S), vi. c. 24; Max 
Heimbucher, Ordcn u. Kongregationen (1907), i. § 30; Wetzer u. 
Welte, Kirchenlexicon (ed. 2) ; J. A. Symonds, Sketches and Studies 
in Italy (1898), " Monte Oliveto ": B. M. Marechaux, Vie de bien- 
heureux Bernard Tolomei (1888). (E. C. B.) 

OLIVIER, JUSTE DANIEL (1807-1876), Swiss poet, was born 
near Nyon in the canton of Vaud; he was brought up as a 
peasant, but studied at the college of Nyon, and later at the 
academy of Lausanne. Though originally intended for the 
ministry, his poetic genius (foreshadowed by the prizes he 
obtained in 1825 and 1828 for poems on Marcos Botzaris and 
Julia Alpinula respectively) inclined him towards literary 
studies. He was named professor of literature at Neuchatel 
(1830), but before taking up the duties of his post made a visit 
to Paris, where he completed his education and became associated 
with Ste Beuve, especially from 1837 onwards. He professed 
history at Lausanne from 1833 to 1846, when he lost his chair 
in consequence of the religious troubles. He then went to Paris, 



where he remained till 1870, earning his bread by various means, 
but being nearly forgotten in his native land, to which he 
remained tenderly attached. From 1845 till i860 (when the 
magazine was merged in the Bibliolheque universelle) Olivier 
and his wife wrote in the Revue Suisse the Paris letter, which 
. had been started by Ste Beuve in 1843, when Olivier became 
the owner of the periodical. After the war of 1870 he settled 
down in Switzerland, spending his summers at his beloved Gryon, 
and died at Geneva on the 7th of January 1876. Besides some 
novels, a semi-poetical work on the Canton of Vaud (2 vols., 
1837-1841), and a volume of historical essays entitled £tudes 
d'hisioire nalionale (1842), he published several volumes of 
poems, Deux Voix (1835), Chansons lointaines (1847) and its 
continuation Chansons du soir (1867), and Sentiers de montagne 
(Gryon, 1875). His younger brother, Urbain (1810-1888), was 
well known from 1856 onwards as the author of numerous 
popular tales of rural life in the Canton of Vaud, especially of the 
region near Nyon. 

Life by Rambert (1877), republished in his £crivains de la Suisse 
romande (1889), and also prefixed to his edition of Olivier's CEuvres 
choisies (Lausanne, 1879). (W. A. B. C.) 

OLIVINE, a rock-forming mineral composed of magnesium 
and ferrous crthosilicate, the formula being (Mg, Fe^SKV 
The name olivine, proposed by A. G. Werner in 1790, alludes to 
the olive-green colour commonly shown by the mineral. The 
transparent varieties, or " precious olivine " used in jewelry, 
are known as chrysolite (q.v.) and peridot (q.v.). The term 
olivine is often applied incorrectly by jewellers to various green 

Olivine crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, but distinctly 
developed crystals are comparatively rare, the mineral more 
often occurring as compact or granular masses or as grains and 
blebs embedded in the igneous rocks of which it forms a con- 
stituent part. There are indistinct cleavages parallel to the 
macropinacoid (M in the fig.) and the brachypinacoid. The 
hardness is 6f ; and the sp. gr. 3*27-3-37, 
but reaching 3-57 in the highly ferru- 
ginous variety known as hyalosiderite. 
The amount of ferrous oxide varies from 
5 (about 9 % in the gem varieties to 30 % 
in hyalosiderite. The depth of the green, 
or yellowish-brown colour, also varies with 
the amount of iron. The lustre is vitreous. 
The indices of refraction ( i-66 and 1-70) 
and the double refraction are higher than 
in many other rock-forming minerals; and 
these characters, together with the indistinct cleavage, enable 
the mineral to be readily distinguished in thin rock-sections 
under the microscope. The mineral is decomposed by hot 
hydrochloric acid with separation of gelatinous silica. Olivine 
often contains small amounts of nickel and titanium dioxide; 
the latter replaces silica, and in the variety known as titan- 
olivine reaches 5 %. 

Olivine is a common constituent of many basic and ultrabasic 
rocks, such as basalt, diabase, gabbro and peridotite: the 
dunite, of Dun Mountain near Nelson in New Zealand, is an 
almost pure olivine-rock. In basalts it is often present as small 
porphyritic crystals or as large granular aggregates. It also 
occurs as an accessory constituent of some granular dolomitic 
limestones and crystalline schists. With enstatite it forms the 
bulk of the material of meteoric stones; and in another type of 
meteorites large blebs of glassy olivine fill spaces in a cellular 
mass of metallic iron. 

Olivine is especially liable to alteration into serpentine (hydrated 
magnesium silicate) ; the alteration proceeds from the outside of 
the crystals and grains or along irregular cracks in their interior, 
and gives rise to the separation of iron oxides and an irregular 
net-work of fibrous serpentine, which in rock-sections presents 
a very characteristic appearance. Large greenish-yellow crystals 
from Snarum in Buskerud, Norway, at one time thought to be 
crystals of serpentine, really consist of serpentine pseudo- 
morphous after olivine. Many of the large rock-masses of 

serpentine have been derived by the serpentinization of olivine- 
rocks. Olivine also sometimes alters, especially in crystalline 
schists, to a fibrous, colourless amphibole, to which the name 
pilite has been given. By ordinary weathering processes it 
alters to limonite and silica. 

Closely related to olivine are several other species, which are 
included together in the olivine group : they have the orthosilicate 
formula R" 2 Si04, where R" represents calcium, magnesium, iron, 
manganese and rarely zinc ; they all crystallize in the orthorhombic 
system, and are isomorphous with olivine. The following may be 
mentioned : — 

Monticellite, CaMgSi04, a rare mineral occurring as yellowish- 
grey crystals and grains in granular limestone at Monte Somma, 

Forsterite, Mg 2 Si04, as colourless or yellowish grains embedded 
in many crystalline limestones. 

Fayalite, Fe 2 Si04, or iron olivine is dark brown or black in colour. 
It occurs as nodules in a volcanic rock at Fayal in the Azores, and in 
granite at the Mourne Mountains in Ireland ; and as small crystals in 
cavities in rhyolite at the Yellowstone Park, U.S.A. It is a common 
constituent of crystalline iron slags. 

Tephroite, Mn 2 Si04, a grey (reippSs, ash-coloured), cleavable 
mineral occurring with other manganiferous minerals in Sweden and 
New Jersey. (L. J. S.) 

OLLIVIER, OLIVIER EMILE (1825- ), French statesman, 
was born at Marseilles on the 2nd of July 1825. His father, 
Demosthenes Ollivier (1799-1884), was a vehement opponent 
of the July monarchy, and was returned by Marseilles to the 
Constituent Assembly in 1 848. His opposition to Louis Napoleon 
led to his banishment after the coup d'etat of December 1851, and 
he only returned to France in i860. On the establishment of 
the short-lived Second Republic his father's influence with 
Ledru-Rollin secured for Emile Ollivier the position of com- 
missary-general of the department of Bouches-du-Rhone. 
Ollivier was then twenty-three and had just been called to the 
Parisian bar. Less radical in his political opinions than his 
father, his repression of a socialist outbreak at Marseilles com- 
mended him to General Cavaignac, who continued him in his 
functions by making him prefect of the department. He was 
shortly afterwards removed to the comparatively unimportant 
prefecture of Chaumont (Haute-Marne), a semi-disgrace which 
he ascribed to his father's enemies. He therefore resigned from 
the civil service to take up practice at the bar, where his brilliant 
abilities assured his success. 

He re-entered political life in 1857 as deputy for the 3rd 
circumscription of the Seine. His candidature had been sup- 
ported by the Siecle, and he joined the constitutional opposition. 
With Alfred Darimon, Jules Favre, J. L. Henon and Ernest 
Picard he formed the group known as Les Cinq, which wrung 
from Napoleon III. some concessions in the direction of con- 
stitutional government. The imperial decree of the 24th of 
November, permitting the insertion of parliamentary reports 
in the Moniteur, and an address from the Corps Legislatif in 
reply to the speech from the throne, were welcomed by him as a 
first instalment of reform. This acquiescence marked a consider- 
able change of attitude, for only a year previously a violent attack 
on the imperial government, in the course of a defence of Etienne 
Vacherot, brought to trial for the publication of La Democratie, 
had resulted in his suspension from the bar for three months. 
He gradually separated from his old associates, who grouped 
themselves around Jules Favre, and during the session of 1866- 
1867 Ollivier formed a third party, which definitely supported the 
principle of a Liberal Empire. On the last day of December 1866, 
Count A. F. J. Walewski, acting in continuance of negotiations 
already begun by the due de Morny, offered Ollivier the ministry 
of education with the function of representing the general policy 
of the government in the Chamber. The imperial decree of the 
19th of January 1867, together with the promise inserted in 
the Moniteur of a relaxation of the stringency of the press laws 
and of concessions in respect of the right of public meeting, failed 
to satisfy Ollivier's demands, and he refused office. On the eve 
of the general election of 1869 he published a manifesto, Le ip 
Janvier, in justification of his policy. The sinatus-consulte of the 
8th of September 1869 gave the two chambers the ordinary 



parliamentary rights, and was followed by the dismissal of 
Rouher and the formation in the last week of 1869 of a responsible 
ministry of which M. Ollivier was really premier, although that 
office was not nominally recognized by the constitution. The 
new cabinet, known as the ministry of the 2nd of January, had 
a hard task before it, complicated a week after its formation by 
the shooting of Victor Noir by Prince Pierre Bonaparte. Ollivier 
immediately summoned the high court of justice for the judgment 
of Prince Bonaparte and Prince Joachim Murat. The riots 
following on the murder were suppressed without bloodshed; 
circulars were sent round to the prefects forbidding them in 
future to put pressure on the electors in favour of official candi- 
dates; Baron Haussmann was dismissed from the prefecture 
of the Seine; the violence of the press campaign against the 
emperor, to whom he had promised a happy old age, was broken 
by the prosecution of Henri Rochefort; and on the 20th of 
April a senatus-consulte was issued which accomplished the 
transformation of the Empire into a constitutional monarchy. 
Neither concessions nor firmness sufficed to appease the " Irre- 
concilables " of the opposition, who since the relaxation of the 
press laws were able to influence the electorate. On the 8th 
of May, however, the amended constitution was submitted, 
on Rouher's advice, to a plebiscite, which resulted in a vote of 
nearly seven to one in favour of the government. The most 
distinguished members of the Left in his cabinet — L. J. Buffet, 
Napoleon Daru and Talhouet Roy — resigned in April on the 
question of the plebiscite. Ollivier himself held the ministry of 
foreign affairs for a few weeks, until Daru was replaced by the 
due de Gramont, destined to be Ollivier's evil genius. The 
other vacancies were filled by J. P. Mege and C. I. Plichon, both 
of them of Conservative tendencies. 

The revival of the candidature of Prince Leopold of Hohen- 
zollern-Sigmaringen for the throne of Spain early in 1870 dis- 
concerted Ollivier's plans. The French government, following 
Gramont's advice, instructed Benedetti to demand from the king 
of Prussia a formal disavowal of the Hohenzollern candidature. 
Ollivier allowed himself to be gained by the war party. The 
story of Benedetti's reception at Ems and of Bismarck's mani- 
pulation of the Ems telegram is told elsewhere (see Bismarck). 
It is unlikely that Ollivier could have prevented the eventual 
outbreak of war, but he might perhaps have postponed it at that 
time, if he had taken time to hear Benedetti's account of the 
incident. He was outmanoeuvred by Bismarck, and on the 
15th of July he made a hasty declaration in the Chamber that the 
Prussian government had issued to the powers a note announcing 
the rebuff received by Benedetti. He obtained a war vote of 
500,000,000 francs, and used the fatal words that he accepted 
the responsibility of the war " with a light heart," saying that the 
war had been forced on France. On the 9th of August, with the 
news of the first disaster, the Ollivier cabinet was driven from 
office, and its chief sought refuge from the general rage in Italy. 
He returned to France in 1873, but although he carried on ail 
active campaign in the Bonapartist Estafette his political power 
was gone, and even in his own party he came into collision in 
1880 with M. Paul de Cassagnac. During his retirement he 
employed himself in writing a history of L' Empire HbSral, the first 
volume of which appeared in 1895. The work really dealt with 
the remote and immediate causes of the war, and was the author's 
apology for his blunder. The 13th volume showed that the 
immediate blame could not justly be placed entirely on his 
shoulders. His other works include Democratic et liberie (1867), 
Le Ministere du 2 Janvier, mes discours (1875), Principes et 
conduite (187s), L'Eglise et I'Etat au concile du Vatican (2 vols., 
1879), Solutions politiques et sociales (1893), Nouveau Manuel 
du droit ecclesiastique franqais (1885). He had many connexions 
with the literary and artistic world, being one of the early 
Parisian champions of Wagner. Elected to the Academy 
in 1870, he did not take his seat, his reception being 
indefinitely postponed. His first wife, Blandine Liszt, was 
the daughter of the Abbe Liszt by Mme d'Agoult (Daniel 
Stern). She died in 1862, and Ollivier married in 1869 Mile 

Ollivier's own view of his political life is given in his L'Empire 
liberal, which must always be an important " document " for the 
history of his time; but the book must be treated with no less 
caution than respect. 

OLMSTED, DENISON (1791-18.59), American man of science, 
was born at East Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.A., on the 18th of 
June 1791, and in 1813 graduated at Yale, where he acted as' 
college tutor from 1815 to 1817. In the latter year he was 
appointed to the chair of chemistry, mineralogy and geology in 
the university of North Carolina. This chair he exchanged for 
that of mathematics and physics at Yale in 1825; in 1836, when 
this professorship was divided, he retained that of astronomy 
and natural philosophy. He died at New Haven, Connecticut, 
on the 13th of May 1859. 

His first publication (1 824-1 825) was the Report of his geological 
survey of the state of North Carolina. It was followed by various 
text-books on natural philosophy and astronomy, but he is chiefly 
known to the scientific world for his observations on hail (1830), 
on meteors and on the aurora borealis (see Smithsonian Contributions, 
vol. viii.). 

OLMSTED, FREDERICK LAW (1822-1903), American land- 
scape architect, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on the 27th 
of April 1822. From his earliest years he was a wanderer. 
While still a lad he shipped before the mast as a sailor; then he 
took a course in the Yale Scientific School; worked for several 
farmers; and, finally, began farming for himself on Staten 
Island, where he met Calvert Vaux, with whom later he formed 
a business partnership. All this time he wrote for the agricul- 
tural papers. In 1850 he made a walking tour through England, 
his observations being published in Walks and Talks of an 
American Farmer in England (1852). A horseback trip through 
the Southern States was recorded in A Journey in the Seaboard 
Slave States (1856), A Journey through Texas (1857) and A 
Journey in the Back Country (i860). These three volumes, 
reprinted in England in two as Journeys and Explorations in the 
Cotton Kingdom (1861), gave a picture of the conditions surround- 
ing American slavery that had great influence on British opinion, 
and they were much quoted in the controversies at the time of the 
Civil War. During the war he was the untiring secretary of the 
U.S. Sanitary Commission. He happened to be in New York 
City when Central Park was projected, and, in conjunction with 
Vaux, proposed the plan which, in competition with more than 
thirty others, won first prize. Olmsted was made superintendent 
to carry out the plan. This was practically the first attempt in 
the United States to apply art to the improvement or embellish- 
ment of nature in a public park; it attracted great attention, 
and the work was so satisfactorily done that he was engaged 
thereafter in most of the important works of a similar nature in 
America — Prospect Park, Brooklyn; Fairmount Park, Phila- 
delphia; South Park, Chicago; Riverside and Morningside 
Parks, New York; Mount Royal Park, Montreal; the grounds 
surrounding the Capitol at Washington, and at Leland Stanford 
University at Palo Alto (California) ; and many others. He took 
the bare stretch of lake front at Chicago and developed it into 
the beautiful World's Fair grounds, placing all the buildings and 
contributing much to the architectural beauty and the success 
of the exposition. He was greatly interested in the Niagara 
reservation, made the plans for the park there, and also did much 
to influence the state of New York to provide the Niagara Park. 
He was the first commissioner of the National Park of the 
Yosemite and the Mariposa Grove, directing the survey and 
taking charge of the property for the state of California. He 
had also held directing appointments under the cities of New 
York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Wilmington and San 
Francisco, the Joint Committee on Buildings and Grounds of 
Congress, the Niagara Falls Reservation Commission, the 
trustees of Harvard, Yale, Amherst and other colleges and public 
institutions. Subsequently to 1886 he was largely occupied in 
laying out an extensive system of parks and parkways for the 
city of Boston and the town of Brookline, and on a scheme of 
landscape improvement of Boston harbour. Olmsted received 
honorary degrees from Harvard, Amherst and Yale in 1864, 
1867 and 1893. He died on the 28th of August 1903. 



OLMUTZ (Czech, Olomouc or Holomauc), a town of Austria, 
in Moravia, 67 m. N.E. of Brunn by rail. Pop. (1900) 21,933, 
of which two-thirds are Germans. It is situated on the March, 
and is the ecclesiastical metropolis of Moravia. Until 1886 
Olmiitz was one of the strongest fortresses of Austria, but the 
fortifications have been removed, and their place is occupied by 
a town park, gardens and promenades. Like most Slavonic 
towns, it contains several large squares, the chief of which is 
adorned with a trinity column, 115 ft. high, erected in 1740. 
The most prominent church is the cathedral, a Gothic building 
of the 14th century, restored in 1883-1886, with a tower 328 ft. 
high and the biggest church-bell in Moravia. It contains the 
tomb of King Wenceslaus III., who was murdered here in 1306. 
The Mauritius church, a fine Gothic building of the 15th century, 
and the St Michael church are also worth mentioning. The 
principal secular building is the town-hall, completed in 1 the 
15th century, flanked on one side by a Gothic chapel, trans- 
formed now into a museum. It possesses a tower 250 ft. high, 
adorned with an astronomical clock, an artistic and famous 
work, executed by Antcn Pohl in 1422. The old university, 
founded in 1570 and suppressed in 1858, is now represented by 
a theological seminary, which contains a very valuable library 
and an important collection of manuscripts and early prints. 
Olmiitz is an important railway junction, and is the emporium 
of a busy mining and industrial district. Its industries include 
brewing and distilling and the manufacture of malt, sugar and 

Olmiitz is said to occupy the site of a Roman fort founded 
in the imperial period, the original name of which, Mons Julii, 
has been gradually corrupted to the present form. At a later 
period Olmiitz was long the capital of the Slavonic kingdom of 
Moravia, but it ceded that position to Brunn in 1640. The 
Mongols were defeated here in 1241 by Yaroslav von Sternberg. 
During the Thirty Years' War it was occupied by the Swedes 
for eight years. The town was originally fortified by Maria 
Theresa during the wars with Frederick the Great, who besieged 
the town unsuccessfully for seven weeks in 1758. In 1848 
Olmiitz was the scene of the emperor Ferdinand's abdication, 
and in 1850 an important conference took place here between 
Austrian and German statesmen. The bishopric of Olmiitz 
was founded in 1073, and raised to the rank of an archbishopric 
in 1777. The bishops were created princes of the empire in 1588. 
The archbishop is the only one in the Austrian empire who is 
elected by the cathedral chapter. 

See W. Miiller, Geschichte der koniglichen Hauptstadt Olmiitz 
(2nd ed., Olmiitz, 1895). 

OLNEY, RICHARD (1835- ), American statesman, was 
born at Oxford, Massachusetts, on the 15th of September 1835. 
He graduated from Brown University in 1856, and from the Law 
School of Harvard University in 1858. In 1859 he began the 
practice of law at Boston, Massachusetts, and attained a high 
position at the bar. He served in the state house of repre- 
sentatives in 1874, and in March 1893 became attorney-general 
of the United States in the cabinet of President Cleveland. 
In this position, during the strike of the railway employes in 
Chicago in 1894, he instructed the district attorneys to secure 
from the Federal Courts writs of injunction restraining the 
strikers from acts of violence, and thus set a precedent for 
" government by injunction." He also advised the use of 
Federal troops to quell the disturbances in the city, on the 
ground that the government must prevent interference with its 
mails and with the general railway transportation between the 
states. Upon the death of Secretary W. Q. Gresham (1832-1895), 
Olney succeeded him as secretary of state on the roth of June 
1895. He became specially prominent in the controversy with 
Great Britain concerning the boundary dispute between the 
British and Venezuelan governments (see Venezuela), and in 
his correspondence with Lord Salisbury gave an extended 
interpretation to the Monroe Doctrine which went considerably 
beyond previous statements on the subject. In 1897, at the 
expiration of President Cleveland's term, he returned to the 
practice of the law. 

OLNEY, a market town in the Buckingham parliamentary 
division of Buckinghamshire, England, 59 m. N.W. by N. of 
London, on a branch of the Midland railway. Pop. of urban 
district (1901) 2634. It lies in the open valley of the Ouse on 
the north (left) bank of the river. The church of St Peter and 
St Paul is Decorated. It has a fine tower and spire; and the 
chancel has a northerly inclination from the alignment of the 
nave. The town is chiefly noted for its connexion with William 
Cowper, who came to live here in 1767 and remained until 1786, 
when he removed to the neighbouring village of Weston Under- 
wood. His house and garden at Olney retain relics of the poet, 
and the house at Weston also remains. In the garden at Olney 
are his favourite seat and the house in which he kept his tame 
hares. John Newton, curate of Olney, had the assistance of 
Cowper in the production of the collection of Olney Hymns. 
The trade of Olney is principally agricultural; the town also 
shares in the manufacture of boots and shoes common to many 
places in the neighbouring county of Northampton. 

OLNEY, a city and the county-seat of Richland county, 
Illinois, U.S.A., about 30 m. W. of Vincennes, Indiana. Pop. 
1(1890) 3831; (1900) 4260 (235 foreign-born); (1910) 501 1. 
Olney is served by the Baltimore & Ohio South-western, the 
Illinois Central, and the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton railways, 
and is a terminus of the Ohio River Division of the last. It 
has a Carnegie library and a city park of 55 acres. Olney is 
an important shipping point for the agricultural products of 
this district; oil is found in the vicinity; and the city has various 
manufactures. The municipality owns its water-works. Olney 
was settled about 1842 and was first chartered as a city in 1867. 
OLONETS, a government of north-western Russia, extending 
from Lake Ladoga almost to the White Sea, bounded W. by 
Finland, N. and E. by Archangel and Vologda, and S. by 
Novgorod and St Petersburg. The area is 57,422 sq. m., of which 
6794 sq. m. are lakes. Its north-western portion belongs oro- 
graphically and geologically to the Finland region; it is thickly 
dotted with hills reaching 1000 ft. in altitude, and diversified 
by numberless smaller ridges and hollows running from north- 
west to south-east. The rest of the government is a flat plateau 
sloping towards the marshy lowlands of the south. The geological 
structure is very varied. Granites, syenites and diorites, 
covered with Laurentian metamorphic slates, occur extensively 
in the north-west. Near Lake Onega they are overlain with 
Devonian sandstones and limestones, yielding marble and 
sandstone for building; to the south of that lake Carboniferous 
limestones and clays make their appearance. The whole is 
sheeted with boulder-clay, the bottom moraine of the great 
ice-sheet of the Glacial period. The entire region bears traces 
of glaciation, either in the shape of scratchings and elongated 
grooves on the rocks, or of eskers (asar, selgas) running parallel to 
the glacial striations. Numberless lakes occupy the depressions, 
while a great many more have left evidences of their existence 
in the extensive marshes. Lake Onega covers 3764 sq. m., and 
reaches a depth of 400 ft. Lakes Zeg, Vyg, Lacha, Loksha, 
Tulos and Vodl cover from 140 to 480 sq. m. each, and their 
crustacean fauna indicates a former connexion with the Arctic 
Ocean. The south-eastern part of Lake Ladoga falls also within 
the government of Olonets. The rivers drain to the Baltic and 
White Sea basins. To the former system belong Lakes Ladoga 
and Onega, which are connected by the Svir and receive numerous 
streams; of these the Vytegra, which communicates with the 
Mariinsk canal-system, and the Oyat, an affluent of Lake Ladoga, 
are important for navigation. Large quantities of timber, 
fire-wood, stone, metal and flour are annually shipped on waters 
belonging to this government. The Onega river, which has its 
source in the south-east of the government and flows into the 
White Sea, is of minor importance. Sixty-three per cent of the 
area of Olonets is occupied by forests; those of the crown, 
maintained for shipbuilding purposes, extend to more than 
800,000 acres. The climate is harsh and moist, the average 
yearly temperature at Petrozavodsk (6i° 8' N.) being 33 '6° F. 
(12-0° in January, 57-4° in July); but the thermometer rarely 
falls below— 30 F. 

9 2 


The population, which numbered 321,250 in 1881, reached 
367,902 in 1897, and 401,100 (estimate) in 1906. They are 
principally Great Russians and Finns. The people belong 
mostly to the Orthodox Greek Church, or are Nonconformists. 
Rye and oats are the principal crops, and some flax, barley 
and turnips are grown, but the total cultivated area does not 
exceed 2^% of the whole government. The chief source of 
wealth is timber, next to which come fishing and hunting. 
Mushrooms and berries are exported to St Petersburg. There 
are quarries and iron-mines, saw-mills, tanneries, iron-works, 
distilleries and flour-mills. More than one-fifth of the entire 
male population leave their homes every year in search of tem- 
porary employment. Olonets is divided into seven districts, 
of which the chief towns are Petrozavodsk, Kargopol, Lodeinoye 
Pole, Olonets, Povyenets, Pudozh and Vytegra. It includes 
the Olonets mining district, a territory belonging to the crown, 
which covers 432 sq. m. and extends into the Serdob6l district 
of Finland; the ironworks were begun by Peter the Great in 
i7oi-i7r4. Olonets was colonized by Novgorod in the nth 
century, and though it suffered much from Swedish invasion its 
towns soon became wealthy trading centres. Ivan III. annexed 
it to the principality of Moscow in the second half of the 16th 

OLOPAN, Olopuen or Olopen (probably a Chinese form 
of the Syriac Rabban, i.e. monk: fl. a.d. 635), the first Christian 
missionary in China (setting aside vague stories of St Thomas, 
St Bartholomew, &c), and founder of the Nestorian Church 
in the Far East. According to the Si-ngan-fu inscription, our 
sole authority, Olopan came to China from Ta T'sin (the Roman 
empire) in the ninth year of the emperor T'ai-Tsung (a.d. 635), 
bringing sacred books and images. He was received with favour; 
his teaching was examined and approved; his Scriptures were 
translated for the imperial library; and in 638 an imperial edict 
declared Christianity a tolerated religion. T'ai-Tsung's successor, 
Kao-Tsung (650-683), was still more friendly, and Olopan now 
became a " guardian of the empire " and " lord of the great 
law." After this followed (c. 683-744) a time of disfavour and 
oppression for Chinese Christians, followed by a revival dating 
from the arrival of a fresh missionary, Kiho, from the Roman 

The Si-ngan-fu inscription, which alone records these facts, 
was erected in 781, and rediscovered in 1625 by workmen digging 
in the Chang-ngan suburb of Si-ngan-fu city. It consists of 
1789 Chinese characters, giving a history of the Christian mission 
down to 781, together with a sketch of Nestorian doctrine, the 
decree of T'ai-Tsung in favour of Christianity, the date of erection, 
and names of various persons connected with the church in China 
when the monument was put up. Additional notes in Syriac 
(Estrangelo characters) repeat the date and record the names 
of the reigning Nestorian patriarch, the Nestorian bishop in 
China, and a number of the Nestorian clergy. 

See Kircher, China lllustrata; G. Pauthier, De V authenticity de 
V inscription nestorienne de Si-ngan-fou (Paris, 1857) and L 'inscription 
syro-chinoise de Si-ngan-fou (Paris, 1858); Henry Yule, Cathay, 
Preliminary Essay, xcii.-xciv. clxxxi.-clxxxiii. (London, Hakluyt Soc, 
1866); F. Hirth, China and the Roman Orient, 323, &c. ; Father 
Henri Havret, La stele chritienne de Si-ngan-fou, two parts (text 
and history) published out of three (Shanghai, 1895 and 1897) ; 
Dr James Legge's edition and translation of the text, The Nestorian 
Monument of Hsi-an-Fu (London, 1888); Yule and Cordier, Marco 
Polo, ii. 27-29 (London, 1903) ; C. R. Beazley, Dawn of Modern 
Geography, i. 215-218. 

OLORON-SAINTE-MARIE, a town of south-western France, 
capital of an arrondissement in the department of Basses- 
Pyrenees, 21 m. S.W. of Pau on a branch of the Southern railway. 
It lies at the confluence of the mountain torrents (locally known 
as gaves) Aspe and Ossau, which, after dividing it into three 
parts, unite to form the Oloron, a tributary of the Pau. The 
united population of the old feudal town of Sainte-Croix or 
Oloron proper, which is situated on an eminence between the 
two rivers, of Sainte-Marie on the left bank of the Aspe, and of 
the new quarters on the right bank of the Ossau, is 7715. Oloron 
has remains of old ramparts and pleasant promenades with 
beautiful views, and there are several old houses of the 15th, 

1 6th and 17 th centuries, one of which is occupied by the h6tel 
de ville. The church of Sainte-Croix, the building of most 
interest, belongs mainly to the nth century; the chief feature 
of the exterior is the central Byzantine cupola; in the interior 
there is a large altar of gilded wood, constructed in the Spanish 
style of the 17th century. The church of Sainte-Marie, which 
formerly served as the cathedral of Oloron, is in the old ecclesi- 
astical quarter of Sainte-Marie. It is a medley of various styles 
from the nth to the 14th century. A square tower at the west 
end shelters a fine Romanesque portal. In the new quarter 
there is the modern church of Notre-Dame. Remains of a castle 
of the 14th century are also still to be seen. Oloron is the 
seat of a sub-prefect, and its public institutions include tribunals 
of first instance and of commerce, and a chamber of arts and 
manufactures. It is the most important commercial centre of its 
department after Bayonne, and carries on a thriving trade with 
Spain by way of the passes of Somport and Anso. 

A Celtiberian and then a Gallo-Roman town, known as Iluro, 
occupied the hill on which Sainte-Croix now stands. Devastated 
by the Vascones in the 6th and by the Saracens in the 8th century, 
it was abandoned, and it was not until the nth century that 
the quarter of Sainte-Marie was re-established by the bishops. 
In 1080 the viscount of Beam took possession of the old town. 
The two quarters remained distinct till the union of Beam with 
the crown at the accession of Henry IV. At the Reformation 
the place became a centre of Catholic reaction. In the 17th 
century it carried on a considerable trade with Aragon, until 
the Spaniards, jealous of its prosperity, pillaged the establish- 
ments of the Oloron merchants at Saragossa in 1694 — a disaster 
from which it only slowly recovered. The bishopric was sup- 
pressed in 1790. 

OLSHAUSEN, HERMANN (1796-1839), German theologian, 
was born at Oldeslohe in Holstein on the 21st of August 1796, 
and was educated at the universities of Kiel (1814) and Berlin 
(1816), where he was influenced by Schleiermacher and Neander. 
In 1820 he became Privatdozent and in 1821 professor extra- 
ordinarius at Berlin; in 1827 professor at Konigsberg, in 1834 
atErlangen. He died on the 4th of September 1839. Olshausen's 
department was New Testament exegesis; his Commentary 
(completed and revised by Ebrard and Wiesinger) began to 
appear at Konigsberg in 1830, and was translated into English 
in 4 vols. (Edinburgh, 1847-1849). He had prepared for it by 
his other works, Die Achtheit d. iiier Kanon. Evangelien (1823), 
Ein Wort iiber tieferen Schriftsinn (1824) and Die biblische 
Schriftauslegung (1825). 

OLTENITZA (Oltenita), a town of Rumania, on the left bank 
of the river Argesh, 33 m. from its outflow into the Danube, 
and at a terminus of a branch railway from Bucharest. Pop. 
(1900) 5801. The principal trade is in grain, timber (floated 
down the Argesh) and fish. Lake Greca, famous for its carp, 
lies 10 m. E. and has an area of about 45 sq. m. Its waters 
reach the Danube through a network of streams, marshes and 
meres. Oltenitza is the ancient Constantiola, which was the 
seat of the first bishopric established in Dacia. In the Crimean 
War the Turks forced the river at this point and inflicted heavy 
losses on the Russians. 

OLUSTEE, a. village of Baker county, Florida, U.S.A., in 
the precinct of Olustee, about 46 m. W. by S. of Jacksonville. 
Pop. of the precinct (1910) 466. The village is served by the 
Seaboard Air Line. The battle of Olustee, or Ocean Pond (the 
name of a small body of water in the vicinity), one of the most 
sanguinary engagements of the Civil War in proportion to the 
numbers engaged, was fought on the 20th of February 1864, about 
2 m. east of Olustee, between about 5500 Federal troops, under 
General Truman Seymour (1824-1891), and about 5400 Con- 
federates, under General Joseph Finegan, the Federal forces 
being decisively defeated, with a loss, in killed and wounded, 
of about one-third of their number, including several officers. 
The Confederate losses, in killed and wounded, were about 940. 

OLYBRIUS, Roman emperor of the West from the nth of 
July to the 23rd of October 472, was a member of a noble family 
and a native of Rome. After the sack of the city by Genseric 



(Geiseric) in 455, he fled to Constantinople, where in 464 he was 
made consul, and about the same time married Placidia, daughter 
of Valentinian III. and Eudoxia. This afforded Genseric, 
whose son Hunneric had married Eudocia, the elder sister 
of Placidia, the opportunity of claiming the empire of the 
West for Olybrius, In 472 Olybrius was sent to Italy by the 
emperor Leo to assist the emperor Anthemius against his 
son-in-law Ricimer, but, having entered into negotiations with 
the latter, was himself proclaimed emperor against his will, and 
on the murder of his rival ascended the throne unopposed. His 
reign was as uneventful as it was brief. 

See Gibbon, Decline and Fall, ch. xxxvi.; J. B. Bury, Later Roman 

OLYMPIA, the scene of the famous Olympic games, is on the 
right or north bank of the Alpheus (mod. Ruphia), about n m. 
E. of the modern Pyrgos. The course of the river is here from 
E. to W., and the average breadth of the valley is about f m. 
At this point a small stream, the ancient Cladeus, flows from 
the north into the Alpheus. The area known as Olympia is 
bounded on the west by the Cladeus, on the south by the Alpheus, 
on the north by the low heights which shut in the Alpheus valley, 
and on the east by the ancient racecourses. One group of the 
northern heights terminates in a conical hill, about 400 ft. high, 
which is cut off from the rest by a deep cleft, and descends 
abruptly on Olympia. This hill is the famous Cronion, sacred to 
Cronus, the father of Zeus. 

The natural situation of Olympia is, in one sense, of great 
beauty. When Lysias, in his Olympiacus (spoken here) , calls it 
" the fairest spot of Greece," he was doubtless thinking also — 
or perhaps chiefly — of the masterpieces which art, in all its forms, 
had contributed to the embellishment of this national sanctuary. 
But even now the praise seems hardly excessive to a visitor who, 
looking eastward up the fertile and well- wooded valley of Olympia, 
sees the snow-crowned chains of Erymanthus and Cyllene rising 
in the distance. The valley, at once spacious and definite, is a 
natural precinct, and it is probable that no artificial boundaries 
of the Altis, or sacred grove, existed until comparatively late 

History. — The importance of Olympia in the history of 
Greece is religious and political. The religious associations of the 
place date from the prehistoric age, when, before the states of 
Elis and Pisa had been founded, there was a centre of worship 
in this valley which is attested by early votive offerings found 
beneath the Heraeum and an altar near it. The earliest extant 
building on the site is the temple of Hera-, which probably dates 
in its original form from about 1000 B.C. There were various 
traditions as to the origin of the games. According to one of 
them, the first race was that between Pelops and Oenomaus, 
who used to challenge the suitors of his daughter Hippodameia 
and then slay them. According to another, the festival was 
founded by Heracles, either the well-known hero or the Idaean 
Dactyl of that name. The control of the festival belonged in 
early times to Pisa, but Elis seems to have claimed association 
with it. Sixteen women, representing eight towns of Elis and 
eight of Pisatis, wove the festal robe for the Olympian Hera. 
Olympia thus became the centre of an amphictyony (q.v.), or 
federal league under religious sanction, for the west coast of 
the Peloponnesus, as Delphi was for its neighbours in northern 
Greece. It suited the interests of Sparta to join this amphictyony ; 
and, before the regular catalogue of Olympic victors begins in 
776 B.C., Sparta had formed an alliance with Elis. Aristotle 
saw in the temple of Hera at Olympia a bronze disk, recording 
the traditional laws of the festival, on which the name of Lycurgus 
stood next to that of Iphitus, king of Elis. Whatever may have 
been the age of the disk itself, the relation which it indicates is 
well attested. Elis and Sparta, making common cause, had no 
difficulty in excluding the Pisatans from their proper share in the 
management of the Olympian sanctuary. Pisa had, indeed, a 
brief moment of better fortune, when Pheidon of Argos 
celebrated the 28th Olympiad under the presidency of the 
Pisatans. This festival, from which the Eleans and Spartans 
were excluded, was afterwards struck out of the official register, 

as having no proper existence. The destruction of Pisa (before 
572 B.C.) by the combined forces of Sparta and Elis put an end 
to the long rivalry. Not only Pisatis, but also the district of 
Triphylia to the south of it, became dependent on Elis, So far 
as the religious side of the festival was concerned, the Eleans had 
an unquestioned supremacy. It was at Elis, in the gymnasium, 
that candidates from all parts of Greece were tested, before they 
were admitted to the athletic competitions at Olympia. To have 
passed through the training (usually of ten months) at Elis was 
regarded as the most valuable preparation. Elean officials, who 
not only adjudged the prizes at Olympia, hut decided who should 
be admitted to compete, marked the national aspect of their 
functions by assuming the title of Hellanodicae. 

Long before the overthrow of Pisa the list of contests had been 
so enlarged as to invest the celebration with a Panhellenic 
character. Exercises of a Spartan type — testing endurance and 
strength with an especial view to war- — had almost exclusively 
formed the earlier programme. But as early as the 25th 
Olympiad — i.e. several years before the interference of Pheidon 
on behalf of Pisa — the four-horse chariot-race was added. This 
was an invitation to wealthy competitors from every part of 
the Hellenic world, and was also the recognition of a popular 
or spectacular element, as distinct from the skill which had 
a merely athletic or military interest. Horse-races were added 
later. For such contests the hippodrome was set apart. Mean- 
while the list of contests on the old racecourse, the stadium, had 
been enlarged. Besides the foot-race in which the course was 
traversed once only, there were now the diatdos or double 
course, and the " long " foot-race (dolichos). Wrestling and 
boxing were combined in the pancration. Leaping, quoit- 
throwing, javelin-throwing, running and wrestling were com- 
bined in the pentathlon. The festival was to acquire a new 
importance under the protection of the Spartans, who, having 
failed in their plans of actual conquest in the Peloponnese, sought 
to gain at least the hegemony (acknowledged predominance) 
of the peninsula. As the Eleans, therefore, were the religious 
supervisors of Olympia, so the Spartans aimed at constituting 
themselves its political protectors. Their military strength — 
greatly superior at the time to that of any other state— enabled 
them to do this. Spartan arms could enforce the sanction which 
the Olympian Zeus gave to the oaths of the amphictyones, 
whose federal bond was symbolized by common worship at his 
shrine. Spartan arms could punish any violation of that " sacred 
truce " which was indispensable if Hellenes from all cities were 
to have peaceable access to the Olympian festival. And in the 
eyes of all Dorians the assured dignity thus added to Olympia 
would be enhanced by the fact that the protectors were the 
Spartan Heraclidae. 

Olympia entered on a new phase of brilliant and secure exist- 
ence as a recognized Panhellenic institution. This phase may 
be considered as beginning after the establishment of Elean 
supremacy in 57 2 B.C. And so to the last Olympia always remained 
a central expression of the Greek ideas that the body of man has 
a glory as well as his intellect and spirit, that body and mind 
should alike be disciplined, and that it is by the harmonious 
discipline of both that men best honour Zeus. The significance 
of Olympia was larger and higher than the political fortunes 
of the Greeks who met there, and it survived the overthrow of 
Greek independence. In the Macedonian and Roman ages the 
temples and contests of Olympia still interpreted the ideal at 
which free Greece had aimed. Philip of Macedon and Nero are, 
as we shall see, among those whose names have a record in the 
Altis. Such names are typical of long series of visitors who paid 
homage to Olympia. According to Cedrenus, a Greek writer 
of the nth century (Siwi/'is '\arofnuiv, i. 326), the Olympian 
festival ceased to be held after a.d. 303, the first year of the 293rd 
Olympiad. The list of Olympian victors, which begins in 776 B.C. 
with Coroebus of Elis, closes with the name of an Armenian, 
Varastad, who is said to have belonged to the race of the Arsacidae. 
In the 5th century the desolation of Olympia had set in. The 
chryselephantine statue of the Olympian Zeus, by Pheidias, was 
carried to Constantinople, and perished in a great fire, a.d. 476. 



The Olympian temple of Zeus is said to have been dismantled, 
either by the Goths or by Christian zeal, in the reign of Theodosius 
II. (a.d. 402-450). After this the inhabitants converted the 
temple of Zeus and the region to the south of it into a fortress, by 
constructing a wall from materials found among the ancient 
buildings. The temple was probably thrown down by earth- 
quakes in the 6th century a.d. 

Excavations. — The German excavations were begun in 1875. 
After six campaigns, of which the first five lasted from September 
to June, they were completed on the 20th of March 1881. The 
result of these six years' labours was, first, to strip off a thick 
covering of earth from the Altis, the consecrated precinct of 
the Olympian Zeus. This covering had been formed, during some 
twelve centuries, partly by clay swept down from the Cronion, 
partly by deposit from the overflowings of the Cladeus. The 
coating of earth over the Altis had an average depth of no less 
than 16 ft. 

The work could not, however, be restricted to the Altis. It 
was necessary to dig beyond it, especially on the west, the south 
and the east, where several ancient buildings existed, not in- 
cluded within the sacred precinct itself. The complexity of the 
task was further increased by the fact that in many places early 
Greek work had later Greek on top of it, or late Greek work 
had been overlaid with Roman. In a concise survey of the results 
obtained, it will be best to begin with the remains external to 
the precinct of Zeus. 

I. Remains outside the Altis 

A. West Side. — The wall bounding the Altis on the west belongs 
probably to the time of Nero. In the west wall were two gates, 
one at its northern and the other at its southern extremity. The 
latter must have served as the processional entrance. Each gate 
was Tp6tTTv\os, having before it on the west a colonnade consisting 
of a row of four columns. There is a third and smaller gate at about 
the middle point of the west wall, and nearly opposite the Pelopion 
in the Altis. 

West of the west Altis wall, on the strip of ground between the 

Altis and the river Cladeus (of which the course is roughly parallel 
to the west Altis wall), the following buildings were traced. The 
order in which they are placed here is that in which they succeed 
each other from north to south. 

1. Just outside the Altis at its north-west corner was a Gymnasium. 
A large open space, not regularly rectangular, was enclosed on two 
sides — possibly on three — by Doric colonnades. On the south it 
was bordered by a portico with a single row of columns in front; 
on the east by a double portico, more than a stadium in length 
(220 yds.), and serving as a racecourse for practice in bad weather. 
At the south-east corner of_ the gymnasium, in the angle between 
the south and the east portico, was a Corinthian doorway, which a 
double row of columns divided into three passages. Immediately 
to the east of this doorway was the gate giving access to the Altis 
at its north-west corner. The gymnasium was u^ed as an exercise 
ground for competitors during the last month of their training. 

2. Immediately adjoining the gymnasium on the south was a 
Palaestra, the place of exercise for wrestlers and boxers. It was 
in the form of a square, of which each side was about 70 yds. long, 
enclosing an inner building surrounded by a Doric colonnade. 
Facing this inner building on north, east and west were rooms of 
different sizes, to which doors or colonnades gave access. The 
chief entrances to the palaestra were at south-west and south-east, 
separated by a double colonnade which extended along the south 

3. Near the palaestra on the south a" Byzantine church forms 
the central point in a complex group_ of remains, (a) The church 
itself occupies the site of an older brick building, which is perhaps 
a remnant of the " workshop of Pheidias " seen by Pausanias. 
(b) North of the church is a square court with a well in the middle, 
of the Hellenic age. (c) West of this is a small circular structure, 
enclosed^ by square walls. An altar found (in situ) on the south side 
of the circular enclosure shows by an inscription that this was the 
Heroum, where worship of the heroes was practised down to a late 
period, (d) East of the court stood a large building, of Roman 
age at latest, arranged round an inner hall with colonnades. These 
buildings probably formed the Theocoleon, house of the priests, 
(e) There is also a long and narrow building on the south of the 
Byzantine church. This may have been occupied by the <f>cuSp(ivrai, 
those alleged " descendants of Pheidias " (Pausanias v. 14) whose 
hereditary privilege it was to keep the statue of Zeus clean. The 
so-called " workshop of Pheidias " (see a) evidently owed its preser- 
vation to the fact that it continued to be used for actual work, 

Plan of 

Scale of Yard**. 
to 20 30 40 50 


? M \ M 


V .pfS i,leo 4, Metr ' ;s 


Water Courses shown thus:- 

tdxtt DOrpteX* 

Emery Xylite* ifr 



and the adjacent building would have been a convenient lodging 
for the artists. 

4. South of the group described above occur the remains of a 
large building shown by its inscription to be the Leonidaeum, 
dedicated by an Elean named Leonidas in the 4th century B.C., 
and probably intended for the reception of distinguished visitors 
during the games, such as the heads of the special missions from 
the various Greek cities. It is an oblong, of which the north and 
south sides measure about 250 ft,, the east and west about 230. 
Its orientation differs from that of all the other buildings above 
mentioned, being not from N. to S., but from W.S.W. to E.N.E. 
Externally it is an Ionic peripteros, enclosing suites of rooms, large 
and small, grouped round a small interior Doric peristyle. In Roman 
times it was altered in such a way as to distribute the rooms into 
(apparently) four quarters, each having an atrium with six or four 
columns. Traces existing within the exterior porticos on north, 
west and east indicate much carriage traffic. 

B. South Side. — Although the limits of the Altis on the south 
(i.e. on the side towards the Alpheus) can be traced with approxi- 
mate accuracy, the precise line of the south wall becomes doubtful 
after we have advanced a little more than one-third of the distance 
from the west to the east end of the south side. The middle and 
eastern portions of the south side were places at which architectural 
changes, large or small, were numerous down to the latest times, 
and where the older buildings met with scant mercy. 

1. The Council Hall (Bouleuterium, Paus. v. 23) was just outside 
the Altis, nearly at the middle of its south wall. It comprised 
two separate Doric buildings of different date but identical form, viz. 
oblong, having a single row of columns dividing the length into two 
naves and terminating to the west in a semicircular apse. The 
orientation of each was from west-south-west to east-north-east, one 
being south-south-east of the other. In the space between stood a 
small square building. In front, on the east, was a portico extending 
along the front of all three buildings; and east of this again a 
large trapeze-shaped vestibule or fore-hall, enclosed by a colonnade. 
This bouleuterium would have been available on all occasions when 
Olympia became the scene of conference or debate between the 
representatives of different states — whether the subject was properly 
political, as concerning the amphictyonic treaties, or related more 
directly to the administration of the sanctuary and festival. Two 
smaller Hellenic buildings stood immediately west of the bouleu- 
terium. The more northerly of the two opened on the Altis. Their 
purpose is uncertain. 

2. Close to the bouleuterium on the south, and running parallel 
with it from south-west by west to north-east by east, was the South 
Colonnade, a late but handsome structure, closed on the north side, 
open on the south and at the east and west ends. _ The external 
colonnade (on south, east and west) was Doric; the interior row of 
columns Corinthian. It was used as a promenade, and as a place 
from which to view the festal processions as they passed towards 
the Altis. 

3. East of the bouleuterium was a triumphal gateway of Roman 
age, with triple entrance, the central being the widest, opening on 
the Altis from the south. North of this gateway, but at a somewhat 
greater depth, traces of a pavement were found in the Altis. 

C. East Side. — The line of the east wall, running due north and 
south, can be traced from the north-east corner of the Altis down 
about three-fifths of the east side, when it breaks off at the remains 
known as " Nero's house." These are the first which claim attention 
on the east side. 

1. To the south-east of the Altis is a building of 4th-century date 
and of uncertain purpose. This was afterwards absorbed into a 
Roman house which projected beyond the Altis on the east, the 
south part of the east Altis wall being destroyed to admit of this. 
A piece of leaden water-pipe found in the house bears NER. AVG. 
Only a Roman master could have dealt thus with the Altis, and with 
a building which stood within its sacred precinct. It cannot be 
doubted that the Roman house — from which three doors gave access 
to the Altis — was that occupied by Nero when he visited Olympia. 
Later Roman hands again enlarged and altered the building, 
which may perhaps have been used for the reception of Roman 

2. Following northwards the line of the east wall, we reach at 
the north-east corner of the Altis the entrance to the Stadium, which 
extends east of the Altis in a direction from west-south-west to 
east-north-east. The apparently strange and inconvenient position 
of the Stadium relatively to the Altis was due simply to the necessity 
of obeying the conditions of the ground, here determined by the 
curve of the lowe~ slopes which bound the valley on the north. The 
German explorers excavated the Stadium so far as was necessary 
for the ascertainment of all essential points. Low embankments 
had originally been built on west, east and south, the north boundary 
being formed by the natural slope of the hill. These were after- 
wards thickened and raised. The space thus defined was a large 
oblong, about 234 yds. in length by 35 in breadth. There were no 
artificial seats. It is computed that from 40,000 to 45,000 spectators 
could have found sitting-room, though it is hardly probable that 
such a number was ever reached. The exact length of the Stadium 
itself — which was primarily the course for the foot-race— was about 
210 yds. or 192-27 metres — an important result, as it determines 

the Olympian foot to be 0-3204 metre or- a little more than an 
English foot (1-05). In the Heraeum at Olympia, it may be remarked, 
the unit adopted was not this Olympian foot, but an older one of 
0-297 metre, and in the temple of Zeus an Attic foot of 1-08 English 
foot was used. The starting-point and the goal in the Stadium 
were marked by limestone thresholds. Provision for drainage was 
made by a channel running round the enclosure. The Stadium was 
used not only for foot-races, but for boxing, wrestling, leaping, 
quoit-throwing and javelin-throwing. 

The entrance to the Stadium from the north-east corner of the 
Altis was a privileged one, reserved for the judges of the games, 
the competitors and the heralds. Its form was that of a vaulted 
tunnel, 100 Olympian feet in length. It was probably constructed 
in Roman times. To the west was a vestibule, from which the Altis 
was entered by a handsome gateway. 

3. The Hippodrome, in which the chariot-races and horse-races 
were held, can no longer be accurately traced. The overflowings of 
the Alpheus have washed away all certain indications of its limits. 
But it is clear that it extended south and south-east of the Stadium, 
and roughly parallel with it, though stretching far beyond it to 
the east. From the state of the ground the German explorers 
inferred that the length of the hippodrome was 770 metres or 4 
Olympic stadia. 

D. North Side. — If the northern limit of the Altis, like the west, 
south and east, had been traced by a boundary wall, this would 
have had the effect of excluding from the precinct a spot so sacred 
as the Cronion, " Hill of Cronus," inseparably associated with the 
oldest worship of Zeus at Olympia. It seems therefore unlikely 
that any such northern boundary wall ever existed. But the line 
which such a boundary would have followed is partly represented by 
the remains of a wall running from east to west immediately north 
of the treasure-houses (see below), which it was designed to protect 
against the descent of earth from the Cronion just above. This 
was the wall along which, about a.d. 157, the main water-channel 
constructed by Herodes Atticus was carried. 

Having now surveyed the chief remains external to the sacred 
precinct on west, south, east and north, we proceed to notice those 
which have been traced within it. 

II. — Remains within the Altis 
The form of the Altis, as indicated by the existing traces, is not 
regularly rectangular. The length of the west side, where the line 
of direction is from south-south-east to north-north-west, is about 
215 yds. The south side, running nearly due east and west, is 
about equally long, if measured from the end of the west wall to 
the point which the east wall would touch when produced due south 
in a straight line from the place at which it was demolished to 
make way for " Nero's house." The east side, measured to a point 
just behind the treasure-houses, is the shortest, about 200 yds. 
The north side is the longest. A line drawn eastward behind the 
treasure-houses, from the Prytaneum at the north-west angle, would 
give about 275 yds. 

The remains or sites within the Altis may conveniently be classed 
in three main groups, viz. — (A) the chief centres of religious worship ; 
(B) _ votive buildings; (C) buildings, &c, connected with the ad- 
ministration of Olympia or the reception of visitors. 

A. Chief Centres of Religious Worship. — 1 . There are traces of an 
altar near the Heraeum which was probably older than the great 
altar of Zeus; this was probably the original centre of worship. 
The great altar of Zeus was of elliptic form, the length of the lozenge 
being directed from south-south-west to north-north-east, in such a 
manner that the axis would pass through the Cronion. The upper 
structure imposed on this basis was in two tiers, and also, probably, 
lozenge-shaped. This was the famous " ash-altar " at which the 
Iamidae, the hereditary gens of seers, practised those rights of divina- 
tion by fire in virtue of which more especially Olympia is saluted 
by Pindar as " mistress of truth." The steps by which the priests 
mounted the altar seem to have been at north and south. 

2. The_ Pelopium, to the west of the Altar of Zeus, was a small 
precinct in which sacrifices were offered to the hero Pelops. The 
traces agree with the account of Pausanias. Walls, inclined to each 
other at obtuse angles, enclosed a plot of ground having in the 
middle a low tumulus of elliptic form, about 35 metres from east 
to west by 20 from north to south. A Doric propylon with three 
doors gave access on the south-west side. 

The three temples of the Altis were those ■ of Zeus, Hera and the 
Mother of the gods. All were Doric. All, too, were completely 
surrounded by a colonnade, i.e. were " peripteral." 

3. The Temple of Zeus, south of the Pelopium, stood on a high 1 
substructure with three steps. It was probably built about 470 B.C. , 
The colonnades at the east and west side were of six columns each ; 
those at the north and south sides (counting the corner columns 
again) of thirteen each. The cella had a prodomos on the east and 
an opisthodomos on the west. The cella itself was divided longi- 
tudinally {i.e. from east to west) into three partitions by a double 
row of columns. The central partition, which was the widest, 
consisted of three sections. The west section contained the throne 
and image of the Olympian Zeus. The middle section, next to the 
east, which was shut off by low screens, contained a table and 
stelae. Here, probably, the wreaths were presented to the victors. 



The third or easternmost section was open to the public. This 
temple was most richly adorned with statues and reliefs. On the 
east front were represented in twenty-one colossal figures the moment 
before the contest between Oenomaus and Pelops. The west front 
exhibited the fight of the Lapithae and Centaurs. The statement of 
Pausanias that the two pediments were made by Paeonius and 
Alcamenes is now generally supposed to be an error. The Twelve 
Labours of Heracles were depicted on the metopes of the prodomos 
and opisthodomos; and of these reliefs much the greater part was 
found — enough to determine with certainty all the essential features 
of the composition. It was near this temple, at a point about 38 yds. 
E.S.E. from the south-east angle, that the explorers found the statue 
of a flying goddess of victory — the Nike of Paeonius. 

4. The Temple of Hera (Heraeum), north of the Pelopium, was 
raised on two steps. It is probably the oldest of extant Greek 
temples, and may date from about 1000 B.C. It has colonnades of 
six columns each at east and west, and of sixteen each (counting 
the corner columns again) at north and south. It was smaller than 
the temple of Zeus, and, while resembling it in general plan, differed 
from it by its singular length relatively to its breadth. When 
Pausanias saw it, one of the two columns of the opisthodomos (at 
the west end of the cella) was of wood ; and for a long period all 
the columns of this temple had probably been of the same material. 
A good deal of patch-work in the restoration of particular parts 
seems to have been done at various periods. Only the lower part 
of the cella wall was of stone, the rest being of unbaked brick; the 
entablature above the columns was of wood covered with terra- 
cotta. The cella — divided, like that of Zeus, into three partitions 
by a double row of columns — had four " tongue- walls," or small 
screens, projecting at right angles from its north wall, and as many 
from the south wall. Five niches were thus formed on the north side 
and five on the south. In the third niche from the east, on the north 
side of the cella, was found one of the greatest of all the treasures 
which rewarded the German explorers — the Hermes of Praxiteles 

5. The Temple of the Great Mother of the Gods (Metroum) was again 
considerably smaller than the Heraeum. It stood to the east of the 
latter, and had a different orientation, viz. not west to east, but 
west-north-west to east-south-east. It was raised on three steps, 
and had a peripteros of six columns (east and west) by eleven (north 
and south), having thus a slightly smaller length relatively to its 
breadth than either of the other two temples. Here also the cella 
had prodomos and opisthodomos. The adornment and painting of 
this temple had once been very rich and varied. It was probably 
built in the 4th century, and there are indications that in Roman 
times it underwent a restoration. 

B. Votive Edifices. — Under this head are placed buildings erected, 
either by states or by individuals, as offerings to the Olympian god. 

1. The twelve Treasure-houses on the north side of the Altis, 
immediately under the Cronion, belong to this class. 

The same general character — that of a Doric temple in antis, 
facing south — is traceable in all the treasure-houses. In the cases 
of several of these the fragments are sufficient to aid a reconstruction. 
Two — viz. the 2nd and 3rd counting from the west — had been dis- 
mantled at an early date, and their site was traversed by a roadway 
winding upward towards the Cronion. This roadway seems to have 
been older at least than A.D. 157, since it caused a deflexion in the 
watercourse along the base of the Cronion constructed by Herodes 
Atticus. Pausanias, therefore, would not have seen treasure-houses 
Nos. 2 and 3. This explains the fact that, though we can trace 
twelve, he names only ten. 

As the temples of ancient Greece partly served the purposes of 
banks in which precious objects could be securely deposited, so the 
form of a small Doric chapel was a natural one for the " treasure- 
house " to assume. Each of these treasure-houses was erected by a 
Greek state, either as a thank-offering for Olympian victories gained 
by its citizens, or as a general mark of homage to the Olympian Zeus. 
The treasure-houses were designed to contain the various iyadri/iara 
or dedicated gifts (such as gold and silver plate, &c), in which the 
wealth of the sanctuary partly consisted. The temple inventories 
recently discovered at Delos illustrate the great quantity of such 
possessions which were apt to accumulate at a shrine of Panhellenic 
celebrity. Taken in order from the west, the treasure-houses 
were founded by the following states: 1, Sicyon; 2, 3, unknown; 
4, Syracuse (referred by Pausanias to Carthage); 5, Epidamnus; 
6, Byzantium; 7, Sybaris; 8, Cyrene; 9, Selinus; 10, Metapontum; 
11, Megara; 12, Gela. It is interesting to remark how this list 
represents the Greek colonies, from Libya to Sicily, from the Euxine 
to the Adriatic. Greece proper, on the other hand, is represented 
only by Megara and Sicyon. The dates of the foundations cannot 
be fixed. The architectural members of some of the treasure-houses 
have been found built into the Byzantine wall, or elsewhere on 
the site, as well as the terra-cotta plates that overlaid the_ stone- 
work in some cases, and th« pedimental figures, representing the 
battle of the gods and giants, from the treasure-house of the 

2. The Philippeum stood near the north-west corner of the Altis, 
a short space west-south-west of the Heraeum. It was dedicated 
by Philip of Macedon, after his victory at Chaeronea (338 B.C.). 
As a thank-offering for the overthrow of Greek freedom, it might 

seem strangely placed in the Olympian Altis. But it is, in fact, 
only another illustration of the manner in which Philip's position 
and power enabled him to place a decent disguise on the real nature 
of the change. Without risking any revolt of Hellenic feeling, 
the new " captain-general " of Greece could erect a monument of 
his triumph in the very heart of the Panhellenic sanctuary. The 
building consisted of a circular Ionic colonnade (of eighteen columns), 
about 15 metres in diameter, raised on three steps and enclosing 
a small circular cella, probably adorned with fourteen Corinthian 
half-columns. It contained portraits by Leochares of Philip, 
Alexander, and other members of their family, in gold and ivory. 

3. The Exedra of Herodes Atticus stood at the north limit of the 
Altis, close to the north-east angle of the Heraeum, and immediately 
west of the westernmost treasure-house (that of Sicyon). It con- 
sisted of a half-dome of brick, 54 ft. in diameter, with south-south- 
west aspect. Under the half-dome were placed twenty-one marble 
statues, representing the family of Antoninus Pius, of Marcus 
Aurelius, and of the founder, Herodes Atticus. In front of the half- 
dome on the south, and extending slightly beyond it, was a basin of 
water for drinking, 715 ft. long. The ends of the basin at north- 
north-west and south-south-east were adorned by very small open 
temples, each with a circular colonnade of eight pillars. A marble 
bull, in front of the basin, bore an inscription saying that Herodes 
dedicates the whole to Zeus, in the name of his wife, Annia Regilla. 
The exedra must have been seen by Pausanias, but he does not 
mention it. 

C. It remains to notice those features of the Altis which were 
connected with the management of the sanctuary or with the 
accommodation of its guests. 

1. Olympia, besides its religious character, originally possessed 
also a political character, as the centre of an arnphictyony. It 
was, in fact, a sacred t6\is. We have seen that it had a bouleu- 
terium for purposes of public debate or conference. So also it was 
needful that, like a Greek city, it should have a public hearth or 
prytaneum, where fire should always burn on the altar of the 
Olympian Hestia, and where the controllers of Olympia should 
exercise public hospitality. The Prytaneum was at the north-west 
corner cf the Altis, in such a position that its south-east angle was 
close to the north-west angle of the Heraeum. It was apparently a 
square building, of which each side measured 100 Olympian feet, 
with a south-west aspect. It contained a chapel of Hestia at the 
front or south-west side, before which a portico was afterwards 
built. The dining-hall was at the back (north-east), the kitchen 
on the north-west side. On the same side with the kitchen, and 
also on the opposite side (south-east), there were some smaller 

2. The Porch of Echo, also called the " Painted Porch," extended 
to a length of 100 yds. along the east Altis wall. Raised on three 
steps, and formed by a single Doric colonnade, open towards the 
Altis, it afforded a place from which spectators could conveniently 
view the passage of processions and the sacrifices at the great altar 
of Zeus. It was built in the Macedonian period to replace an earlier 
portico which stood farther back. In front of it was a series of 
pedestals for votive offerings, including two colossal Ionic columns. 
These columns, as the inscriptions show, once supported statues of 
Ptolemy and Berenice. 

3. The Agora was the name given to that part of the Altis which 
had the Porch of Echo on the east, the Altar of Zeus on the west, the 
Metroum on the north, and the precinct of the Temple of Zeus on 
the south-west. In this part stood the altars of Zeus Agoraios and 
Artemis Agoraia. 

4. The Zanes were bronze images of Zeus, the cost of making 
which was defrayed by the fines exacted from competitors who had 
infringed the rules of the contests at Olympia. These images stood 
at the northern side of the Agora, in a row, which extended from the 
north-east angle of the Metroum to the gate of the private entrance 
from the Altis into the Stadium. Sixteen pedestals were here dis- 
covered in situ. A lesson of loyalty was thus impressed on aspirants 
to renown by the last objects which met their eyes as they passed 
from the sacred enclosure to the scene of their trial. 

5. Arrangements for Water-supply. — A copious supply of water 
was required for the service of the altars and temples, for the private 
dwellings of priests and officials, for the use of the gymnasium, 
palaestra, &c, and for the thermae which arose in Roman times. 
In the Hellenic age the water was derived wholly from theCladeus 
and from the small lateral tributaries of its valley. A basin, to serve 
as a chief reservoir, was built at the north-west corner of the Altis; 
and a supplementary reservoir was afterwards constructed a little 
to the north-east of this, on the slope of the Cronion. A new source 
of supply was for the first time made available by Herodes Atticus, 
c. a.d. 157. At a short distance east of Olympia, near the village of 
Miraka, small streams flow from comparatively high ground through 
the side-valleys which descend towards the right or northern bank 
of the Alpheus. From these side-valleys water was now conducted 
to Olympia, entering the Altis at its north-east corner by an arched 
canal which passed behind the treasure-houses to the reservoir at the 
back of the exedra. The large basin of drinking-water in front of the 
exedra was fed thence, and served to associate the name of Herodes 
with a benefit of the highest practical value. Olympia further 
possessed several fountains, enclosed by round or square walls. 



chiefly in connexion with the buildings outside the Altis. The 
drainage of the Altis followed two main lines. One, for the west 
part, passed from the south-west angle of the Heraeum to the south 
portico outside the south Altis wall. The other, which served for the 
treasure-houses, passed in front of the Porch of Echo parallel with 
the line of the east Altis wall. 

See the official Die Ausgrabungen zu Olympia (5 vols., 1875-1881) ; 
Laloux and Monceaux, Restauration de I'Olympie (1889); Curtius 
and Adler, Olympia die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen (1890-1897), 
I. " Topographie und Geschichte," II. " Baudenkmaler," III. 
" Bildwerke in Stein und Thon " (Treu), IV. " Bronzen " (Furt- 
wangler), V. " Inschriften " (Dittenberger and Purgold). 

(R. C. J.;E. GR.) 

OLYMPIA, the capital of the state of Washington, U.S.A., 
and the county-seat of Thurston county, on the Des Chutes 
river and Budd's Inlet, at the head of Puget Sound, about 50 m. 
S.S.W. of Seattle. Pop. (1890) 4698; (1900) 3863, of whom 
591 were foreign-born; (1910; U. S. census) 6996. It is 
served by the Northern Pacific and the Port Townsend Southern 
railways, and by steamboat lines to other ports on the Sound 
and along the Pacific coast. Budd's Inlet is spanned here by a 
wagon bridge and a railway bridge. Among the prominent 
buildings are the Capitol, which is constructed of native sand- 
stone and stands in a park of considerable beauty, the county 
court-house, St Peter's hospital, the governor's mansion and 
the city hall. The state library is housed in the Capitol. At 
Tumwater, the oldest settlement (1845) on Puget Sound, about 
2 m. S. of Olympia, are the Tumwater Falls of the Des Chutes, 
which provide good water power. The city's chief industry is 
the cutting, sawing and dressing of lumber obtained from the 
neighbouring forests. Olympia oysters are widely known in 
the Pacific coast region; they are obtained chiefly from 
Oyster Bay, Skookum Bay, North Bay and South Bay, all 
near Olympia. Olympia was laid out in 185 1, became the 
capital of Washington in 1853, and was chartered as a city 
in 1859. 

OLYMPIAD, in Greek chronology, a period of four years, used 
as a method of dating for literary purposes, but never adopted 
in every-day life. The four years were reckoned from one 
celebration of the Olympian games to another, the first Olympiad 
beginning with 776 B.C., the year of Coroebus, the first victor in 
the games after their suspension for 86 years, the last with 
a.d. 394, when they were finally abolished during the reign of 
Theodosius the Great. The system was first regularly used by 
the Sicilian historian Timaeus (352-256 B.C.). 

OLYMPIAS, daughter of Neoptolemus, king of Epirus, wife 
of Philip II. of Macedon, and mother of Alexander the Great. 
Her father claimed descent from Pyrrhus, son of Achilles. It 
is said that Philip fell in love with her in Samothrace, where 
they were both being initiated into the mysteries (Plutarch, 
Alexander, 2). The marriage took place in 359 B.C., shortly 
after Philip's accession, and Alexander was born in 356. The 
fickleness of Philip and the jealous temper of Olympias led to 
a growing estrangement, which became complete when Philip 
married a new wife, Cleopatra, in 337. Alexander, who sided 
with his mother, withdrew, along with her, into Epirus, whence 
they both returned in the following year, after the assassination 
of Philip, which Olympias is said to have countenanced. During 
the absence of Alexander, with whom she regularly corresponded 
on public as well as domestic affairs, she had great influence, and 
by her arrogance and ambition caused such trouble to the regent 
Antipater that on Alexander's death (323) she found it prudent 
to withdraw into Epirus. Here she remained until 317, when, 
allying herself with Polyperchon, by whom her old enemy had 
been succeeded in 319, she took the field with an Epirote army; 
the opposing troops at once declared in her favour, and for a 
short period Olympias was mistress of Macedonia. Cassander, 
Antipater's son, hastened from Peloponnesus, and, after an 
obstinate siege, compelled the surrender of Pydna, where she 
had taken refuge. One of the terms of the capitulation had been 
that her life should be spared; but in spite of this she was brought 
to trial for the numerous and cruel executions of which she had 
been guilty during her short lease of power. Condemned 
without a hearing, she was put to death (316) by the friends 
xx. 4 

of those whom she had slain, and Cassander is said to have 
denied her remains the rites of burial. 

See Plutarch, Alexander, 9, 39, 68; Justin, vii. 6, ix. 7, xiv. 5, 6; 
Arrian, Anab. vii. 12; Diod. Sic. xviii. 49-65, xix. 11-51; also the 
articles Alexander III. the Great and Macedonian Empire. 

OLYMPIODORUS, the name of several Greek authors, of 
whom the following are the most important. (1) An historical 
writer (5th century A.D.), born at Thebes in Egypt, who was 
sent on a mission to Attila by the emperor Honorius in 412, 
and later lived at the court of Theodosius. He was the author 
of a history ('Iaropucoi Airy 01) in 22 books of the Western Empire 
from 407 to 425. The original is lost, but an abstract is given 
by Photius, according to whom he was an alchemist (itoitjt^s) . 
A MS. treatise on alchemy, reputed to be by him, is preserved 
in the National Library in Paris, and was printed with a transla- 
tion by P. E. M. Berthelot in his Collection des aichimistes grecs 
(1887-1888). (2) A Peripatetic philosopher (5th century a.d.), 
an elder contemporary of Proclus. He lived at Alexandria and 
lectured on Aristotle with considerable success. His best-known 
pupil was Proclus, to whom he wished to betroth his daughter. 
(3) A Neoplatonist philosopher, also of Alexandria, who flourished 
in the 6th century of our era, during the reign of Justinian. He 
was, therefore, a younger contemporary of Damascius, and 
seems to have carried on the Platonic tradition after the closing 
of the Athenian School in 529, at a time when the old pagan 
philosophy was at its last ebb. His philosophy is in close 
conformity with that of Damascius, and, apart from great 
lucidity of expression, shows no striking features. He is, 
however, important as a critic and a commentator, and preserved 
much that was valuable in the writings of Iamblichus, Damascius 
and Syrianus. He made a close and intelligent study of the 
dialogues of Plato, and his notes, formulated and collected by 
his pupils (cbrd (jxavfjs 'OTwfiirioSwpov tov /xeyaXov <£iXoero<£ou), are 
extremely valuable. In one of his commentaries he makes the 
interesting statement that the Platonic succession had not been 
interrupted by the numerous confiscations it had suffered. 
Zeller points out that this refers to the Alexandrian, not to the 
Athenian, succession; but internal evidence makes it clear 
that he does not draw a hard line of demarcation between 
the two schools. The works which have been preserved are a 
life of Plato, an attack on Strato and Scholia on the Phaedo, 
Alcibiades I., Philebus and Gorgias. (4) An Aristotelian who 
wrote a commentary on the Meteorologica of Aristotle. He also 
lived at Alexandria in the 6th century, and from a reference 
in his work to a comet must have lived after a.d. 564. But 
Zeller (iii. 2, p. 582, n. 1) maintains that he is identical with the 
commentator on Plato (2, above) in spite of the late date of his 
death. His work, like that of Simplicius, endeavours to reconcile 
Plato and Aristotle, and refers to Proclus with reverence. The 
commentary was printed by the Aldine Press at Venice about 


OLYMPUS, the name of many mountains in Greece and Asia 
Minor, and of the fabled home of the gods, and also a city name 
and a personal name. 

I. Of the mountains bearing the name the most famous 
is the lofty ridge on the borders of Thessaly and Macedonia. 
The river Peneus, which drains Thessaly, finds its way to the 
sea through the great gorge of Tempe, which is close below the 
south-eastern end of Olympus and separates it from Mount Ossa. 
The highest peak of Olympus is nearly 10,000 ft. high; it is 
covered with snow for great part of the year. Olympus is a 
mountain of massive appearance, in many places rising in 
tremendous precipices broken by vast ravines, above which 
is the broad summit. The lower parts are densely wooded; 
the summit is naked rock. Homer calls the mountain 
ayavvupos, jucucpos, iroXi/Setp&s : the epithets viipods, Tro\v8(v8pos, 
frondosus and opacus are used by other poets. The modern 
name is "E\vfiiro, a dialectic form of the ancient word. 

The peak of Mount Lycaeus in the south-west of Arcadia 
was called Olympus. East of Olympia, on the north bank of 
the Alpheus, was a hill bearing this name; beside Sellasia in 
Laconia another. The name was even commoner in Asia 

9 8 


Minor: a lofty chain in Mysia (Keshish Dagh), a ridge east 
of Smyrna (Nif Dagh), other mountains in Lycia, in Galatia, 
in Cilicia, in Cyprus, &c, were all called Olympus. 

II. A lofty peak, rising high above the clouds of the lower 
atmosphere into the clear ether, seemed to be the chosen seat 
of the deity. In the Iliad the gods are described as dwelling on 
the top of the mountain; in the Odyssey Olympus is regarded 
as a more remote and less definite locality; and in later poets 
we find similar divergence of ideas, from a definite mountain to 
a vague conception of heaven. In the elaborate mythology of 
Greek literature Olympus was the common home of the multitude 
of gods. Each deity had his special haunts, but all had a 
residence at the court of Zeus on Olympus; here were held the 
assemblies and the common feasts of the gods. 

III. There was a city in Lycia named Olympus; it was a 
bishopric in the Byzantine time. 

OLYNTHUS, an ancient city of Chalcidice, situated in a 
fertile plain at the head of the Gulf of Torone, near the neck 
of the peninsula of Pallene, at some little distance from the 
sea, and about 60 stadia (7 or 8 m.) from Potidaea. The district 
had belonged to a Thracian tribe, the Bottiaeans, in whose 
possession the town of Olynthus remained till 479 B.C. 1 In that 
year the Persian general Artabazus, on his return from escorting 
Xerxes to the Hellespont, suspecting that a revolt from the 
Great King was meditated, slew the inhabitants and handed the 
town over to a fresh population, consisting of Greeks from the 
neighbouring region of Chalcidice (Herod, viii. 127). Olynthus 
thus became a Greek polis, but it remained insignificant (in the 
quota-lists of the Delian League it appears as paying on the 
average 2 talents, as compared with 9 paid by Scione, 8 by Mende, 
6 by Torone) until the synoecism (owoi/acrjuos), effected in 
43 2 through the influence of King Perdiccas of Macedon, as the 
result of which the inhabitants of a number of petty Chalcidian 
towns in the neighbourhood were added to its population (Thucyd. 
i. 58). Henceforward it ranks as the chief Hellenic city west of 
the Strymon. It had been enrolled as a member of the Delian 
League (q.v.) in the early days of the league, but it revolted from 
Athens at the time of its synoecism, and was never again reduced. 
It formed a base for Brasidas during his expedition (424). In 
the 4th century it attained to great importance in the politics of 
the age as the head of the Chalcidic League (rd koivov twv 
Xa\Ki8ewv). The league may probably be traced back to the 
period of the peace of Nicias (421), when we find the Chalcidians 
(oi kirl 9p^K7js XaXwS^s) taking diplomatic action in common, 
and enrolled as members of the Argive alliance. There are coins 
of the league which can be dated with certainty as early as 
405; one specimen may perhaps go back to 415-420. Un- 
questionably, then, the league originated before the end of the 
5th century, and the motive for its formation is almost certainly 
to be found in the fear of Athenian attack. After the end of 
the Peloponnesian War the development of the league was rapid. 
About 390 we find it concluding an important treaty with 
Amyntas, king of Macedon (the father of Philip), 2 and by 382 
it had absorbed most of the Greek cities west of the Strymon, 
and had even got possession of Pella, the chief city in Macedonia 
(Xenophon, Hell. v. 2, r2). In this year Sparta was induced 
by an embassy from Acanthus and Apollonia, which anticipated 
conquest by the league, to send an expedition against Olynthus. 
After three years of indecisive warfare Olynthus consented 
to dissolve the confederacy (379). It is clear, however, that the 
dissolution was little more than formal, as the Chalcidians 
(XaXioSrjs dird GpaKijs) appear, only a year or two later, among 
the members of the Athenian naval confederacy of 378-377.' 
Twenty years later, in the reign of Philip, the power of Olynthus 
is asserted by Demosthenes to have been much greater than 
before the Spartan expedition. 4 The town itself at this period 

1 If Olynthus was one of the early colonies of Chalcis (and there 
is numismatic evidence for this view; see Head, Hist. Numorum, 
p. 185) it must have subsequently passed into the hands of the 

2 For the inscription see Hicks, Manual of Greek Inscriptions, 
No. 74. » Hicks, No. 81; C.I.A. ii. 17. 

4 Demosthenes, De falsa legatione, §§ 263-266. 

is spoken of as a city of the first rank (mSXis ixvplavSpos), and 
the league included thirty-two cities. When war broke out 
between Philip and Athens (357), Olynthus was at first in 
alliance with Philip. Subsequently, in alarm at the growth of his 
power, it concluded an alliance with Athens; but in spite of all 
the efforts of the latter state, and of its great orator Demosthenes, 
it fell before Philip, who razed it to the ground (348) . 

The history of the confederacy of Olynthus illustrates at once 
the strength and the weakness of that movement towards federa- 
tion which is one of the most marked features of the later stages 
of Greek history. The strength of the movement is shown 
both by the duration and by the extent of the Chalcidic League. 
It lasted for something like seventy years; it survived defeat 
and temporary dissolution, and it embraced upwards of thirty 
cities. Yet, in the end, the centrifugal forces proved stronger 
than the centripetal; the sentiment of autonomy stronger 
than the sentiment of union. It is clear that Philip's victory 
was mainly due to the spirit of dissidence within the league itself, 
just as the victory of Sparta had been (cf. Diod. xvi. 53, 2 with 
Xen. Hell. v. 2, 24). The mere fact that Philip captured all 
the thirty-two towns without serious resistance is sufficient 
evidence of this. It is probable that the strength of the league 
was more seriously undermined by the policy of Athens than 
by the action of Sparta. The successes of Athens at the 
expense of Olynthus, shortly before Philip's accession, must 
have fatally divided the Greek interest north of the Aegean 
in the struggle with Macedon. 

Authorities. — The chief passages in ancient literature are the 
Olynthiac Orations of Demosthenes, and Xenophon, Hell. v. 2. 
See E. A. Freeman, History of Federal Government, ch. iv. ; A. H. J. 
Greenidge, Handbook of Greek Constitutional History (1896), p. 228; 
B. V. Head, Historia Numorum, pp. 184-186; G. Gilbert, Griechische 
Staatsalterthiimer, vol. ii. pp. 197-198. The view taken by all these 
authorities as to the date of the formation of the Confederacy of 
Olynthus differs widely from that put forward above. Freeman 
and Greenidge suppose the league to have originated in 382, Head in 
392, Hicks {Manual of Greek Inscriptions, No. 74) before 390. The 
decisive test is the numismatic one. There are coins of the league 
in the British Museum which are earlier than 400, and one in the 
possession of Professor Oman, of Oxford, which he and Mr Head 
are disposed to think may be as early as 415-420. (E. M. W.) 

OMAGH, a market town and the county town of county 
Tyrone, Ireland, on the river Strule, 129J m. N.W. by N. from 
Dublin by the Londonderry line of the Great Northern railway, 
here joined by a branch from Enniskillen. Pop. (1901) 4789. 
The greater part of the town is picturesquely situated on a steep 
slope above the river. The milling and linen industries are 
carried on, and monthly fairs are held. The Protestant church 
has a lofty and handsome spire, and the Roman Catholic church 
stands well on the summit of a hill. A castle, of which there are 
scanty remains, was of sufficient importance to stand sieges 
in 1509 and 1641, being rebuilt after its total destruction 
in the first case. The town is governed by an urban district 

OMAGUAS, Umanas or Cambevas (flat-heads), a tribe 
of South American Indians of the Amazon valley. Fabulous 
stories about the wealth of the Omaguas led to several early 
expeditions into their country, the most famous of which were 
those of George of Spires in 1536, of Philip von Hutten in 1541 
and of Pedro de Ursua in 1560. In 1645 Jesuits began work. 
In 1687 Father Fritz, " apostle of the Omaguas," established 
some forty mission villages. The Omaguas are still numerous 
and powerful around the head waters of the Japura and Uaupes. 

OMAHA, the county-seat of Douglas county and the largest 
city in Nebraska, U.S.A., situated on the W. bank of the Missouri 
river, about 20 m. above the mouth of the Platte. Pop. (1880) 
30,518, (1890) 66,S36, 5 (1900) 102,555, of whom 23,552 
(comprising 5522 Germans, 3968 Swedes, 2430 Danes, 2170 
Bohemians, 2164 Irish, 1526 English, 1141 English Canadians, 

5 These are the figures given in Census Bulletin 71, Estimates of 
Population, 1904, 1905, 1906 (1907), and are the arithmetical mean 
between the figures for 1880 and those for 1900, those of the census 
of 1890 being 140,452; these are substituted by the Bureau of the 
Census, as the 1890 census was in error. In 1910, according to 
the U.S. census, the population was 124,096. 



997 Russians, &c.) were foreign-born and 3443 were negroes, 
(1906 estimate) 124,167. Originally, with Council Bluffs, Iowa, 
the eastern terminus of the first Pacific railway, Omaha now has 
outlets over nine great railway systems : the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy, the Union Pacific, the Chicago, E.ock Island & Pacific, 
the Chicago Great-Western, the Chicago & North- Western, the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, the Illinois Central, the Missouri 
Pacific and the Wabash. Bridges over the Missouri river 
connect Omaha with Council Bluffs. The original town site 
occupied an elongated and elevated river terrace, now given over 
wholly to business; behind this are hills and bluffs, over which 
the residential districts have extended. 

Among the more important buildings are the Federal 
Building, Court House, a city-hall, two high schools, one of 
which is one of the finest in the country, a convention hall, the 
Auditorium and the Public Library. Omaha is the see of Roman 
Catholic and Protestant Episcopal bishoprics. Among the 
educational institutions are a state school for the deaf (1867); 
the medical department and orthopaedic branch of the University 
of Nebraska (whose other departments are at Lincoln); a 
Presbyterian Theological Seminary (1891); and Creighton 
University (Roman Catholic, under Jesuit control). This 
university, which was founded in honour of Edward Creighton 
(d. 1874) (whose brother, Count John A. Creighton, d. 1907, 
gave large sums in his lifetime and about $1,250,000 by his will), 
by his wife Mary Lucretia Creighton (d. 1876), was incorporated 
in 1879; it includes the Creighton Academy, Creighton College 
(1875), to which a Scientific Department was added in 1883, the 
John A. Creighton Medical College (1892), the Creighton Univer- 
sity College of Law (1904), the Creighton University Dental 
College (1905) and the Creighton College of Pharmacy (1905). 
In 1909-1910 it had 120 instructors and 800 students. St 
Joseph's Hospital (Roman Catholic) was built as a memorial 
to John A. Creighton. The principal newspapers are the Omaha 
Bee, the World-Herald and the News. The Omaha Bee was 
established in 1871 by Edward Rosewater (1841-1906), who 
made it one of the most influential Republican journals in the 
West. The World-Herald (Democratic), founded in 1865 by 
George L. Miller, was edited by William Jennings Bryan from 
1894 to 1896. 

Omaha is the headquarters of the United States military 
department of the Missouri, and there are military posts at Fort 
Omaha (signal corps and station for experiments with war bal- 
loons), immediately north, and Fort Crook (infantry), 10 m. S. 
of the city. A carnival, the " Festival of Ak-Sar-Ben," is held 
in Omaha every autumn. Among the manufacturing establish- 
ments of Omaha are breweries (product value in 1905, $1,141,424) 
and distilleries, silver and lead smelting and refining works, 
railway shops, flour and grist-mills and dairies. The product- 
value of its manufactures in 1900 ($43,168,876) constituted 30% 
of the total output of the state, not including the greater product 
(48-7% of the total) of South Omaha (q.v.), where the industrial 
interests of Omaha are largely concentrated. The " factory " 
product of Omaha in 1905 was valued at $54,003,704, an increase 
of 41-8 % over that ($38,074,244) for 1900. The net debt of 
the city on the 1st of May 1909 was $5,770,000; its assessed 
value in 1909 (about ^ of cash value) was $26,749,148, and its 
total tax-rate was $5-73 per $1000. 

In 1804 Meriwether Lewis and William Clark camped on the 
Omaha plateau. In 1825 a licensed Indian post was established 
here. In 1846 the Mormons settled at " Winter Quarters " — 
after 1854 called Florence (pop. in 1900, 668), and in the immedi- 
ate environs (6 m. N.) of the present Omaha — and by 1847 had 
built up camps of some 12,000 inhabitants on the Nebraska and 
Iowa sides of the Missouri. Compelled to remove from the Indian 
reservation within which Winter Quarters lay, they founded 
Kanesville" on the Iowa side (which also was called Winter 
Quarters by the Mormons, and after 1853 was known as Council 
Bluffs), gradually emigrating to Utah in the years following. 
Winter Quarters (Florence) was deserted in 1848, but many 
Mormons were still in Nebraska and Iowa, and their local in- 
fluence was strong for nearly a decade afterwards. Not all had 

left Nebraska in 1853. Speculative land " squatters " intruded 
upon the Indian lands in that year, and a rush of settlers followed 
the opening of Nebraska Territory under the Kansas-Nebraska 
Bill of 1854. Omaha (named from the Omaha Indians) was 
platted in 1854, and was first chartered as a city in 1857. It was 
the provisional territorial capital in 1854-1855, and the regular 
capital in 1855-1867. Its charter status has often been modified. 
Since 1887 it has been the only city of the state governed under 
the general charter for metropolitan cities. Prairie freighting 
and Missouri river navigation were of importance before the 
construction of the Union Pacific railway, and the activity of 
the city in securing the freighting interest gave her an initial 
start over the other cities of the state. Council Bluffs was the 
legal, but Omaha the practical, eastern terminus of that great 
undertaking, work on which began at Omaha in December 1863. 
The city was already connected as early as 1863 by telegraph 
with Chicago, St Louis, and since 1861 with San Francisco. 
Lines of the present great Rock Island, Burlington and North- 
western railway systems all entered the city in the years 1867- 
1868. Meat-packing began as early as 1871, but its first great 
advance followed the removal of the Union stock yards south 
of the city in 1884. South Omaha (5.11.) was rapidly built up 
around them. A Trans-Mississippi Exposition illustrating the 
progress and resources of the states west of the Mississippi was 
held at Omaha in 1898. It represented an investment of 
$2,000,000, and in spite of financial depression and wartime, 
90% of their subscriptions were returned in dividends to the 

OMAHAS, a tribe of North American Indians of Siouan stock. 
They were found on St Peter's river, Minnesota, where they 
lived an agricultural life. Owing to a severe epidemic of small- 
pox they abandoned their village, and wandered westward to 
the Niobrara river in Nebraska. After a succession of treaties 
and removals they are now located on a reservation in eastern 
Nebraska, and number some 1200. 

1S75), Belgian geologist, was born on the 16th of February 1783 
at Liege, and educated firstly in that city and afterwards in 
Paris. While a youth he became interested in geology, and 
being of independent means he was able to devote his energies 
to geological researches. As early as 1808 he communicated to 
the Journal des mines a paper entitled Essai sur la gSologie 
du Nord de la France. He became maire of Skeuvre in 1807, 
governor of the province of Namur in 1815, and from 1848 
occupied a place in the Belgian senate. He was an active 
member of the Belgian Academy of Sciences from 1816, and 
served three times as president. He was likewise president of 
the Geological Society of France in 1852. In Belgium and the 
Rhine provinces he was one of the geological pioneers in deter- 
mining the stratigraphy of the Carboniferous and other rocks. 
He studied also in detail the Tertiary deposits of the Paris Basin, 
and ascertained the extent of the Cretaceous and some of the 
older strata, which he for the first time clearly depicted on a 
map (1817). He was distinguished as an ethnologist, and when 
nearly ninety years of age he was chosen president of the Congress 
of Pre-historic Archaeology (Brussels, 1872). He died on the 
15th of January 1875. His chief works were: Memoires pour 
servir d la description giologique des Pays-Bas, de la France et de 
quelques contrees voisines (1828); EUmenls de giologie (1831, 
3rd ed. 1839); Abregg de giologie (r853, 7th ed. 1862); Des 
races humaines, ou iUments d'ethnographie (5th ed., 1869). 

Obituary by J. Gosselet, Bull. soc. geol. de France, ser. 3, vol. vi. 

OMAN, a kingdom occupying the south-eastern coast districts 
of Arabia, its southern limits being a little to the west of the 
meridian of 55 E. long., and the boundary on the north the 
southern borders of El Hasa. Oman and Hasa between them 
occupy the eastern coast districts of Arabia to the head of the 
Persian Gulf. The Oman-Hasa boundary has been usually drawn 
north of the promontory of El Katr. This is, however, incorrect. 
In 1870 Katr was under Wahhabi rule, but in the year 1871 
Turkish assistance was requested to aid the settlement of a 



family quarrel between certain Wahhabi chiefs, and the Turks 
thus obtained a footing in Katr, which they have retained ever 
since. Turkish occupation (now firmly established throughout 
El Hasa) includes Katif (the ancient Gerrha), and El Bidia on the 
coast of Katr. But the pearl fisheries of Katr are still under the 
protection of the chiefs of Bahrein, who are themselves under 
British suzerainty. In 1895 the chief of Katr (Sheikh Jasim ben 
Thani), instigated by the Turks, attacked Sheikh Isa of Bahrein, 
but his fleet of dhows was destroyed by a British gunboat, and 
Bahrein (like Zanzibar) has since been detached from Oman 
and placed directly under British protection. 

Oman is a mountainous district dominated by a range called 
Jebel Akhdar (or the Green Mountain), which is 10,000 ft. in 
altitude, and is flanked by minor ranges running approximately 
parallel to the coast, and shutting off the harbours from the 
interior. They enclose long lateral valleys, some of which are 
fertile and highly cultivated, and traversed by narrow precipitous 
gorges at intervals, which form. the only means of access to the 
interior from the sea. Beyond the mountains which flank the 
cultivated valleys of Semail and Tyin, to the west, there stretches 
the great Ruba el Khali, or Dahna, the central desert of southern 
Arabia, which reaches across the continent to the borders of 
Yemen, isolating the province on the landward side just as the 
rugged mountain barriers shut it off from the sea. The wadis 
(or valleys) of Oman (like the wadis of Arabia generally) are 
merely torrential channels, dry for the greater part of the year. 
Water is obtained from wells and springs in sufficient quantity 
to supply an extensive system of irrigation. 

The only good harbour on the coast is that of Muscat, the capital 
of the kingdom, which, however, is not directly connected with 
the interior by any mountain route. The little port of Matrah, 
immediately contiguous to Muscat, offers the only opportunity 
for penetrating into the interior by the wadi Kahza, a rough pass 
which is held for the sultan or imam of Muscat by the Rehbayin 
chief. In 1883, owing to the treachery of this chief, Muscat 
was besieged by a rebel army, and disaster was only averted by 
the guns of H.M.S. " Philomel." About 50 m. south of Muscat 
the port of Kuryat is again connected with the inland valleys 
by the wadi Hail, leading to the gorges of the wadi Thaika or 
" Devil's Gap." Both routes give access to the wadi Tyin, which, 
enclosed between the mountain of El Beideh and Hallowi (from 
2000 to 3000 ft. high), is the garden of Oman. Fifty miles to the 
north-west of Muscat this interior region may again be reached 
by the transverse valley of Semail, leading into the wadi Munsab, 
and from thence to Tyin. This is generally reckoned the easiest 
line for travellers. But all routes are difficult, winding between 
granite and limestone rocks, and abounding in narrow defiles 
and rugged torrent beds. Vegetation is, however, tolerably 
abundant — tamarisks, oleanders, kafas, euphorbias, the milk 
bush, rhamnus and acacias being the most common and most 
characteristic forms of vegetable life, and pools of water are 
frequent. The rich oasis of Tyin contains many villages em- 
bosomed in palm groves and surrounded with orchards and 

In addition to cereals and vegetables, the cultivation of 
fruit is abundant throughout the valley. After the date, vines, 
peaches, apricots, oranges, mangoes, melons and mulberries find 
special favour with the Rehbayin, who exhibit all the skill and 
perseverance of the Arab agriculturist of Yemen, and cultivate 
everything that the soil is capable of producing. 

The sultan, a descendant of those Yemenite imams who con- 
solidated Arab power in Zanzibar and on the East African coast, 
and raised Oman to its position as the most powerful state 
in Arabia during the first half of the 19th century, resides at 
Muscat, where his palace directly faces the harbour, not far 
from the British residency. The little port of Gwadar, on the 
Makran coast of the Arabian Sea, a station of the Persian Gulf 
telegraph system, is still a dependency of Oman. 

See Colonel Miles, Geographical Journal, vol. vii. (1896); Com- 
mander Stiffe, Geographical Journal (1899). (T. H. H.*) 

OMAR (c. 581-644), in full 'Omar ibn al-Khattab, the second 
of the Mahommedan caliphs (see Caliphate, A, §§ 1 and 2). 

Originally opposed to Mahomet, he became later one of the ablest 
advisers both of him and of the first caliph, Abu Bekr. His own 
reign (634-644) saw Islam's transformation from a religious 
sect to an imperial power. The chief events were the defeat 
of the Persians at Kadisiya (637) and the conquest of Syria and 
Palestine. The conquest of Egypt followed (see Egypt and 
Amr ibn el-Ass) and the final rout of the Persians at Nehawend 
(.641) brought Iran under Arab rule. Omar was assassinated by 
a Persian slave in 644, and though he lingered several days after 
the attack, he appointed no successor, but only a body of six 
Muhajirun who should select a new caliph. Omar was a wise 
and far-sighted ruler and rendered great service to Islam. 
He is said to have built the so-called " Mosque of Omar " 
(" the Dome of the Rock ") in Jerusalem, which contains the 
rock regarded by Mahommedans as the scene of Mahomet's 
ascent to heaven, and by the Jews as that of the proposed 
sacrifice of Isaac. 

'OMAR KHAYYAM [in full, Ghiyathtjddin Abulfath 
'Omar bin IbrIhih al-KhayyamI], the great Persian mathe- 
matician, astronomer, freethinker and epigrammatist, who 
derived the epithet Khayyam (the tentmaker) most likely from 
his father's trade, was born in or near Nlshapur, where he is said 
to have died in a.h. 517 (a.d. 1123). At an early age he entered 
into a close friendship both with Nizam-ul-mulk and his school- 
fellow Hassan ibn Sabbah, who founded afterwards the terrible 
sect of the Assassins. When Nizam-ul-mulk was raised to the 
rank of vizier by the Seljuk sultan Alp-Arslan (a.d. 1063-1073) 
he bestowed upon H a ssan ibn Sabbah the dignity of a chamber- 
lain, whilst offering a similar court office to 'Omar Khayyam. 
But the latter contented himself with an annual stipend which 
would enable him to devote all his time to his favourite studies 
of mathematics and astronomy. His standard work on algebra, 
written in Arabic, and other treatises of a similar character 
raised him at once to the foremost rank among the mathemati- 
cians of that age, and induced Sultan Malik-Shah to summon him 
in a.h. 467 (a.d. 1074) to institute astronomical observations 
on a larger scale, and to aid him in his great enterprise of a 
thorough reform of the calendar. The results of 'Omar's research 
were — a revised edition of the Zij or astronomical tables, and the 
introduction of the Ta'rlkh-i-Malikshahl or Jalali, that is, the 
so-called Jalalian or Seljuk era, which commences in a.h. 471 
(a.d. 1079, 15th March). 

'Omar's great scientific fame, however, is nearly eclipsed by 
his still greater poetical renown, which he owes to his ruba'is or 
quatrains, a collection of about 500 epigrams. The peculiar 
form of the rubai — viz. four lines, the first, second and fourth 
of which have the same rhyme, while the third usually (but not 
always) remains rhymeless — was first successfully introduced 
into Persian literature as the exclusive vehicle for subtle thoughts 
on the various topics of Sufic mysticism by the sheikh Abu. Sa'ld 
bin Abulkhair, 1 but 'Omar differs in its treatment considerably 
from Abu Sa'ld. Although some of his quatrains are purely 
mystic and pantheistic, most of them bear quite another stamp; 
they are the breviary of a radical freethinker, who protests in 
the most forcible manner both against the narrowness, bigotry 
and uncompromising austerity of the orthodox ulema and the 
eccentricity, hypocrisy and wild ravings of advanced Sufis, 
whom he successfully combats with their own weapons, using 
the whole mystic terminology simply to ridicule mysticism 
itself. There is in this respect a great resemblance between 
him and Hafiz, but 'Omar is decidedly superior. He has often 
been called the Voltaire of the East, and cried down as materialist 
and atheist. As far as purity of diction, fine wit, crushing 
satire against a debased and ignorant clergy, and a general 
sympathy with suffering humanity are concerned, 'Omar certainly 
reminds us of the great Frenchman; but there the comparison 
ceases. Voltaire never wrote anything equal to 'Omar's fascinat- 
ing rhapsodies in praise of wine, love and all earthly joys, 
and his passionate denunciations of a malevolent and inexorable 

1 Died Jan. 1049. Comp. Ethels edition of his ruba'is in Sitzungs- 
berichte der bayr. Akademie (i875),pp. I45seq.,and (i878)pp. 38seq.: 
and E. G. Browne's Literary Hist, of Persia, ii. 261. 



fate which dooms to slow decay or sudden death and to eternal 
oblivion all that is great, good and beautiful in this world. 
There is a touch of Byron, Swinburne and even of Schopenhauer 
in many of his tubals, which clearly proves that the modern 
pessimist is by no means a novel creature in the realm of philo- 
sophic thought and poetical imagination. 

The Leiden copy of 'Omar Khayyam's work on algebra was 
noticed as far back as 1742 by Gerald Meerman in the preface to 
his Specimen calculi fluxionalis; further notices of the same work 
by Sedillot appeared in the Nouv. Jour. As. (1834) aru i ' n v °b x "i- 
of the Notices et extraits des MSS. de la Bibl. roy. The complete 
text, together with a French translation (on the basis of the Leiden 
and Paris copies, the latter first discovered by M. Libri, see his 
Histoire des sciences mathematiques en Italie, i. 300), was edited 
by F. Woepcke, L'Algebre d'Omar Alkhayyami (Paris, 1851). Articles 
on 'Omar's life and works are found in Reinaud's Geographie d'Aboul- 
feda, pref., p. 101 ; Notices et extraits, ix. 143 seq.; Garcin de Tassy, 
Note sur les Ruba'iyat de 'Omar Hhaiyam (Paris, 1857); Rieu, Cat. 
Pers. MSS. in the Br. Mus., ii. 546; A. Christensen, Recherches 
sur les Ruba'iydt de 'Omar Hayyam (Heidelberg, 1905) ; V. Zhukov- 
ski's 'Umar Khayyam and'the " Wandering " Quatrains, translated 
from the Russian by E. D. Ross in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, xxx. (1898); E. G. Browne, Literary History of Persia, ii. 
246. The quatrains have been edited at Calcutta (1836) and 
Teheran (1857 and 1862) ; text and French translation by J. B. 
Nicolas (Paris, 1867) (very incorrect and misleading); a portion of 
the same, rendered in English verse, by E. FitzGerald (London, 
1859, 1872 and 1879). FitzGerald's translation has been edited 
with commentary by H. M. Batson (1900), and the 2nd ed. of the 
same (1868) by E. Heron Allen (1908). A new English version was 
published in Triibner's " Oriental " series (1882) by E. H. Whinfield, 
and the first critical edition of the text, with translation, by the 
same (1883). Important later works are N. H. Dole's variorum 
edition (1896), J. Payne's translation (1898), E. Heron Allen's 
edition (1898) and the Life by L K. M. Shirazi (1905); but the 
literature in new translations and imitations has recently multiplied 
exceedingly. (H. E. ; X.) 

OMBRE, a card game, very fashionable at the end of the 18th 
century, but now practically obsolete. The following recom- 
mendation of the game is taken from the Court Gamester, a 
book published in 1720 for the use of the daughters of the prince 
of Wales, afterwards George II: — 

" The game of Ombre owes its invention to the Spaniards, and it 
has in it a great deal of the gravity peculiar to that nation. It is 
called Ombre, or The Man. It was so named as requiring thought 
and reflection, which are qualities peculiar to many or rather alluding 
to him who undertakes to play the game against the rest of the 
gamesters, and is called the man. To play it well requires a great 
deal of application, and. let a man be ever so expert, he will be apt 
to fall into mistakes if he think of anything else or is disturbed by 
the conversation of them that look on. ... It will be found the 
most delightful and entertaining of all games to those who have 
anything in them of what we call the spirit of play." 

Ombre is played by three players with a pack of 40 cards, 
the 8, 9 and 10 being dispensed with. The order of value 
of the hands is irregular, being different for trumps and suits not 
trumps. In a suit not trumps the order is, for red suits: K, Q, 
Kn, ace, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7; for black suits: K, Q, Kn, 7, 6, 5, 4, 
3, 2. In trump suits the ace of spades, called spadiile, is always 
a trump, and the highest one, whichever of the four suits may 
be trumps. The order for red suit trumps is; ace of spades 7 
(called manille), ace of clubs (called basto), ace (called ponto), 
K, Q, Kn, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. For black suit trumps: ace of spades 
{spadiile), 2 {manille), ace {basto), K, Q, Kn, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3. There 
is no ponto in black trumps. The three highest trumps are 
called matador es (or mats). The holder of them has the privilege 
of not following suit, except when a higher mat is played, which 
forces a lower one if the hand contains no other trump. 

Cards are dealt round, and the receiver of the first- black ace 
is the dealer. He deals (towards his right) nine cards, by threes, 
to each player. The remaining 13 cards form the stock or talon, 
as at piquet. Each deal constitutes a game. One hand plays 
against the other two, the solo player being called the Ombre. 
The player at the dealer's right has the first option of being 
Ombre, which entails two privileges: that of naming the trump 
suit, and that of throwing away as many of his cards as he chooses, 
receiving new ones in their place, as at poker. If, with these 
advantages in mind, he thinks he can win against the other 
two hands, he says, " I ask leave," or " I play." But in this 
case his right-hand neighbour has the privilege of claiming 

Ombre for himself, providing he is willing to play his hand without 
drawing new cards, or, as the phrase goes, sans prendre. If, how- 
ever, the other player reconsiders and decides that he will himself 
play without drawing cards, he can still remain Ombre. If 
the second player passes, the dealer in his turn may ask to play 
sans prendre, as above. If all three pass a new deal ensues. 
After the ©mbre discards (if he does not play sans prendre) the 
two others in turn do likewise, and, if any cards are left in the 
stock, the last discarder may look at them (as at piquet) and the 
others after him. But if he does not look at them the others 
lose the privilege of doing so. 

The manner of play is like whist, except that it is towards 
the right. The second and third players combine to defeat 
Ombre. If in the sequel Ombre makes more tricks than either 
of his opponents he wins. If one of his opponents makes more 
than Ombre the latter loses (called codille) . If Ombre and one 
or both of his opponents make the same number of tricks the 
game is drawn. When Ombre makes all nine tricks he wins 
a vole. The game is played with counters having certain 
values, the pool being emptied by the winner. If all pass, a 
counter of low value is paid into the pool by each player. If 
Ombre wins he takes the entire pool. If he draws he forfeits 
to the pool a sum equal to that already in it, i.e. the pool is 
doubled. If either of his opponents makes the majority of the 
tricks {codille), Ombre pays him a sum equal to that in the pool, 
which itself remains untouched until the next game. When the 
pool is emptied each player pays in three counters. 

OMDURMAN, a town of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, on the 
west bank of the Nile, immediately north of the junction of the 
White and Blue Niles in 15° 38' N., 32° 29' E., 2 m. N. by W. 
of Khartum. Pop. (1909 census) 42,779, of whom 541 were 
Europeans. The town covers a large area, being over 5 m. long 
and 2 broad. It consists for the most part of mud huts, but 
there are some houses built of sun-dried bricks. Save for two or 
three wide streets which traverse it from end to end the town is 
a network of narrow lanes. In the centre facing an open space are 
the ruins of the tomb of the Mahdi and behind is the house in 
which he lived. The Khalifa's house (a two-storeyed building), 
the mosque, the Beit el Amaaa (arsenal) and other houses famed 
in the history of the town also face the central square. A high 
wall runs behind these buildings parallel with the Nile. 
Omdurman is the headquarters of the native' traders in the 
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, the chief articles of commerce being 
ivory, ostrich feathers and gum arabic from Darfur and Kordofan. 
There is also an important camel and cattle market. Nearly 
every tribe in the Sudan is represented in the population of the 
city. Among the native artificers the metal workers and leather 
dressers are noted. The government maintains elementary 
and technical schools. Mission work is undertaken by various 
Protestant and Roman Catholic societies. 

Omdurman, then an insignificant village, was chosen in 1884 
by the Mahdi Mahommed Ahmed as his capital and so continued 
after the fall of Khartum in January 1885. Its growth was 
rapid, the Khalifa (who succeeded the Mahdi) compelling 
large numbers of disaffected tribesmen to live in the town under 
the eye of his soldiery. Here also were imprisoned the European 
captives of the Mahdists — notably Slatin Pasha and Father 
Ohrwalder. On the 2nd of September 1898 the Anglo-Egyptian 
army under Lord Kitchener totally defeated the forces of the 
Khalifa at Kerreri, 7 m. N. of the town. A marble obelisk marks 
the spot where the 21st Lancers made a charge. Within the 
enclosure of the Khalifa's house is the tomb of Hubert Howard, 
son of the 9th earl of Carlisle, who was killed in the house at the 
capture of the city by a splinter of a shell fired at the Mahdi's 
tomb. (See Sudan: Angle-Egyptian.) 

OMELETTE, sometimes Anglicized as "omelet," a French 
word of which the history is an example of the curious changes 
a word may undergo. The ultimate origin is Lat. lamella, 
diminutive of lamina, plate; this became in French lamelle, and 
a wrong division of la lamelle gave alamelle, alemelle, or alumelle; 
thence alemette, metathesized to amelelte and aumelete, the form 
in which the word appears in the 15th and 16th centuries. The 



original meaning seems to be a pancake of a thin fiat shape. 
Omelettes are made with eggs," beaten up lightly, with the 
addition of milk, flour, herbs, cheese, mushrooms, &c, according 
to the requirement, and cooked quickly in a buttered pan. 

OMEN (a Latin word, either connected with os, mouth, or 
more probably with auris (Gr. o5s, ear; apparently, meaning 
" a thing heard " or " spoken "), a sign in divination, favourable 
or unfavourable as the case may be (see Divination, Augurs 
and Oracle). The taking of omens may be said to be a part of 
all systems of divination, in which the future is predicted by 
means of indications of one sort or another; and tradition has 
thus gathered round many subjects — events, actions, colours, 
numbers, &c.— which are considered " ominous," an adjective 
which generally connotes ill-fortune. 

One of the oldest and most widespread methods of divining 
the future, both among primitive people and among several of 
the civilizations of antiquity, was the reading of omens in the 
signs noted on the liver of the animal offered as a sacrifice to 
some deity. The custom is vouched for by travellers as still 
observed in Borneo, Burma, Uganda and elsewhere, the animal 
chosen being a pig or a fowl. It constituted the most common 
form of divination in ancient Babylonia, where it can be traced 
back to the 3rd millennium B.C. Among the Etruscans the 
prominence of the rite led to the liver being looked upon as 
the trade-mark of the priest. From the Etruscans it made its 
way to the Romans, though as we shall see it was also modified 
by them. The evidence for the rite among the Greeks is sufficient 
to warrant the conclusion of its introduction at a very early 
period and its persistence to a late day. 

The theory upon which the rite everywhere rests is clearly 
the belief, for which there is an abundance of concurrent testi- 
mony, that the liver was at one time regarded as the seat of 
vitality. This belief appears to be of a more primitive character 
than the view which places the seat of life in the heart, though 
we are accustomed to think that the latter was the prevailing 
view in antiquity. The fact, however, appears to be that the 
prominence given to the heart in popular beliefs dates from the 
time when in the course of the development of anatomical 
knowledge the important function of the heart in animal life 
came to be recognized, whereas the supposition that the liver 
is the seat of vitality rests upon other factors than anatomical 
knowledge, and,- being independent of such knowledge, also 
antedates it. Among the reasons which led people to identify 
the liver with the very source of life, and hence as the seat of all 
affections and emotions, including what to us are intellectual 
functions, we may name the bloody appearance of that organ. 
Filled with blood, it was natural to regard it as the seat of the 
blood, and as a matter of fact one-sixth of the entire blood of 
man is in the liver, while in the case of some animals the propor- 
tion is even larger. Now blood was everywhere in antiquity 
associated with life, and the biblical passage, Genesis ix. 3, 
which identifies the blood with the soul of the animal and there- 
fore prohibits its use fairly represents the current conception 
both among primitive peoples as well as among those who had 
advanced along the road of culture and civilization. The liver 
being regarded as the seat of the blood, it was a natural and 
short step to identify the liver with the soul as well as with the 
seat of life, and therefore as the centre of all manifestations of 
vitality and activity. In this stage of belief, therefore, the liver 
is the seat of all emotions and affections, as well as of intellectual 
functions, and it is only when with advancing anatomical know- 
ledge the functions of the heart and then of the brain come to be 
recognized that a differentiation of functions takes place which 
had its outcome in the assignment of intellectual activity to the 
brain or head, of the higher emotions and affections (as love and 
courage) to the heart, while the liver was degraded to the rank 
of being regarded as the seat of the lower emotions and affections, 
such as jealousy, moroseness and the like. 

Hepatoscopy, or divination through the liver, belongs therefore 
to the primitive period when that organ summed up all vitality 
and was regarded as the seat of all the emotions and affections— 
the higher as well as the lower— and also as the seat of intellectual 

functions. The question, however, still remains to be answered 
how people came to the belief or to the assumption that through 
the soul, or the seat of life of the sacrificial animal, the intention 
of the gods could be divined. There are two theories that may 
be put forward. The one is that the animal sacrificed was looked 
upon as a deity, and that, therefore, the liver represented the 
soul of the god; the other theory is that the deity in accepting 
the sacrifice identified himself with the animal, and that, there- 
fore, the liver as the soul of the animal was the counterpart of 
the soul of the god. It is true that the killing of the god plays 
a prominent part in primitive cults, as has been shown more 
particularly through the valuable researches of J. G. Frazer 
{The Golden Bough). On the other hand, serious difficulties 
arise if we assume that every animal sacrificed represents a 
deity; and even assuming that such a belief underlies the rite 
of animal sacrifice, a modification of the belief must have been 
introduced when such sacrifices became a common rite resorted 
to on every occasion when a deity was to be approached. It is 
manifestly impossible to assume, e.g. that the daily sacrifices 
which form a feature of advanced cults involved the belief of the 
daily slaughter of some deity, and even before this stage was 
reached the primitive belief of the actual identification of the 
god with the animal must have yielded to some such belief as 
that the deity in accepting the sacrifice assimilates the animal 
to his own being, precisely as man assimilates the food that 
enters into his body. The animal is in a certain sense, indeed, 
the food of the god. 

The theory underlying hepatoscopy therefore consists of these 
two factors: the belief (1) that the liver is the seat of life, or, 
to put it more succinctly, what was currently regarded as the 
soul of the animal; and (2) that the liver of the sacrificial 
animal, by virtue of its acceptance on the part of the god, took 
on the same character as the soul of the god to whom it was 
offered. The two souls acted in accord, the soul of the animal 
becoming a reflection, as it were, of the soul of the god. If, 
therefore, one understood the signs noted on a particular liver, 
one entered, as it were, into the mind — as one of the manifesta- 
tions of soul-life — of the deity who had assimilated the being of 
the animal to his own being. To know the mind of the god was 
equivalent to knowing what the god in question proposed to do. 
Hence, when one approached a deity with an inquiry as to the 
outcome of some undertaking, the reading of the signs on the 
liver afforded a direct means of determining the course of future 
events, which was, according to current beliefs, in the control 
of the gods. That there are defects in the logical process as here 
outlined to account for the curious rite constitutes no valid 
objection to the theory advanced, for, in the first place, primitive 
logic in matters of belief is inherently defective and even contra- 
dictory, and, secondly, the strong desire to pierce the mysterious 
future, forming an impelling factor in all religions — even in the 
most advanced of our own day — would tend to obscure the 
weakness of any theory developed to explain a rite which 
represents merely one endeavour among many to divine the 
intention and plans of the gods, upon the knowledge of which 
so much of man's happiness and welfare depended. 

Passing now to typical examples, the beginning must be made 
with Babylonia, which is also the richest source of our knowledge 
of the details of the rite. Hepatoscopy in the Euphrates valley 
can be traced back to the 3rd millennium before our era, which 
may be taken as sufficient evidence for its survival from the 
period of .primitive culture, while the supreme importance 
attached to signs read on the livers of sacrificial animals — usually 
a sheep — follows from the care with which omens derived from 
such inspection on occasions of historical significance were pre- 
served as guides to later generations of priests. Thus we have 
a collection of the signs noted during the career of Sargon I. of 
Agade (c. 2800 B.C.), which in some way were handed down till 
the days of the Assyrian king Assur-bani-pal (668-626 B.C.). One 
of the chief names for the priest was baru— literally the " in- 
spector " — which was given to him because of the prominence 
of his function as an inspector of livers for the purpose of divining 
the intention of the gods. It is to the collections formed by these 



Jdrfi-priests as a guidance for themselves and as a basis of 
instruction for those in training for the priesthood that we owe 
our knowledge of the parts of the liver to which particular 
attention was directed, of the signs noted, and of the principles 
guiding the interpretation of the signs. 

The inspection of the liver for purposes of divination led to 
the study of the anatomy of the liver, and there are indeed good 
reasons for believing that hepatoscopy represents the starting- 
point for the study of animal anatomy in general. We find in 
the Babylonian-Assyrian omen-texts special designations for 
the three main lobes of the sheep's liver — the lobus dexter, the 
lobus sinister and the lobus caudatus; the first-named being 
called " the right wing of the liver," the second " the left wing 
of the liver," and the third " the middle of the liver." Whether 
the division of the lobus dexter into two divisions — (1) lobus 
dexter proper and (2) lobus quadratus, as in modern anatomical 
nomenclature — was also assumed in Babylonian hepatoscopy, 
is not certain, but the groove separating the right lobe into two 
sections — the fossa venae umbilicalis — was recognized and dis- 
tinguished by the designation of " river of the liver." The two 
appendixes attached to the upper lobe or lobus pyramidalis, 
and known in modern nomenclature as processus pyramidalis and 
processus papillaris, were described respectively as the "finger" 
of the liver and as the " offshoot." The former of these two 
appendixes plays an especially important part in hepatoscopy, 
and, according to its shape and peculiarities, furnishes a good 
or bad omen. The gall-bladder, appropriately designated as 
" the bitter," was regarded as a part of the liver, and the cystic 
duct (compared, apparently, to a " penis ") to which it is joined, 
as well as the hepatic duct (pictured as an " outlet ") and the 
ductus choleductus (described as a " yoke "), all had their special 
designations. The depression separating the two lower lobes 
from the lobus caudatus, and known as the porta hepatis, was 
appropriately designated as the " crucible " of the liver. Lastly, 
to pass over unnecessary details, the markings of various kinds 
to be observed on the lobes of the livers of freshly-slaughtered 
animals, which are due mainly to the traces left by the sub- 
sidiary hepatic ducts and hepatic veins on the liver surface, 
were described as " holes," " paths," " clubs " and the like. 
The constantly varying character of these markings, no two 
livers being alike in this respect, furnished a particularly large 
field for the fancy of the fcara-priest. 

In the interpretation of these signs the two chief factors were 
association of ideas and association of words. If, for example, 
the processus pyramidalis was abnormally small and the pro- 
cessus papillaris abnormally large, it pointed to a reversion of 
the natural order, to wit, that the servant should control the 
master or that the son would be above the father. A long cystic 
duct would point to a long reign of the king. If the gall-bladder 
was swollen, it pointed to an extension or enlargement of some 
kind. If the porta hepatis was torn it prognosticated a plundering 
of the enemy's land. As among most people, a sign on the right 
side was favourable, but the same sign on the left side unfavour- 
able. If, for example, the porta hepatis was long on the right 
side and short on the left side, it was a good sign for the king's 
army, but if short on the right side and long on the left, it was 
unfavourable; and similarly for a whole series of phenomena 
connected with any one of the various subdivisions of the liver. 
Past experience constituted another important factor in establish- 
ing the interpretation of signs noted. If, for example, on a certain 
occasion when the liver of a sacrificial animal was examined, 
certain events of a favourable character followed, the conclusion 
was drawn that the signs observed were favourable, and hence 
the recurrence of these signs on another occasion suggested a 
favourable answer to the question put to the priests. With 
this in view, omens given in the reigns of prominent rulers were 
preserved with special care as guides to the priests. 

In the course of time the collections of signs and their inter- 
pretation made by the i<zrw-priests grew in number until elaborate 
series were produced in which the endeavour was made to exhaust 
so far as possible all the varieties and modifications of the many 
signs, so as to furnish a complete handbook both for purposes 

of instruction and as a basis for the practical work of divination. 
Divination through the liver remained in force among the 
Assyrians and Babylonians down to the end of the Babylonian 

Among the Greeks and Romans likewise it was the liver that 
continued throughout all periods to play the chief role in divina- 
tion through the sacrificial animal. Blecher (De Extispicio 
Capita Tria, Giessen, 1905, pp. 3-22) has recently collected most 
of the references in Greek and Latin authors to animal divination, 
and an examination of these shows conclusively that, alth >ugh 
the general term used for the inspection of the sacrificial animal 
was iera or iereia (i.e. " victims " cr " sacred parts ") in Greek, 
and exta in Latin, when specific illustrations are introduced, 
the reference is almost invariably to some sign or signs on the 
liver; and we have an interesting statement in Pliny (Hist. Nat. 
xi. § 186), furnishing the date (274 B.C.) when the examination 
of the heart was for the first time introduced by the side of the 
liver as a means of divining the future, while the lungs are not 
mentioned till we reach the days of Cicero (de Divinatione, i. 85). 
We are justified in concluding, therefore, that among the Greeks 
and Romans likewise the examination of the liver was the basis 
of divination in the case of the sacrificial animal. It f**well 
known that the Romans borrowed their methods of hepatoscopy 
from the Etruscans, and, apart from the direct evidence for this 
in Latin writings, we have, in the case of the bronze model of 
a liver found near Piacenza in 1877, and of Etruscan origin, the 
unmistakable proof that among the Etruscans the examination 
of the liver was the basis of animal divination. Besides this 
object dating from about the 3rd century B.C., according to the 
latest investigator, G. Korte (" Die Bronzeleber von Piacenza," 
in Mitt. d. K. D. Archaeol. Instituts, 1905, xx. pp. 348-379), 
there are other Etruscan monuments, e.g. the figure of an 
Etruscan augur holding a liver in his hand as his trade-mark 
(Korte, ib. pi. xiv.), which point in the same direction, and 
indicate that the model of the liver was used as an object lesson 
to illustrate the method of divination through the liver. For 
further details the reader is referred to Thulin's monograph, 
Die Etruskische Disciplin, II Die Haruspicin (Gothenburg, 

As for the Greeks, it is still an open question whether they 
perfected their method of hepatoscopy under Etruscan influence 
or through the Babylonians. In any case, since the Eastern 
origin of the Etruscans is now generally admitted, we may 
temporarily, at least, accept the conclusion that hepatoscopy 
as a method of divination owes its survival in advanced forms 
of culture to the elaborate system devised in the course of 
centuries by the Babylonian priests, and to the influence, direct 
and indirect, exerted by this system in the ancient world. But 
for this system hepatoscopy, the theoretic basis of which as 
above set forth falls within the sphere of ideas that belong to 
primitive culture, would have passed away as higher stages of 
civilization were reached; and as a matter of fact it plays no 
part in the Egyptian culture or in the civilization of India, while 
among the Hebrews only faint traces of the primitive idea of 
the liver as .the seat of the soul are to be met with in the Old 
Testament, among which an allusion in the indirect form of a 
protest against the use of the sacrificial animal for purposes of 
divination in the ordinance (Exodus xxix. 13, 22; Leviticus 
iii. 4, 10, 15, &c.) to burn the processus pyramidalis of the liver, 
which played a particularly significant r61e in hepatoscopy, 
calls for special mention. 

In modern times hepatoscopy still survives among primitive 
peoples in Borneo, Burma* Uganda, &c. 

It but remains to call attention to the fact that the earlier 
view of the liver as the seat of the soul gave way among many 
ancient nations to 'the theory which, reflecting the growth of 
anatomical knowledge, assigned that function to the heart, 
while, with the further change which led to placing the seat 
of soul-life in the brain, an attempt was made to partition the 
various functions of manifestations of personality among the 
three organs, brain, heart and liver, the intellectual activity 
being assigned to the first-named; the higher emotions, as love 



and courage, to the second; while the liver, once the master 
of the entire domain of soul-life as understood in antiquity, was 
degraded to serve as the seat of the lower emotions, such as 
jealousy, anger and the like. This is substantially the view set 
forth in the Timaeus of Plato (§71 c). The addition of the heart 
to the liver as an organ of the revelation of the divine will, 
reflects the stage which assigned to the heart the position once 
occupied by the liver. By the time the third stage, which placed 
the seat of soul-life in the brain, was reached through the further 
advance of anatomical knowledge, the religious rites of Greece 
and Rome were too deeply incrusted to admit of further radical 
changes, and faith in the gods had already dech'ned too far to 
bring new elements into the religion. In phrenology, however, 
as popularly carried on as an unofficial cult, we may recognize 
a modified form of divination, co-ordinate with the third stage 
in the development of beliefs regarding the seat of soul and based 
on the assumption that this organ is— as were its predecessors — ■ 
a medium of revelation of otherwise hidden knowledge. 

(M. Ja.) 

OMICHUND (d. 1767), an Indian whose name is indelibly 
associated with the treaty negotiated by Clive before the battle 
of Plassey in 1757. His real name was Amir Chand; and he 
was not a Bengali, as stated by Macaulay, but a Sikh from the 
Punjab. It is impossible now to unravel the intrigues in which 
he may have engaged, but some facts about his career can be 
stated. He had long been resident at Calcutta, where he had 
acquired a large fortune by providing the " investment " for 
the Company, and also by acting as intermediary between the 
English and the native court at Murshidabad. In a letter of 
Mr Watts of later date he is represented as saying to the nawab 
(Suraj-ud-daula) : "He had lived under the English protection 
these forty years; that he never knew them once to break their 
agreement, to the truth of which he took his oath by touching a 
Brahman's foot; and that if a lie could be proved in England 
upon any one, they were spit upon and never trusted." Several 
houses owned by him in Calcutta are mentioned in connexion 
with the fighting that preceded the tragedy of the Black Hole 
in 1756, and it is on record that he suffered heavy losses at that 
time. He had been arrested by the English on suspicion of 
treachery, but afterwards he was forward in giving help to the 
fugitives and also valuable advice. On the recapture of Calcutta 
he was sent by Clive to accompany Mr Watts as agent at Mur- 
shidabad. It seems to have been through his influence that the 
nawab gave reluctant consent to Clive's attack on Chandernagore. 
Later, when the treaty with Mir Jafar was being negotiated, he 
put in a claim for 5 % on all the treasure to be recovered, under 
threat of disclosing the plot. To defeat him, two copies of the 
treaty were drawn up: the one, the true treaty, omitting his 
elaim; the other containing it, to be shown to him, which 
Admiral Watson refused to sign, but Clive directed the admiral's 
signature to be appended. When the truth was revealed to 
Omichund after Plassey, Macaulay states (following Orme) that 
he sank gradually into idiocy, languished a few months, and 
then died. As a matter of fact, he survived for ten years, till 
1767; and by his will he bequeathed £2000 to the Foundling 
Hospital (where his name may be seen in the list of benefactors 
as " a black merchant of Calcutta ") and also to the Magdalen 
Hospital in London. (J. S. Co.) 

OMNIBUS (Lat. " for all "), a large closed public conveyance 
with seats for passengers inside and out (see Carriage). The 
name, colloquially shortened to " bus," was, in the form voiture 
omnibus, first used for such conveyances in Paris in 1828, and 
was taken by Shillibeer for the vehicle he ran on the Paddington 
road in 1829. The word is also applied to a box at the opera 
which is shared by several subscribers, to a bill or act of parlia- 
ment dealing with a variety of subjects, and m electrical engineer- 
ing to the bar to which the terminals of the generators are 
attached and from which the current is taken off by the wires 
supplying the various consumers. 

OMRI, in the Bible, the first great king of Israel after the 
separation of the two kingdoms of Israel and Judah, who 
nourished in the early part of the 9th century B.C. The 

dynasty of Jeroboam had been exterminated by Baasha (see 
Asa) at a revolt when the army was besieging the Philistines at 
Gibbethon, an unidentified Danite site. A quarter of a century 
later, Baasha 's son Elah, after a reign of two years, was slain by 
Zimri, captain of the chariots, in a drinking bout, and again the 
royal family were put to the sword. Meanwhile, the general 
Omri, who was at Gibbethon, was promptly elected king by the 
army, and Zimri himself in a short while 1 met his death in the 
royal city of Tirzah. However, fresh disturbance was caused by 
Tibni ben Ginath (perhaps of Naph tali), and Israel was divided 
into rival factions. Ultimately Tibni and his brother Joram 
(1 Kings xvi. 22, LXX.) were overcome, and Omri remained in 
sole possession of the throne. The compiler of the biblical 
narratives takes little interest in Omri's work (1 Kings xvi. 
15-28), and records briefly his purchase of Samaria, which became 
the capital of his dynasty (see Samaria). The inscription of 
Mesha throws welcome light upon his conquest of Moab (q.v.); 
the position of Israel during the reign of Omri's son Ahab (q.v.) 
bears testimony to the success of the father; and the fact that 
the land continued to be known to the Assyrians down to the time 
of Sargon as " house of Omri " indicates the reputation which 
this little-known king enjoyed. (S. A. C) 

OMSK, a town of Russia, capital of the province of Akmolinsk, 
capital of western Siberia from 1839 to 1882, and now capital 
of the general-governorship of the Steppes. Pop. (1881) 31,000, 
(1900) 53,050. It is the seat of administration of the Siberian 
Cossacks, and the see of the bishop of Omsk. Situated on the 
right bank of the Irtysh, at its confluence with the Om, at an 
altitude of 285 ft., and on the Siberian railway, 1862 m. via 
Chelyabinsk from Moscow, and 586 m. W.S.W. of Tomsk, it is 
the meeting-place of the highways to middle Russia, Orenburg 
and Turkestan. Steamers ply down the Irtysh and the Ob, 
and up the former to the Altai towns and Lake Zaisan. The 
climate is dry and relatively temperate, but marked by violent 
snow-storms and sand-storms. The average temperatures are, 
for the year, 31° F.; for January, 5°; for July, 68°; the annual 
rainfall is 12-4 in. The town is poorly built. Apart from the 
railway workshops, its industries are unimportant (steam saw- 
mill, tanneries) ; but the trade, especially since the construction 
of the railway, is growing. There are two yearly fairs. Omsk 
has a society for education, which organizes schools, kinder- 
gartens, libraries and lectures for the people. There are a corps 
of cadets, medical, dramatic and musical societies, and the 
west Siberian section of the Russian Geographical Society, with 
a museum. 

The " fort " of Omsk was erected in 17 16 to protect the block- 
houses on the Russian frontier, along the Ishim and the Irtysh. 
In consequence of the frequent incursions of the Kirghiz about 
the end of the 18th century, stronger earthworks were erected 
on the right bank of the Om; but these have now almost entirely 

ONAGRACEAE, in botany, an order of dicotyledons belonging 
to the series Myrtiflorae, to which belongs also the myrtle 
order, Myrtaceae. It contains about 36 genera and 300 species, 
and occurs chiefly in the temperate • zone of the New World, 
especially on the Pacific side. It is represented in Britain by 
several species of Epilobium (willow-herb), Circaea (enchanter's 
nightshade), and Ludwigia, a small perennial herb very rare in 
boggy pools in Sussex and Hampshire. The plants are generally 
herbaceous, sometimes annual, as species of Epilobium, Clarkia, 
Godetia, or biennial, as Oenothera biennis — evening primrose — - 
or sometimes become shrubby or arborescent, as Fuchsia (q.v.). 
The simple leaves are generally entire or inconspicuously toothed, 
and are alternate, opposite or whorled in arrangement ; they are 
generally exstipulate, but small caducous stipules occur in 
Fuchsia, Circaea and other genera. The flowers are often 
solitary in the leaf-axils, as in many fuchsias, Clarkia, &c, or 
associated, as in Epilobium and Oenothera, in large showy 
terminal spikes or racemes; in Circaea the small white or red 

1 He is said to have reigned seven days, but the LXX. (B) in 
1 Kings xvi. 15 read seven years. Further confusion is caused by 
the fact that the LXX. reads Zimri throughout for Omri. 



flowers are borne in terminal and lateral racemer. The regular 
flowers have the parts in fours, the typical arrangement as 
illustrated by Epilobium, Oenothera and Fuchsia being as 

follows: 4 sepals, 4 
petals, two alternating 
whorls of 4 stamens, and 
4 inferior carpels. The 
floral receptacle is pro- 
duced above the ovary 
into the so-called calyx- 
tube, which is often 
petaloid, as in Fuchsia, 
and is sharply distin- 
guished from the ovary, 
from which it separates 
after flowering. 

In Clarkia the inner 
whorl of stamens is often 
barren, and in an allied 
genus, Eucharidium, it 
is absent. In Circaea 
the flower has its parts 

Fig. 1. — Fuchsia coccinea. Fig. 2. — Floral diagram 

1, Flower cut open after removal of of Circaea. 

sepals; 2, fruit; 3, floral diagram. 

in twos. Both sepals and petals are free; the former have 
a broad insertion, are valvate in bud, and reflexed in the 
flower; in Fuchsia they are petaloid. The petals have a narrow 
attachment, and are generally convolute in bud; they are entire 
(Fuchsia) or bilobed (Epilobium); in some species of Fuchsia 
they are small and scale-like, or absent (F. apetala). The 
stamens are free, and those of the inner whorl are generally shorter 
than those of the outer whorl. The flowers of Lopezia (Central 
America) have only one fertile stamen. The large spherical 

pollen grains are connected by 
viscid threads. The typically 
quadrilocular ovary contains 
numerous ovules on axile 
placentas; the i-to-2-celled 
ovary of Circaea has a single 
ovule in each loculus. The 
long slender style has a capitate 
(Fuchsia), 4-rayed (Oenothera, 
Epilobium) or 4-notched (Cir- 
caea) stigma. The flowers, 
which have generally an at- 
tractive corolla and honey 
secreted by a swollen disk at 
the base of the style or on the 
lower part of the " calyx-tube," 
are adapted for pollination by 
insects, chiefly bees and lepi- 

From Vines' Student Tot-Book of Botany, doptera; sometimes by night- 
by permission of Swan Sonnenschein & Co. flying insects when the flowers 

Fig. 3. are pale and open towards 

A, Young flower of Epilobium evening, as in evening primrose. 

JEST*.- sepa.s I ;t^i f cel. mfen0r ™e fruit is generally a capsule 

B, Fruit of Epilobium after splitting into 4 valves and 
dehiscence, w, outer wall; m, leaving a central column on 
columella formed by the septa; w hi c h the seeds are borne as 

sa, seed with tufts of hairs. 

in Epilobium and Oenothera — 

in the former the seeds are scattered by aid of a long tuft of 
silky hairs on the broader end. In Fuchsia the fruit is a berry, 
which is sometimes edible, and in Circaea a nut bearing 
recurved bristles. The seeds are exalbuminous. Several of 

the genera are well known as garden plants, e.g. Fuchsia, 
Oenothera, ,Clarkia and Godetia. Evening primrose (Oenothera 
biennis), a native of North America, occurs apparently wild as 
a garden escape in Britain. Jussieua is a tropical genus 
of water- and marsh-herbs with well-developed aerating 

ONATAS, a Greek sculptor of the time of the Persian wars, a 
member cf the flourishing school of Aegina. Many of his works 
are mentioned by Pausanias; they included a Hermes carrying 
the ram, and a strange image of the Black Demeter made for the 
people of Phigalia; also some elaborate groups in bronze set up 
at Olympia and Delphi. For Hiero I., king of Syracuse, Onatas 
executed a votive chariot in bronze dedicated at Olympia. If we 
compare the descriptions of the works of Onatas given us by 
Pausanias with the well-known pediments of Aegina at Munich 
we shall find so close an agreement that we may safely take 
the pedimental figures as an index of the style of Onatas. They 
are manly, vigorous, athletic, showing great knowledge of the 
human form, but somewhat stiff and automaton-like. 

ONEGA, the largest lake in Europe next to Ladoga, having an 
area of 3764 sq. m. It is situated in the government of Olonets 
in European Russia, and, discharging its waters by the Svir into 
Lake Ladoga, belongs to the system of the Neva. The lake basin 
extends north-west and south-east, the direction characteristic 
of the lakes of Finland and the line of glacier-scoring observed in 
that region. Between the northern and southern divisions of 
the lake there is a considerable difference: while the latter has a 
comparatively regular outline, and contains hardly any islands, 
the former splits up into a number of inlets, the largest being 
Povyenets Bay, and is crowded with islands (e.g. Klimetsk) and 
submerged rocks. It is thus the northern division which brings 
the coast-line up to 870 m. and causes the navigation of the 
lake to be so dangerous. The north-western shore between Petro- 
zavodsk and the mouth of the river Lumbosha consists of dark 
clay slates, generally arranged in horizontal strata and broken 
by protruding, parallel ridges of diorite, which extend far into the 
lake. The eastern shore, as far as the mouth of the Andoma, is 
for the most part alluvial, with outcroppings of red granite and 
in one place (the mouth of the Pyalma) diorite and dolomite. 
To the south-east are sedimentary Devonian rocks, and the general 
level of the coast is broken by Mount Andoma and Cape Petro- 
pavlovskiy (160 ft. above the lake) ; to the south-west a quartz 
sandstone (used as a building and monumental stone in St 
Petersburg) forms a fairly bold rim. Lake Onega lies 125 ft. 
above the sea. The greatest depths, 318 to 408 ft., occur at the 
entrance to the double bay of Lizhemsk and Unitsk. On the 
continuation of this line the depth exceeds 240 ft. in several 
places. In the middle of the lake the depth is 1 20 to 282 ft., and 
less than 120 ft. in the south. The lake is 145 m. long, with an 
average breadth of 50 m. The most important affluents, the 
Vodka, the Andoma and the Vytegra, come from the east. The 
Kumsa, a northern tributary, is sometimes represented as if it 
connected the lake with Lake Seg, but at the present time the 
latter drains to the White Sea. The Onega canal (45 m. long) 
was constructed ini8i8-i85i along the southern shore in order 
to connect the Svir (and hence Lake Ladoga and the Baltic) 
with the Vytegra, which connects with the Volga. Lake 
Onega remains free from ice for 209 days in the year 
(middle of May to second week of December). The water is 
at its lowest level in the beginning of March; by June it has 
risen 2 ft. A considerable population is scattered along the 
shores of the lake, mainly occupied in the timber trade, fisheries 
and mining industries. Salmon, palya (a kind of trout), burbot, 
pike, perchpike and perch are among the fish caught in the lake. 
Steamboatswere introduced in 1832. 

The river Onega, which, after a course of 250 m., reaches the 
Gulf of Onega, an inlet of the White Sea, has no connexion 
with Lake Onega. At the mouth of this river (on the right bank) 
stands the town and port of Onega (pop. 2694 in 1897), which 
dates from settlements made by the people of Novgorod in the 
15th century, and known in history as Ustenskaya or Ustyans- 
kaya. It has a cathedral, erected in 1 796. (P. A. K. ; J. T. Be.) 



ONEIDA, a city of Madison county, New York, U.S.A., 
on Oneida Creek, about 6 m. S.E. of Oneida Lake, about 26 m. 
W. of Utica, and about 26 m. E.N.E. of Syracuse. Pop. (1890) 
6083; (1900) 6364, of whom 784 were foreign-born; (191c, 
U.S. census) 8317. It is served by the New York Central & 
Hudson River, the New York, Ontario & Western, the West 
Shore and the Oneida (electric) railways (the last connecting 
with Utica and Syracuse), and by the Erie Canal. The city 
lies about 440 ft. above the sea on a Jevel site. Across Oneida 
Creek, to the south-east, in Oneida county, is the village of 
Oneida Castle (pop. in 1910, 393), situated in the township of 
Vernon (pop. in 1910, 3197), and the former gathering place of 
the Oneida Indians, some of whom still live in the township of 
Vernon and in the city of Oneida. In the south-eastern part of 
the city is the headquarters of the Oneida Community (q.v.), 
which controls important industries here, at Niagara Falls, and 
elsewhere. Immediately west of Oneida is the village of Wamps- 
ville (incorporated in 1908), the county-seat of Madison county. 
Among the manufactures of Oneida are wagons, cigars, furniture, 
caskets, silver-plated ware, engines and machinery, steel and 
wooden pulleys and chucks, steel grave vaults, hosiery, and milk 
bottle caps. In the vicinity the Oneida Community manu- 
factures chains and animal traps. The site of Oneida was 
purchased in 1820-1830 by Sands Higinbotham, in honour of 
whom one of the municipal parks (the other is Allen Park) 
is named. Oneida was incorporated as a village in 1848 and 
chartered as a city in i9or. • 

ONEIDA (a corruption of their proper name Oneyotka-ono, 
" people of the stone," in allusion to the Oneida stone, a granite 
boulder near their former village, which was held sacred by 
them), a tribe of North American Indians of Iroquoian stock, 
forming one of the Six Nations. They lived around Oneida 
Lake in New York state, in the region southward to the 
Susquehanna. They "were not loyal to the League's policy of 
friendliness to the English, but inclined towards the French, 
and were practically the only Iroquois who fought for the 
Americans in the War of Independence. As a consequence 
they were attacked by others of the Iroquois under Joseph 
Brant and took refuge within the American settlements till the 
war ended, when the majority returned to their former home, 
while some migrated to the Thames river district, Ontario. 
Early in the 19th century they sold their lands, and most of 
them settled on a reservation at Green Bay, Wisconsin, some 
few remaining in New York state. The tribe now numbers 
more than 3000, of whom about two-thirds are in Wisconsin, a 
few hundreds in New York state, and about 800 in Ontario. 
They are civilized and prosperous. 

ONEIDA COMMUNITY (or Bible Communists), an American 
communistic society at Oneida, Madison county, New York, which 
has attracted wide interest on account of its pecuniary success, 
and its peculiar religious and social principles (see Communism) . 

Its founder, John Humphrey Noyes (1811-1886), was born 
in Brattleboro, Vermont, on the 3rd of September 1811. He 
was of good parentage; his father, John Noyes (1763-1841), 
was a graduate of and for a time a tutor in Dartmouth College, 
and was a representative in Congress in 1815-1817; and his 
mother, Polly Hayes, was an aunt of Rutherford B. Hayes, 
president of the United States. The son graduated at Dartmouth 
in 1830, and studied law for a year, but having been converted 
in a protracted revival in 183 1 he turned to the ministry, studied 
theology for one year at Andover (where he was a member of 
" The Brethren," a secret society of students preparing for 
foreign missionary work), and then a year and a half at Yale, 
and in 1833 was licensed to preach by the New Haven Association; 
but his open preaching of his new religious doctrines, and 
especially that of present salvation from sin, resulted in the 
revocation of his license in 1834, and his thereafter being called 
a Perfectionist. He continued to promulgate his ideas of a 
higher Christian life, and soon had disciples in many places, one of 
whom, Harriet A. Holton, a woman of means, he married in 
1838. In 1836 he returned to his father's home in Putney, 
Vt., and founded a Bible School; in 1843 he entered into 

a " contract of Partnership " with his Putney followers; and in 
March 1845 the Putney Corporation or Association of Perfec- 
tionists was formed. 

Although the Putney Corporation or Association was never 
a community in the sense of common-property ownership, yet 
it was practically a communal organization, and embodied the 
radical religious and social principles that subsequently gave 
such fame to the Oneida Community, of which it may justly 
be regarded as the beginning and precursor. These principles 
naturally excited the opposition of the churches in the small 
Vermont village where the Perfectionists resided, and indignation 
meetings against them were held; and although they resulted 
in no personal violence Mr Noyes and his followers considered 
it prudent to remove to a place where they were sure of more 
liberal treatment. They accordingly withdrew from Putney 
in 1847, an d accepting the invitation of Jonathan Burt and 
others, settled near Oneida, Madison county, New York. 

Here the community at first devoted itself to agriculture and 
fruit raising, but had little financial success until it began the 
manufacture of a steel trap, invented by one of its members, 
Sewall Newhouse; the manufacture of steel chains for use with 
the traps followed; the canning of vegetables and fruits was 
begun about 1854, and the manufacture of sewing and embroidery 
silk in 1866. Having started with a very small capital (the 
inventoried valuation of its property in 1857 was only $67,000), 
the community gradually grew in numbers and prospered as a 
business concern. Its relations with the surrounding population, 
after the first few years, became very friendly. The members 
won the reputation of being good, industrious citizens, whose word 
was always " as good as their bond "; against whom no charge 
of intemperance, profanity or crime was ever brought. But the 
communists claimed that among true Christians " mine and 
thine " in property matters should cease to exist, as among the 
early pentecostal believers; and, moreover, that the same 
unselfish spirit should pervade and control all human relations. 
And notwithstanding these very radical principles, which were 
freely propounded and discussed in their weekly paper, the 
communists were not seriously disturbed for a quarter of a 
century. But from 1873 to 1879 active measures favouring 
legislative action against the community, specially instigated 
by Prof. John W. Mears. (1825-1881), were taken by several 
ecclesiastical bodies of Central New York. These measures 
culminated in a conference held at Syracuse University on the 
14th of February 1879, when denunciatory resolutions against 
the community were passed and legal measures advised. 

Mr Noyes, the founder and leader of the community, had 
repeatedly said to his followers that the time might come when 
it would be necessary, in deference to public opinion, to recede 
from the practical assertion of their social principles; and on 
the 20th of August of this year (1879) he said definitely to them 
that in his judgment that time had come, and he thereupon 
proposed that the community " give up the practice of Complex 
Marriage, not as renouncing belief in the principles and pro- 
spective finality of that institution, but in deference to public 
sentiment." This proposition was considered and accepted in 
full assembly of the community on the 26th of the same month. 

This great change was followed by other changes of vital 
importance, finally resulting in the transformation of the Oneida 
Community into the incorporated Oneida Community, Limited, 
a co-operative joint-stock company, in which each person's 
interest was represented by the shares of stock standing in his 
name on the books of the company. 

In the reorganization the adult members fared alike in the 
matter of remuneration for past services — those who by reason 
of ill-health had been unable to contribute to the common fund 
receiving the same as those who by reason of strength and ability 
had contributed most thereto; besides, the old and infirm had 
the option of accepting a life-guaranty in lieu of work; and 
hence there were no cases of suffering and want at the time 
the transformation from a common-property interest to an 
individual stock interest was made; and in the new company 
all were guaranteed remunerative labour. 



This occurred on the 1st of January 1881, at which time the 
business and property of the community were transferred to 
the incorporated stock company, and stock issued therefor to 
the amount of $600,000. In the subsequent twenty-eight years 
this capital stock was doubled, and dividends averaging more 
than 6 % per annum were paid. Aside from the home buildings 
and the large acreage devoted to agriculture and fruit raising, 
the present capital of the company is invested, first, in its hard- 
ware department at Kenwood, N.Y., manufacturing steel game- 
traps, and weldless chains of every description; second, the silk 
department at Kenwood, N.Y., manufacturing sewing silk, 
machine tw'st and embroidery silks; third, the fruit department 
at Kenwood, N.Y., whose reputation for putting up pure, whole- 
some fruits and vegetables is probably the highest in the country; 
fourth, the tableware department, at Niagara Falls, N.Y., which 
manufactures the now celebrated Community Silver; fifth, the 
Canadian department, with factory at Niagara Falls, Ontario, 
Canada, where the hardware lines are manufactured for Canadian 
trade. The annual sales of all departments aggregate over 
$2,000,000. The officers of the company consist of a president, 
secretary, treasurer and assistant treasurer, and there were in 
1909 eleven directors. Each of the five leading departments is 
managed by a superintendent, and all are under the supervision 
of the general manager. Nearly all the superintendents and the 
general manager were in 1909 young men who were born in the 
community, and have devoted their life-work to the interests of 
the company. Selling offices are maintained in New York City. 
Chicago, St Louis, Cleveland, O., Richmond, Va., Atlanta, Ga., 
and San Francisco. 

In addition to the members of the society the company employs 
between 1 500 and 2000 workmen. The policy has been to avoid 
trade-unions, but to pay higher wages and give better conditions 
than other employers in similar lines, and by so doing to obtain 
a better selection of workmen. The conditions of work as well 
as of living have been studied and developed with the idea of 
making both healthful and attractive. With this in view the 
company has laid out small villages, in many ways making them 
attractive and sanitary, and has encouraged the building of 
houses by its employes. Much has been accomplished in this 
direction by providing desirable building-sites at moderate 
expense, and paying a bonus of from $100 to $200 in cash to 
every employe who builds his own home. The company has also 
taken an interest in the schools in the vicinity of its factories, 
with the idea of offering to the children of its employes facilities 
for a good education. 

The communism of John H. Noyes was based on his inter- 
pretation of the New Testament. In his pamphlet, Bible 
Communism (1848), he affirmed that the second coming of Christ 
occurred at the close of the apostolic age, immediately after 
the destruction of Jerusalem, and he argued from many New 
Testament passages, especially 1 John 1, 7, that after the second 
coming and the beginning of Christ's reign upon the earth, the 
true standard of Christian character was sinlessness, which was 
possible through vital union with Christ, that all selfishness 
was to be done away with, both in property in things and in 
persons, or, in other words, that communism was to be finally 
established in all the relations of life. But, while affirming that 
the same spirit which on the day of Pentecost abolished ex- 
clusiveness in regard to money tends to obliterate all other 
property distinctions, he had no affiliation with those commonly 
termed Free Lovers, because their principles and practices seemed 
to him to tend toward anarchy. " Our Communities," he said, 
" are families as distinctly bounded and separated from promiscu- 
ous society as ordinary households. The tie that binds us 
together is as permanent and sacred, to say the least, as that of 
common marriage, for it is our religion. We receive no new 
members (except by deception and mistake) who do not give 
heart and hand to the family interest for life and for ever. Com- 
munity of property extends just as far as freedom of love. 
Every man's care and every dollar of the common property are 
pledged for the maintenance and protection of the women and 
the education of the children of the Community." 

The community was much interested in the question of race im- 
provement by scientific means, and maintained with much force 
of argument that at least as much scientific attention should be 
given to the physical improvement of human beings as is given 
to the improvement of domestic animals; and they referred 
to the results of their own incomplete stirpicultural experiments 
as indicative of what may be expected in the far future, when 
the conditions of human reproduction are no longer controlled 
by chance, social position, wealth, impulse or lust. 

The community claimed to have solved among themselves 
the labour question, all kinds of service being regarded as equally 
honourable, and every person being respected according to hi? 
real character. 

The members had some peculiarities of dress, mostly confined, 
however, to the women, whose costumes included a short dress 
and pantalets, which were appreciated for their convenience, if 
not for their beauty. The women also adopted the practice of 
wearing short hair, which it was claimed saved time and vanity. 
Tobacco, intoxicants, profanity, obscenity found no place in 
the community. The community diet consisted largely of 
vegetables and fruits; meat, tea and coffee being served only 

For securing good order and the improvement of the members, 
the community placed much reliance upon a very peculiar system 
of plain speaking they termed mutual criticism, which originated 
in a secret society of missionary brethren with which Mr Noyes 
was connected while pursuing his theological studies at Andover 
Seminary, and whose members submitted themselves in turn to 
the sincerest comment of one another as a means of personal 
improvement. Under Mr Noyes's supervision it became in the 
Oneida Community a principal means of discipline and govern- 
ment. There was a standing committee of criticism, selected by 
the community, and changed from time to time, thus giving all 
an opportunity to serve both as critics and subjects, and justi- 
fying the term " mutual " which they gave to the system. 
The subject was free to ha /e others besides the committee present, 
or to have critics only of his own choice, or to invite an expression 
from the whole community. 

Noyes edited The Perfectionist (New Haven, Connecticut, 1834, 
and Putney, Vermont, 1843-1846); The Witness (Ithaca, New 
York, and Putney, 1 838-1 843); The Spiritual Magazine (Putney, 
1846-1847; Oneida, 184S-1850); The Free Church Circular (Oneida, 
1850-1851); and virtually, though not always nominally, The 
Circular and The Oneida Circular (Brooklyn, 1851-1854; Oneida, 
N.Y., and Wallingford, Conn., 1854-1876); and The American 
Socialist (Oneida, 1876-1880). He was the author of The Way of 
Holiness (Putney, 1838); The Berean (Putney, 1847), containing 
an exposition of his doctrines of Salvation from Sin; the Second 
Coming of Christ; the Origin of Evil; the Atonement; the Second 
Birth; the Millennium; Our Relations to the Primitive Church, 
&c. &c. ; History of American Socialism (Philadelphia, 1870); 
Home Talks (Oneida, 1876); and numerous pamphlets. 

See a series of articles in the Manufacturer and Builder (New York, 
1891-1894), by " C. R. Edson " {i.e. C. E. Robinson); The Oneida 
Community, by Allan Estlake (a member of the community) (1900); 
Morris Hillquit's History of Socialism in the United States (New York, 
1903), and especially William A. Hinds' American Communities and 
Co-operative Colonies (3rd ed., Chicago, 1908). (W. A. H.) 

O'NEILL, the name of an Irish family tracing descent from 
Niall, king of Ireland early in the 5th century, and known in 
Irish history and legend as Niall of the Nine Hostages. He is said 
to have made war not only against lesser rulers in Ireland, but 
also in Britain and Gaul, stories of his exploits being related in 
the Book of Leinster and the Book of Ballymote, both of which, 
however, are many centuries later than the time of Niall. This 
king had fourteen sons, one of whom was Eoghan (Owen), from 
whom the O'Neills of the later history were descended. The 
descendants of Niall spread over Ireland and became divided 
into two main branches, the northern and the southern Hy 
Neill, to one or other of which nearly all the high-kings (ard-ri) 
of Ireland from the 5th to the 12th century belonged; the 
descendants of Eoghan being the chief of the northern Hy Neill. 1 
Eoghan was grandfather of Murkertagh (Muircheartach) (d. 533), 

1 A list of these kings will be found in P. W. Joyce's A Social 
History of Ancient Ireland (London, 1903), vol. i. pp. 70, 71. 



said to have been the first Christian king of Ireland, whose mother, 
Eire or Erca, became by a subsequent marriage the grandmother of 
St Columba. Of this monarch, known as Murkertagh MacNeill 
(Niall), and sometimes by reference to his mother as Murkertagh 
Mac Erca, the story is told, illustrating an ancient Celtic custom, 
that in making a league with a tribe in Meath he emphasized 
the inviolability of the treaty by having it written with the blood 
of both clans mixed in one vessel. Murkertagh was chief of the 
great north Irish clan, the Cinel Eoghain, 1 and after becoming 
king of Ireland about the year 517, he wrested from a neighbour- 
ing clan a tract of country in the modern County Derry, which 
remained till the 17th century in the possession of the Cinel 
Eoghain. The inauguration stone of the Irish kings, the Lia 
Fail, or Stone of Destiny, fabled to have been the pillow 
of the patriarch Jacob on the occasion of his dream of the 
heavenly ladder, was said to have been presented by Murkertagh 
to the king of Dalriada, by whom it was conveyed toDunstaffnage 
Castle in Scotland (see Scone). A lineal descendent of Murker- 
tagh was Niall Frassach (i.e. of the showers), who became king 
of Ireland in 763 ; his surname, of which several fanciful ex- 
planations have been suggested, probably commemorating 
merely weather of exceptional severity at his birth. His grand- 
son, Niall (791-845), drove back the Vikings who in his time 
began to infest the coast of Donegal. Niall's son, Aedh (Hugh) 
Finnlaith, was father of Niall Glundubh (i.e. Niall of the black 
knee), one of the most famous of the early Irish kings, from 
whom the family surname of the O'Neills was derived. His 
brother Domhnall (Donnell) was king of Ailech, a district in 
Donegal and Derry; the royal palace, the ruined masonry of 
which is still to be seen, being on the summit of a hill 800 ft. 
high overlooking loughs Foyle and- S willy. On the death of 
Domhnall in 911 Niall Glundubh became king of Ailech, and he 
then attacked and defeated the king of Dalriada at Glarryford, 
in County Antrim, and the king of Ulidia near Ballymena. 
Having thus extended his dominion he became king of Ireland 
in 915. To him is attributed the revival of the ancient meeting 
of Irish clans known as the Fair of Telltown (see Ireland: Early 
History). He fought many battles against the Norsemen, in 
one of which he was killed in 919 at Kilmashoge, where his place 
of burial is still to be seen. 

His son Murkertagh, who gained a great victory over the Norse 
in 926, is celebrated for his triumphant march round Ireland, the 
Moirthimchell Eiream, in which, starting from Portglenone on 
the Bann, he completed a circuit of the island at the head of 
his armed clan, returning with many captive kings and chieftains. 
From the dress of his followers in this expedition he was called 
" Murkertagh of the Leather Cloaks." The exploit was cele- 
brated by Cormacan, the king's bard, in a poem that has been 
printed by the Irish Archaeological Society; and a number of 
Murkertagh's other deeds are related in the Book of Leinster. 
He was killed in battle against the Norse in 943, and was suc- 
ceeded as king of Ailech by his son, Donnell Ua Niall (i.e. O'Neill, 
grandson of Neill, or Niall, the name O'Neill becoming about 
this time an hereditary family surname 2 ), whose grandson, 
Flaherty, became renowned for piety by going on a pilgrimage 
to Rome in 1030. 

Aedh (Hugh) O'Neill, chief of the Cinel Eoghain, or lord of 
Tir-Eoghain (Tir-Owen, Tyrone) at the end of the 1 2th century, 
was the first of the family to be brought prominently into 
conflict with the Anglo-Norman monarchy, whose pretensions 
he took the lead in disputing in Ulster. It was probably his son 
or nephew (for the relationship is uncertain, the genealogies of 
the O'Neills being rendered obscure by the contemporaneous 
occurrence of the same name in different branches of the family) 
Hugh O'Neill, lord of Tyrone, who was styled " Head of the 
liberality and valour of the Irish." Hugh's son, Brian, by gaining 

1 The Cinel, or Kinel, was a group of related clans occupying an 
extensive district. See Joyce, op. cit. i. 166. 

2 The adoption of hereditary names became general in Ireland, 
in obedience, it is said, to an ordinance of Brian Boru, about the end 
of the 10th century. For the method of their formation see Joyce, 
op. cit. ii. 19. 

the support of the earl of Ulster, was inaugurated 3 prince, or 
lord, of Tyrone in 1291; and his son Henry became lord of the 
Clann Aodha Buidhe (Clanaboy or Clandeboye), early in the 
14th century. Henry's son Murkertagh the Strongminded, and 
his great-grandson Hugh, described as " the most renowned, 
hospitable and valorous of the princes of Ireland in his time," 
greatly consolidated the power of the O'Neills. Niall Og O'Neill, 
one of the four kings of Ireland, accepted knighthood from 
Richard II. of England; and his son Eoghan formally acknow- 
ledged the supremacy of the English crown, though he after- 
wards ravaged the Pale, and was inaugurated " the O'Neill " 
(i.e. chief of the clan) on the death of his kinsman Domhnall Boy 
O'Neill; a dignity from which he was deposed in 1455 by his son 
Henry, who in 1463 was acknowledged as chief of the Irish kings 
by Henry VII. of England. Contemporary with him was Neill 
Mor O'Neill (see below), lord of Clanaboy, from whose son Brian 
was descended the branch of the O'Neills who, settling in Portugal 
in the 18th century, became prominent among the Portuguese 
nobility, and who at the present day are the representatives in 
the male line of the ancient Irish kings of the house of O'Neill. 

Conn O'Neill (c. 1480-1559), 1st earl of Tyrone, surnamed 
Bacach (the Lame), grandson of Henry O'Neill mentioned above, 
was the first of the O'Neills whom the attempts of the English 
in the 16th century to subjugate Ireland brought to the front 
as leaders of the native Irish. Conn, who was related through 
his mother with the earl of Kildare (Fitzgerald), became chief 
of the Tyrone branch of the O'Neills (Cinel Eoghain) about 1520. 
When Kildare became viceroy in 1524, O'Neill consented to act 
as his swordbearer in ceremonies of state; but his allegiance 
was not to be reckoned upon, and while ready enough to give 
verbal assurances of loyalty, he could not be persuaded to give 
hostages as security for his conduct; but Tyrone having been 
invaded in 1541 by Sir Anthony St Leger, the lord deputy, Conn 
delivered up his son as a hostage, attended a parliament held at 
Trim, and, crossing to England, made his submission at Green- 
wich to Henry VIII. , who created him earl of Tyrone for life, 
and made him a present of money and a valuable gold chain. 
He was also made a privy councillor in Ireland, and received a 
grant of lands within the Pale. This event created a deep im- 
pression in Ireland, where O'Neill's submission to the English 
king, and his acceptance of an English title, were resented by 
his clansmen and dependents. The rest of the earl's life was 
mainly occupied by endeavours to maintain his influence, and 
by an undying feud with his son Shane (John), arising out of his 
transaction with Henry VIII. For not only did the nomination 
of O'Neill's reputed son Matthew as his heir with the title of 
baron of Dungannon by the English king conflict with the Irish 
custom of tanistry (q.v.) which regulated the chieftainship of the 
Irish clans, but Matthew, if indeed he was O'Neill's son at all, 
was illegitimate; while Shane, Conn's eldest legitimate son, 
was not the man to submit tamely to any invasion of his rights. 
The fierce family feud only terminated when Matthew was 
murdered by agents of Shane in 1558; Conn dying about a year 
later. Conn was twice married, Shane being the son of his first 
wife, a daughter of Hugh Boy O'Neill of Clanaboy. An ille- 
gitimate daughter of Conn married the celebrated Sorley Boy 
MacDonnell (q.v.). 

Shane O'Neill (c. 1530-1567) was a chieftain whose support 
was worth gaining by the English even during his father's life- 
time; but rejecting overtures from the earl of Sussex, the lord 
deputy, Shane refused to help the English against the Scottish 
settlers on the coast of Antrim, allying himself instead with the 
MacDonnells, the most powerful of these immigrants. Neverthe- 
less Queen Elizabeth, on succeeding to the English throne, was 
disposed to come to terms with Shane, who after his father's 
death was de facto chief of the formidable O'Neill clan. She 
accordingly agreed to recognize his claims to the chieftainship, 
thus throwi